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SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION 

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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eowEAO 

AMERICAN ETHNOLOGY. > 




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WASHINGTON 

GOVERNIMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
1910 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



The scientific publications of the National ]\Iuseiim consist of two 
series — Proceedings and Bulletins. 

The Proceedings, the first volume of which was issued in 1878, are 
intended primarily as a medium for the publication of original papers 
based on the collections of the National Museum, setting forth newly 
acquired facts in biology, anthropology, and geology derived there- 
from, or containing descriptions of new forms and revisions of limited 
groups. A volume is issued annually or oftener for distribution to 
libraries and scientific establishments, and, in view of the importance 
of the more prompt dissemination of new facts, a limited edition of 
each paper is printed in pamphlet form in advance. The dates at 
which these separate papers are published are recorded in the table 
of contents of the volume. 

The present volume is the thirty-seventh of this series. 

The Bulletin, publication of which was begun in 1875, is a series of 
more elaborate papers, issued separately, and, like tlie Proceedings, 
based chiefly on the collections of the National Museum. 

A cpiarto form of the Bulletin, known as the "Special Bulletin," has 
.been adopted in a few instances in which a larger page was deemed 
indispensable. 

Since 1902 the volumes of the series known as ''Contributions from 
the National Herbarium," and containing papers relating to the 
botanical collections of the Museum, have been published as Bulletins. 

Richard Rathbun, 
Assistant Secretary, Smithsonian Institution, 

In charge of tlie United States National Museum. 

September 27, 1910. 

Ill 



TABLE OF COISTTEI^TS. 



Page. 
Annandale, Nelson. Fresh-water Sponges collected in 
the Philippines by the "Albatross " Expedition. — No. 1702. 
October 23, 1909 « 131-132 

New species: Spongilla microsclerifera. 

. Fresh-water Sponges in the Collection of the 

United States National Museum. — Part II. Specimens 
from North and South America. — No. 1712. December 
22, 1909 "" 401-406 

Bartsch, Paul. A new species of Cerithiopsis from 

Alaska.— No. 1711. December 11, 1909 « 399-400 

New species: Cerithiopsis stephensi. 

-. Four new Land Shells from the Philippine Is- 
lands.— No. 1705. November 26, 1909 « 295-300 

New species: Cochlostyla tvorcestcri, Leptopoma freeri, Coptocheilus 

mcgregori. 
New subspecies: Cochlostyla annulata fugensis . 

. Notes on the Philippine Pond Snails of the genus 

Yivipara, with descriptions of new species. — No. 1709. 
December 14, 1909 « 365-367 

New species: Vivipara cebuensis, V. partelloi, V. demensi. 
New subspecies: Vivipara buluanensis solana, V. mindanensis mama- 
nua. 

. Three new Land Shells from Mexico and Guate- 
mala.— No. 1707. December 14, 1909 « 321-323 

New species: Euglandina nelsoni, Omphalina pittieri, Euglandina 
pilsbryi. 

Bean, Barton A., and Alfred C. Weed. Notes on Ante- 
liochimaera and related genera of Chimseroid Fishes. — No. 
1723. August 4, 1910 ° 661-663 

Berry, S. Stillman. Diagnoses of new Cephalopods from 

the Hawaiian Islands.— No. 1713. December 30, 1909 «_ 407-419 

New genus: Stephanoteuthis . 

New species: Polypus hoy lei, Stephanoteuthis ha^caiiensis, Stoloteu- 

this iris, Abralia astrosticta, Chiroteuthis famelica, Cranchia (Lio- 

cranchia) globula, Helicocranchi a fisher i . 

a Date of publication. 

V 



VI TABLE OF CONTENTS. 

Page. 

BiGELOW, Henry B. Coelenterates from Labrador anil 
Newfoundland, collected by Mr. Owen Bryant from July 
to October, 1908.— No. 1706. December 14, 1909 " 301-320 

Clark, Austin Hobart. Five new species of recent Un- 

stalked Crinoids.— No. 1697. August 23, 1909 « 29-34 

New species: Comanthus (Comanthus) pinguis, C. (C.) samoana, 
Craspedometra aliena, Amphimetra parilis, Ptilometra splendida. 

Clark, Hubert Lyman. A new Ophiuran from the West 

Indies.— No. 1724. August 4, 1910 « 665-666 

New species: Ophiotholia mitrephora. 

Cockerell, T. D. a. Some Bees of the genus Augochlora 

from the West Indies.— No. 1717. February 2, 1910 °. _. 489-494 
New species: Augochlora piscatoria, A. vincentana, A. antiUann, A. 
buscki, A. cubana. 

CoQUiLLETT, D. W. The Type-species of the North Ameri- 
can genera of Diptera.— No. 1719. August 4, 1910 ° 499-647 

CouTiERE, Henri. The Snapping Shrimps (Alpheidae) of 
the Dry Tortugas, Florida. — No. 1716. January 20, 

1910 « - 485-487 

New species: Synalpheus vicclendoni. 

New subspecies: Synalpheus townsendl scaphoceris. 

Dall, William Healey. Report on a collection of Shells 
from Peru, with a summary of the littoral marine Mol- 
lusca of the Peruvian zoological province. — No. 1704. 

November 24, 1909 « - 147-294 

New species: Modiolus arciformis, Aligena cokeri, Diplodonta (Fela- 
niella) artemidis, Xylotrya dryas, Bulimulus coJcerianus, Megateben- 
nus cokeri. 
New names: Acmsea orbignyi, 'Murex elenensis, Thais pei'u'ensis, Archi- 
tectonica kochii, Fissuridea asperior, Tonicella (Mopaldella) stig- 
mata, Glycymeris chemnitzii, Donax aricana. 

Gilmore, Charles W. A new Rhvnchocephalian Reptile 
from the Jurassic of Wyoming, with notes on the Fauna 
of "Quarry 9."— No. 1698. October 15, 1909 ° 35-42 

New genus: Opisthias. 

New species: Opisthias rams. 

Hay, Oliver P. On the nature of Edestus and related 
genera, with descriptions of one new genus and three new 
species.— No. 1699. Octobor 16, 1909 ° 43-61 

New genus: Toxoprion. 

New species: Edestus crenulatus, E. serratus, E. minusculus. 

" Date of publication. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. VII 

rage. 

Jordan, David Starr, and Robert Earl Richardson. A 
Review of the Serranida? or Sea Bass of Japan. — No. 1714. 
January 19, 1910 « 421-474 

New name: Pseudanthias azumanus. 
New species: Epinephelus craspedurus. 

JouY, Pierre Louis. The Paradise Flycatchers of Japan 

and Korea.— No. 1721. August 4, 1910 " G51-655 

New species: Tersiphone. owstoni. 

Miller, Gerrit S. Jr. The Mouse Deer of the Rhio- 
Linga Archipelago: A study of specific cUfferentiation 
under uniform environment. — No. 1695. September 1, 
1 909 « 1-9 

MooDiE, Roy L. Carboniferous air-breathing Vertebrates 
of the United States National Museum. — No. 1696. 
September 23, 1909 « 1 1-2S 

New genus: Odonterpeton. 

New species: Tuditanus tvalcotti, Odonterpeton triarigularis, Erpeto- 
saurus minutus. 

iH^ooRE, J. Percy. The Polychsetous Annelids dredged in 

1908 by Mr. Owen Bryant off the coasts of Labrador, 
Newfoundland, and Nova Scotia. — No. 1703. October 

25, 1909° 133-146 

r lERCE, W. Dwight. Studies of North American Weevils. — 

No. 1708. December 11, 1909 « 325-364 

New species: Auletes rufipennis, A. viridis, Thecesternus foveolatus, 
T. hirsutus, T. maculosus, T. albidus, Tosastes globularis, T. ovalis, 
Miloderes viridis, Amotus longipennis, Melbonus dentieulatus, 
Amnesia squamipunctata . 

PiLSBRY, Henry A. Report on Barnacles of Peru, collected 
by Dr. R. E. Coker and others.— No. 1700. October 18, 

1909 « 63-74 

New species: Balanns peruvianus. 

PoGUE, Joseph E. On Ohvine-diabase from Davidson 

County, North Carohna.— No. 1715. January 19. 1910 «. 475-484 

Richardson, Harriet. Description of a new Isopod of 
the genus Notasellus from the east coast of Patagonia. — 
No. 1720. August 4, 1910 « 649-650 

New species: Notasellus trilobatus. 



« Date of publication. 



VIII TABLE OF CONTENTS, 



Page. 



"Richardson, Harript. Description of a new terrestrial 

Isopod from Guatemala.— No. 1718. Februar}' 2, 1910 «. 495-497 

New genus: Globarmadillo . 

New species: Globarmadillo armatus. 

. Isopods collected in the Northwest Pacific by the 

U. S. Bureau of Fisheries Steamer "Albatross" in 1906. — 

No. 1701. October 22, 1909 " 75-129 

New genera: Hololelson, Microprotus, I'rophryxus. 
New species: Gnathia tuberculata, Paranthura japonica, Alcirona 
niponia, JEga inagnoculis, A. sxjnopthalma, Rocincla niponia, 
Syscenus latus, Livoneca sacciger, L. cpimerias, Tecticeps renoculis, 
Holotelson tuberculatus, Limnoria japonica, Astacilla dilatata, 
Arcturus granulatus, A. hastiger, A. tritseniatus, A. magnispinis , A. 
diver slspinis, A. brevispinis, A. crassispinis, Pentidotea rotundata, 
Synidotea acuta, S. epimerata, S. tuberculata, Janir a japonica, Micro- 
protus csecus, Munnopsis, Eurycope Isevis, Prophryxus alasceusis. 

Richardson, Robert Earl. See under Jordan, David 

Starr 421-474 

RoHWER, S. A. Some new Hymenopterous Insects from 

the Philippine Islands.— No. 1722. August 4, 1910°. 657-G60 

New genus: Nesoselandria. 

New species: Mutilla browni, Pseudagenia chrysosoma, Notogonia 
crawfordi, N. ynanilensis, Psenulus (Neofoxia) xanthngnathus. 

Weed, Alfred C. See under Bean, Barton A 661-663 

Williamson, Edward Bruce. The North American 
Dragonflies (Odonata) of the genus Macromia. — No. 1710. 
December 14, 1909 « 369-;-{98 

New species: Macromia wabashensis, M. alleghaniensis, M. au^tralen- 
sis. 

o- Date of publication. 



LIST OF ILLUSTEATIOJSIS. 



PLATES. 

Faeing page. 

1. Tragulus napii ' 1 

2. Tragulus pretiosus, Tragulus perflavus 10 

3. Tragulus nigricollis, Tragulus nigrocinctus 10 

4. Type-specimen of Isodectes punctulatus 28 

5. Outline drawing of Isodectes punctulatus 28 

6. Specimens of Tuditanus walcotti and Odonterpeton triangularis 28 

7. Outline drawing of Tuditanus walcotti 28 

8. Specimens of Erpetosaurus minutus, Tuditanus minimus, and Ptyonius 

pectinatus 28 

9. Skeleton of Saurerpeton latithorox 28 

10. Skeleton of Ctenerpeton alveolatum 28 

11. Jaws of Rhynochocephalian and undetermined forms 42 

12. Edestus crenulatus and Edestus serratus 62 

13. Edestus heinrichii and Ctenacanthus rarians 62 

14. Lissoprion ferrieri 62 

15. Lissoprion ferrieri 62 

16. Balanus psittacus; Tetraclita porosa; Balanus tintinnahulum 74 

17. Balanus Isevis nitidus on the shell of Concholepas 74 

18. Balanus psittacus; Balanus tintinnabulum 74 

19. Balanus peruvianus; Balanus Lvvis nitidus 74 

20. Polypus fontaineanus Orbigny 294 

21. Loligo gahi Orbigny 294 

22. Peruvian gastropods 294 

23. Peruvian gastropods 294 

24. Peruvian gastropods 294 

25. Peruvian pelecypods 294 

26. Peruvian pelecypods 294 

27. Peruvian pelecypods 2"4 

28. Peruvian pelecypods 294 

29. New" land shells from the Philipijine Islands 300 

30. Labrador and Newfoundland medusae 320 

31. Labrador and Newfoundland medusae 320 

32. Labrador and Newfoundlar.d medusae 320 

33. Land shells from Mexico and Guatemala 324 

34. Philippine pond snails of the genus Vivipara 368 

35. A favorite haunt of Macromias 398 

36. A favorite haunt of Macromias 398 

37. Photomicrographs of sections of Olivene-diabase 484 

38. Ilarriotta raleighana 664 

39. Anteliochimsera chRtirhamphus 664 

IX 



X LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 

TEXT FIGURES. 

Page. 

Map of Rhio-Linga Archipelago showing distribution of Tragulus napu group, 

members of which have been taken on islands shaded ? 2 

Map of a part of the Malay region showing relative size of Rhio-Linga Archi- 
pelago 3 

Left dentary of Opisthias rarus 36 

Right femur of Laosaurus gracilis Marsh, a, front view; b, side view; d, view of 
proximal end; e, view of distal end; t. c, inner trochanter 39 

Caudal vertebra of CceZ-wrus/rag'i'Zis Marsh, a, side view; 6, top view; c, ventral 
view; d, front view; e, back view; s, neutral spine; z, anterior zygapophysis ; 
2', posterior zygapophysis 41 

Edestus a-enulatus, type. Vertical section between the first and second teeth. 

2, second sheath ; 2', enameled process of second tooth ; 3, sheath of third tooth ; 
4, sheath of fourth tooth; 5, sheath of fifth tooth; 6, upper border of sheath of 

sixth tooth; 7, groove along lower border of anterior half of shaft 44 

Edestus crenulatus, type. Vertical section between third and fourth teeth. 

3, hinder end of third tooth; 4, sheath of fourth tooth; 4^, enameled process 

of fourth tooth ; 5, sheath of fifth tooth ; 6, upper border of sheath of sixth tooth . 44 
Edestus serratus, type. Section between first and second teeth. 1, hinder end 
of first tooth; 2, enameled process of second tooth; 3, sheath of third tooth; 

4, sheath of fourth tooth; 5, sheath of fifth tooth; 6, upper border of sheath 

of sixth tooth; 7, groove along lower border of anterior half of shaft 47 

Edestus serratus, type. Section between third and fourth teeth; 3, hinder end of 

third tooth; 4, enameled process of fourth tooth; 5. sheath of fifth tooth; 

6, upper border of sheath of sixth tooth 47 

Edestus minusculus, type. Section of sheath just in front of tooth 50 

Edestus minor, type. Section of sheath just in front of tooth 50 

Lissoprion ferrieri, section of shaft and tooth. 1, enamel of third tooth ; 2, groove 

between narrowed processes of third and second teeth; 3, enameled process of 

second tooth; 4, exposed portion of shaft; 5, groove along lower border of shaft. 56 

Balanus peruvianus, lateral view 69 

Chthamalus cirratus. Inside views of tergum and scutum enlarged, and group 

of three entire animals 

Gnathia tuberculata. Head and thorax 

Gnathia tuberculata. Anterior margin of head 

Gnathia tuberculata. Abdomen 

Paranthura japonica. Head and first three segments of thorax 

Paranthura japonica. Last four segments of thorax and abdomen 

Alcirona niponia. Leg of first pair 

JiJga magnoculis. Head and first two segments of thorax 

/Ega synopthalma. Head and first two segments of thorax 

Rocinela niponia. Head and first two segments of thorax 

Rocinela niponia. Third leg 

Syscenus latus 

Livoneca sacciger 

Livoneca epimerias 

Tecticeps renoculis 

Tecliceps renoculis. First leg of male 

Tecticeps renoculis. Second leg of male 

Tlolotelson tuberculatus . First antenna of female 

Ifolotelson tuberculatus. AVjdomen of male 

Uolotelson tuberculatus. Abdomen of female 

Holotelson tuberculatus. Second pleopod of male 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. XI 

Page. 

Limnoria japonica. Abdomen 95 

Astacilla dilatata 96 

Arcturus granulatus 98 

Arcturus hastiger 100 

Arcturus tritxniatus 102 

Arcturus magnispinis 103 

Arcturus diversispinis 104 

Arcturus brevispinis 105 

Arcturus crassispinis 106 

Pentidotea rotundata 109 

Pendidotea rotundata. Maxilliped 110 

Synidotea acuta Ill 

Synidotea epimerata 112 

Synidotea epimerata. Maxilliped 112 

Synidotea tuberculata 113 

Janira japonica. Head and first five segments of thorax 115 

Janira jajMnica. Last two segments of thorax and abdomen 115 

Microprotus csecus 117 

Microprotus csecus. Second thoracic leg 118 

Microprotus cxcus. First and secpnd pleopods of male 118 

Microprotus csecus. First thoracic leg 118 

Microprotus csecus. Sixth leg 118 

Munnopsis latifrons. Abdomen 119 

Munnopsis latifrons. Seventh leg 119 

Eurycope Isevis 120 

Eurycope Isevis. One of the natatory legs 120 

Prophryxus alascensis. Dorsal view of adult female 124 

Prophryxus alascensis. Ventral view ■ 124 

Isopod parasite. Dorsal view 125 

Isopod parasite. Ventral view 125 

Wings of male Azuma elegans, from Miyazaki, Japan 370 

Wings of male Epophthalmia species, from Burma 371 

Wings of male Macromia tseniolata, Bluffton, Indiana 373 

Wings of male Macromia wabashensis, Bluffton, Indiana 375 

Wings of male Macromia illinoiensis , Waterloo, Iowa 378 

Wings of female Macromia illinoiensis, Sandusky, Ohio 379 

Wings of male Macromia pacifica, Bluffton, Indiana 385 

Ccrithiopsis stephensi 399 

Skeleton and gemmule spicules of Spongilla-like form of Ephydatia crateri/ormis . 403 

Skeleton and gemmule spicules of Tubella pennsylvanica from S. India 404 

Gemmule and spicules of Heteromeyenia plumosa. A, gemmule, showing aper- 
ture in center; B, short birotulates; C, long birotulates; D, free microscleres ; 

E, skeleton spicule 405 

Polypus hoylei. Third arm of right side 408 

Stephanoteuthis hawaHensis. Lateral aspect 409 

Stoloteuthis iris. Dorsal aspect 411 

Abralia astrosticta. Ventral aspect 412 

Abralia astrosticta. Left ventral arm 412 

Abralia astrosticta. Club of right tentacle 413 

Abralia astrosticta. Inferior surface of right eye and surrounding region, show- 
ing distribution of luminous organs 418 

Chiroteuthis famelica. Dorsal aspect 414 

Liocranchia globula. Dorsal aspect 415 



XU LIST OF ILLUSTEATIONS. 

Page. 

Malakichihys griseus, type of Satsuma macrops 426 

Diploprion bifasciatus 428 

Bryttosus kawamebari 434 

Stereolepis ischinagi (young, from Misaki) 436 

Stereolepis gigas (young, from Santa Barbara) 437 

Epinephelus chlorostigma 446 

Epinephelus craspedurus 448 

Epinephelus megachir 449 

Epinephelus fario 451 

Epinephelus episticius ^ 453 

Epinephelus morrhua 455 

Epinephelus awoara 458 

Epinephelus tsirimenara 461 

Trisotropis dcrmopteru^ 462 

Sayonara saisumse (type of Sayonara mitsukurii) 466 

Tosana niwse 472 

Graphic representation of the constituents of the Olivine-diabase described and 

the average normal diabase 480 

Alpheus candei. b, infero-external surface of large chela; b\ supero-internal 

surface of large chela; c, small chela; (/, meropodite of third foot; d\ dactyl 

of fifth foot ; n, anterior region 486 

Synalpheus townsendi scaphoceris. a, carpocerite; r*, anterior region; <, telson.. 487 
Synalpheus mcclendoni. a, carpocerite; b, large chela; c, small chela; d, third 

foot; n, anterior region 487 

Globarmadillo armatus 496 

Notasellus trilobatus. a, female; b, first leg of male; c, first and second pleopods 

of male 650 

Side view of Ophiotholia mitrephora , showing the miter-shaped disk, the upraised 

arms, and the numerous oral papillae 665 

Upper surface of the ninth, tenth, and eleventh arm-joints of Ophiotholia 

mitrephora, showing the small upper arm-plates and the arm-spines 666 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL 37 PL. I 







THE MOUSE DEER OF THE RHIO-LINGA ARCHIPELAGO : 
A STUDY OF SPECIFIC DIFFERENTIATION UNDER 
UNIFORM ENVIRONMENT. 



By Gerrit S. Miller, Jr. 
Curator, Division of Mammals, U. S. National Museum. 



The mouse deer are small Ungulates forming a special group, the 
Tragulida'^ somewhat intermediate in anatomical characters betAveen 
the deer, camels, and pigs. Two living genera are known, the Indian 
and Malayan Tragulus and the AVest African Ilyomoschus. In ap- 
pearance the larger members of the family show some resemblance 
to the musk deer; while the smaller species of Tragulus^ wdiich 
scarcely exceed a rabbit in size, suggest an Agouti with unusu- 
ally long legs. Among the Malayan members of the family two 
groups of species are found, the larger napus and the smaller kanchils, 
distinguished from each other by differences in size comparable to 
that between hares and rabbits, and by certain other slight peculiari- 
ties. On the Malay Peninsula and the larger islands members of these 
two groujjs appear everywhere to occur together, but on the smaller 
islands either may be absent. At no single locality have tw^o forms 
of the same group yet been found." 

In habits as well as in appearance the Malayan TragnUdrv show a 
curious analogy to the South American agoutis. They are nocturnal 
and they live in jungle, where, owing to the denseness of the under- 
growth, they are seldom seen, but where they may be readily caught 
with snares set in their runw^ays. So perfectly protected from obser- 
vation are these animals that I have been unable to find any detailed 
published account of their habits. Even the field notes of Dr. W. L. 
Abbott, to whose explorations of the Malay Archipelago most of our 
knowledge of the species is due, contain no definite observations, a fact 
that becomes especially significant when it is recalled that his col- 

'^ With the single exception of Pulo Mansalar, Tapanuli Bay, western Sumatra, 
where two species of napus, Trayulns ainaiius and T. juyuhtris, apparently occur 
together. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37.— No. 1695. 
Proc.N.M. vol.37— 09 1 1 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



lections now contain about 550 specimens of Tragulus. Owing to 
this secluded mode of life the Malayan members of the family are 
subjected to an , essentially uniform environment throughout their 




Fig. 1.— Map of Rhio-Linga Archipelago showing distrihutiox of Tuagulus xapu 
gkoup^ members of which have been taken ok islands shaded. 

range. Absence of any sjDecial tendency toward specific differentia- 
tion would be anticii^ated to result from such conditions. It is found 
as regards the animals inhabiting the large land masses of Sumatra 



NO. IGOn. MOUSE DEER OF RHIO-LINGA ARCHIPELAGO— MILLER. 3 




Fig 



-Map of a part of the Malay region showing iielative size of Rhio-Linga 
Archipelago. 



rROCEEDINGti OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. 



and the Malay Peninsula,'^ on which the number of known forms is 
only four or five. On the smaller islands of the archipelago, however, 
both kanchils and napns, but especially the latter, show an excessive 
tendency to differentiate into local forms, no less than 41 of which 
are now known.^ A particularly striking example of this tendency 
is furnished b}' the napus of the Rhio-Linga Archipelago. 

The Rhio-Linga Archipelago is a series of small islands extending 
southeastward along the east coast of Sumatra from the southern 
extremity of the Malay Peninsula (see map, fig. 1). The northern- 
most of the islands, Karimon, Batam, and Bintang are separated 
from the mainland by the narrow Malacca Strait on the west and 
Singapore Strait on the east, the average width of which is only 
about 10 miles. Singapore Strait contains a mass of small islands 
on the north side, west of Singapore, which narrows the open Avater 
at that point to 5 miles. The easternmost, Karimon, Kundur, and 
Durei, are equally near the coast of Sumatra. From Karimon, the 
northwesternmost of the group, to the south shore of Sinkep, the 
southernmost, is a distance of about 150 miles, while that from Kari- 
mon east to Panjang is about 125 miles. Near the middle the archi- 
pelago is partly divided by the Rhio Strait into two main groups, 
the Rhio '^ Archipelago proper at the north and the Linga Archi- 
pelago at the south. The principal islands of the Rhio Archipelago, 
the main axis of which extends east and west, are : Karimon, Kundur, 
Durei, Durian, Sugi, Chombol, Bulang, Batam, Rempang, Galong, 
Bintang, and Panjang. Of the Linga Archipelago, the main axis of 
which is nearly north and south, the more important islands are 
Sebang, Bakong, Linga, and Sinkep. In addition to these, the largest 
of which, Bintang, Linga, and Sinkep, are from 25 to 35 miles across, 
and roughly some 500 to 700 square miles in area, the archipelago con- 
tains an almost infinite number of smaller islands and islets. The 
entire group lies in shallow water, mostly within the 20- fathom line, 
though Malacca and Singapore straits reach a depth of about 30 
fathoms, while an isolated sounding of 49 fathoms is recorded be- 
tween Singapore Island and Batam. The average depth of the water 
between the archipelago and Sumatra is less than in the straits, that 
separating the Linga group from the larger island nowhere exceed- 
ing 20 fathoms, while that between the Rhio group and the coast 
scarcely reaches 10 fathoms. The size of the archipelago as com- 
pared Avith that of Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula is difficult to 

" Perhaps of Java and Borneo, also ; but the material from these islands is at 
present unsatisfactory. 

*A11 but nine of the described forms of TraguJus have been discovered by 
Doctor Abbott. 

f^ The spelling Rhio is found on most German, English, and American maps; 
according to the Dutch authorities it should be Riouw. 



NO. 1605. MOUSE DEER OF RHIO-LINGA ARCHIPELAGO— MILLER. 5 

estimate exactly (see map, fig. 2), but the total area which it covers, 
land and water together, is approximately one-thirtieth of the former 
and one-twentieth of the latter. Estimating the land area of the 
archij)elago as one-third of the whole and the relative amount of 
jungle suited to the needs of Tragidi as the same on the large land 
masses and the islets of the archipelago, the area inhabited on the 
archipelago would be about one-ninetieth that on Sumatra and one- 
sixtieth that on the peninsyla, or only one one-hundred-and-fiftieth 
of the tw^o combined. Physical conditions on the islands are remark- 
ably uniform. Lying under the equator they are subjected to no sea- 
sonal variations of temperature; while the small extent of the group, 
the uniformity in depth of the surrounding w^ater, and the absence 
of all influence of great ocean currents preclude the possibility of 
regional differences. The surface of the islands is mostly rather high, 
though not sufficiently so to produce altitudinal contrasts of tempera- 
ture. In his notes Doctor Abbott makes frequent allusion to the uni- 
formity of vegetation and general conditions from island to island. 
Slight local changes have been made here and there by cultivation, 
but never to an extent sufficient to alter the conditions under which 
the Tragiili exist. 

Notwithstanding its geographic insignificance and its lack of cli- 
matic or other contrasts, the archipelago is inhabited by no less than 
eight distinct species of napu ; wdiile from the Avhole of Sumatra, as 
well as of that part of the Malay Peninsula extending north to 
Tenasserim, the napus are, so far as known, essentially of a single 
type." The characters of these animals, some of the more conspicu- 
ous of which are figured in Plates 1 to 3, are briefly as follows : ^ 

" The common peninsular Tragulus canescens differs very slightly, if at all, 
from the Sumatran T. napu. In naming it I was under the misapprehension 
that the napu of Linga Island (T. pretiosus) represented the Sumatran animal. 
The little-known Tragulus sianlcyanus, from the interior of the Malay Peiun- 
sula, may for the present be disregarded as perhaps not strictly a member of 
the napu group. 

* Detailed descriptions of the recently discovered species of Tragiilu>< will be 
found in the following papers : 

Bonhote, Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., 7th ser., vol. 11, pp. 291-290 (hnsci, cvcr- 
ctti, pierrri=raru.s Miller.) 

Lyon, Proc. IT. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 31, pp. 576-581, (bancanus, hillitonufi, lutei- 
collis) ; idem, vol. 34, pp. G28-G32 {Jonglpes. fuhncoUif!). 

Matschie, Sitz.-Ber. Gesellschaft Naturforsch. Freunde, Berlin, 1897, p. 157 
(anna). 

Miller, Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 2, pp. 227-228 (rufulus) ;-Proc. Biol. 
Soc. Washington, vol. 13, pp. 185-186 (canescens) ; idem, pp. 191-192 (uinbrinus) ; 
Proc. Washington Acad. Sci., vol. 3, pp. 113-117 (hunguranensis, palUdus) ; Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1902, pp. 144-147 (pretiosus, nlgricollis) ; Proc. 
Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 15, pp. 173-175 (ravus, borneanus) ; Proc. IT. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 26, pp. 439-446 (amoenus, jugularis, hrevipes, russcus) ; Proc. Biol. 



6 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

TRAGULUS NAPU (F. Cuvier). The wide-ranging form of Sumatra and the 
Malay Peninsula (Plate 1). 

Upper parts orange-biifF, clouded with blackish, the dark clouding 
not in excess of under color in general effect ; sides noticeably grayish, 
in marked contrast with back; nape with a fairly well defined me- 
dian dark stripe ; throat markings normal, the outer dark band essen- 
tially concolor with sides of neck. Average and extremes of nine 
adults from eastern Sumatra: Head and body, 572 (550-000) mm.; 
tail, 04 (83-110) ; hind foot, including hoofs," 149 (145-150). 
TRAGULUS PRETIOSUS Miller. Linga (Plate 2. upper figure). 

Colors much richer and more j^ellow than in Trdgulus napu, but 
pattern in no way abnormal ; ground color of back orange-ochraceous, 
darkening toward ochraceous-rufous on sides of nock and outer sur- 
face of legs, and lightening to orange-buff on sides of body. Back 
uniformly clouded, the black slightly in excess of the under color; 
sides inconspicuously " lined "" with black. Najie stripe blackish, 
normal in extent, sharply defined. Dark throat stripes a mixture of 
black and dull ochraceous-rufous. "White throat stripes normal. 
Average and extremes of five adults: Head and body, 560 (545-580) 
mm.; tail, 88 (80-95) ; hind foot, including hoofs, 141 (140-142). 
TRAGULUS PRETIELLUS Miller. Bakong and Sebang. 

Color as in Traguliis pretiosus, but size less and teeth relatively 
larger. Average and extremes of eight adults from Pulo Bakong: 
Head and body, 501 (473-515) mm.; tail, 77 (05-90) ; hind foot, in- 
cluding hoofs, 122.7 (119-126). 
TRAGULUS FORMOSUS Miller. Bintang. 

Size and general appearance as in Traguliis pretiosiis, but color 
even more reddish, particularly on sides of neck, and dark nape stripe 
narrower and less well defined. Average and extremes of seven 
adiilts: Head and body, 549 (530-593) mm.; tail, 82 (75-100) ; hind 
foot, including hoofs, 141.7 (137-145). 
TRAGULUS LUTESCENS Miller. Sugi Bava, Jan. 

Color pattern normal, the nape stripe clear black, well defined; 
size scarcely larger than in Tragulus pretiellus; ground color paler 
than in the three preceding species, the back orange-buff, fading 
rather abruptly on sides through straw-yellow to cream-color; cloud- 
ing due to black hair tips, essentially as in T. pretiosiis or somewhat 
less. Average and extremes of seven adults (two from Sugi Bava, 
the others from Jan) : Head and bod}^, 508 (488-540) mm.; tail, 78 
(72-90) ; hind foot, including hoofs, 130 (128-133). 

Soc. Washington, vol. 16, pp. 31^4 {lutescens, flavicoUis, formosus, focaUnus\ 
virgicolUs=1wsei Bonhote, natunce=cveretti Bonhote, subrufus, 7-ubcus. raruliis, 
hinrarcnsis, lamiunsis) ; Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 44, pp. 2— i {batuaniis. 
7'ussitlnfi) ; Proc. TT. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 81. pp. ^5-^^^ (cfirimntrr) ; idem, pp. 2.^)0- 
255 (nigrocinctus, pcrflaviis, prcticllKs). 

Thomas. Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hist., Cth ser., vol. 9. p. 2.54 ( iiifn-icniifi). 



1695. MOUSE DEER OF RHIO-LrNGA ARCHIPELAGO— MILLER. 



TRAGULUS FLAVICOLLIS Miller. Sugi. 

General color about as in Tragulus luiescens, but nape stripe ab- 
sent, its position barely indicated by a few dark hairs ; throat mark- 
ings normal, the dark stripes scarcely mixed with black; size prob- 
ably greater than in T. httescen.s: Head and body (type, not full}'^ 
adult). 55 nun.; tail, 80; hind foot, including hoofs, 132. 

TRAGULUS PERFLAVUS Miller. Bataui, Bnlaii, Galong, Setoko (Plate 2. 
lower rtgure). 

In general like Tragulus favicollis^ but even more yellow, the nape 
without dark hairs; dark throat stripes clear, brownish, ochraceous- 
buff, noticeably encroaching on area of white markings; size rather 
large. Average and extremes of six specimens from Batam: Head 
and body, GOS (583-635) mm.; tail, 80 (77-85) ; hind foot, including 
hoofs, 131 (127-137). 
TRAGULUS NIGRICOLLIS Miller. Singkep (Plate 3, upper figure). 

Back as in Tragulus pretiosus^ but more clouded with black; sides a 
light buff much like that of T. lutescens; entire neck black, clear 
above, sprinkled with yellowish-brown annulations at sides, especially 
along edge of lateral white stripes; throat markings normal, the dark 
stripes black, speckled with brown like sides of neck. Size large, aver- 
age and extremes of five adults: Head and body, 5(50 (540-590) mm.; 
tail, 81.4 (77-85) ; hind foot, including hoofs, 143.8 (138-148). 

TRAGULUS NIGROCINCTUS Miller. Kunder, Great Karimon (Plate 3, lower 
figure). 

Back and sides rich and dark, essentially as in Tragulus pretiosus^ 
but black shading heavier, almost completely obscuring the under 
color along mid-dorsal region; neck and throat clear black, the throat 
stripes absent ; no white on under parts, the lower side of tail yellow- 
ish brown, a character unique among the species occurring in the 
archipelago. Size medium, average and extremes of ten adult males 
from Kunder: Head and body, 502 (490-520) mm.; tail, 86.5 
(80-100) ; hind foot, including hoofs, 130 (132-142). 

The only general feature in which the insular species differ from 
Tragulus napu is their tendency toward richer, less grayish colora- 
tion, especially of the sides of body. In other respects they show 
great diversity. In fact, among them are presented the extreme 
phases of a tendency manifest throughout the ^laj^tu group for each 
local species to assume a type of marking referable to some phase in 
one of the two lines of variation most readily " followed in diverging 
from the primitive type represented by the continental form. The 

" A mere inspection of the manner in whicli the colors are combined in the 
normal pattern is sufficient to show that the two courses followed are mechan- 
ically the most feasible; this is further shown by the fact that the not very 
extensive individual variations in a large series of Sumatran Tj-(Hjii1iis rKipii 
can nearly all be referred, to the earliest stages of divergence of the same 
two lines. 



8 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

main characters of this primitive type are: (1) Neck mixed brown 
and black, the black concentrating along nape to form an evident 
nape stripe; (2) throat with a median white longitudinal stripe, on 
each side of which is a similar but somewhat oblique stripe, the three 
meeting in a broad white mass covering posterior portion of inter- 
ramial region ; space between median and lateral stripe brown like 
side of neck or somewhat darker; a brown transverse band or collar 
separates the stripes from white of chest. The two lines of variation 
are (1) toward predominance of yellowish brown and (2) toward 
predominance of black. 

Variants of the primitive stage are shown by Tragulus pretiosiis 
(color rich, pattern normal, size normal), T. pretieJhis (like the last, 
but size reduced), and T. lutescens (size reduced, color yellowish, 
pattern normal). In T. formosus the first step is taken toward pre- 
dominance of brown. The black nape stripe is narrower and less 
Avell defined than in the normal phase, though the throat markings 
retain their usual character. A further advance in the same direction 
is shown by T. famcolUs., in which the nape stripe has disappeared, 
all but a few scattered dark hairs, but in which the throat markings 
remain normal. The extreme of this tendency, so far as now known, 
is presented by T. perfani^i. Here the entire neck is yellowish 
brown without trace of dark hairs, and the white throat-stripes are 
noticeably narrowed by encroachment of the contiguous brown areas. 
The final stage, with white completely replaced by brown, has not 
yet been discovered, though there is little reason to doubt that it 
exists. 

The first steps in the series leading toward dominance of black are 
not shown by any of the llhio-Linga species. In T. umhrin us of Pulo 
Lankawi, off the west coast of the Malay Peninsula, the dark nape 
stripe has become diffuse, spreading over entire neck, though not to the 
exclusion of the brown. A further stage is represented by T. aTnmnus 
of Pulo Mansalar, Tapanuli Bay, west Sumatra. Here the neck is 
definitely black, though with much brown speckling at sides. Ke- 
turning to the Ehio-Linga Archipelago, we find that in T . nigricoUis 
the neck is black, slightly speckled with brown laterally ; throat pat- 
tern normal. The next stage, in which the black begins to encroach 
on white of throat (corresponding to that represented by T. perfavus 
in the brown series), is represented by T. hunguranensis of Bunguran 
Island, North Natunas, and T. nigricans of Balabac. In T. jugu- 
laris of Pulo Mansalar the white is obliterated, but the position of 
the light markings is indicated by brown annulations on the hairs of 
the region normally occupied by the white stripes. The final stage 
is represented by a Rhio-Linga species, T. nigrocinctus, in which the 
entire neck and throat are clear black. 



NO. 1695. MOUSE DEER OF RHIO-LINGA ARCHIPELAGO— MILLER. 

Allusion to the uniformity of environment under which the mouse 
deer exist has already been made. The geographic distribution of 
the various forms is a further indication that the characters of the 
species can not be explained as the result of local conditions. Linga 
and Singkep are only 7 miles apart, but the napu of the former has 
retained the primitive color pattern, while that of the latter is well 
advanced toward the dark extreme. The species representing inter- 
mediate stages are found 400 and 500 miles away, on the coasts of 
the Malay Peninsula and west Sumatra. Similarly the phase that 
lies between the Sinkep form and the extreme represented by that 
of Kunder and (xreat Karimon occurs in the North Natuna Islands, 
at a distance of 300 miles, and on Balabac, more than twice as 
far away. On the other hand, the islands of Great Karimon and 
Bulang, within 25 miles of each other, are inhabited, respectively, by 
the most extreme black form and brown form now known. 

The only conclusion that seems justified is that the Tragulus napu 
group consists of a series of local species whose color pattern, prob- 
ably for some physiological reason, is varying along tw^o main lines 
of divergence, both of which are independent of external conditions 
as ordinarily understood. Each series is equally incapable of ex- 
planation by the hypotheses of Lamarck, Darwin, or De Vries. On 
the larger land masses such changes as may be taking place are uni- 
form over wide areas and relatively slow, while in the regions wiiich, 
by submergence, have become divided into small land areas separated 
by water the changes are irregular and rapid, though progressing on 
different islands at a very unequal rate.® 

"A somewhat parallel series of color changes in the African monkeys of the 
genus Colohus has recently been described (Lydekker, Proc. Zool. Soc. I.iondon, 
vol. 2. 1905. pp. 325-329). 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL 37 PL. 2 





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Tragulus pretiosus 
Tragulus peri-lavus 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL 37 PL. 3 





Tragulus NIGRICOLLIS 
Tragulus nigrocinctus 



CARBONIFEROUS AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES OF 
THE UNITED STATES NATIONxVL MUSEUM. 



By Roy L. Moodie, 

Of the Vnivcrsity nf Kansas, Lawrence. 



The writer has been engaged for some months investigating the 
structure of the earliest air-breathing vertebrates. Through the 
kindness of the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, Dr. Charles 
D. Walcott, he was given the privilege of studying the collection of 
the U. S. National Museum, which contains remains of these forms. 
This collection is a small one but of great interest, and is unique in 
containing the only examples known of scaled amphibians from North 
America, as well as the only known specimen of a Carboniferous rep- 
tile from the Allegheny series. 

The specimen of the reptile is so important in the light of the 
present discussions concerning the origin of the Reptilia that it is 
considered worthy of an extended description, although it has been 
previously described by Cope, Williston, and the writer. None of 
these authors has, however, dealt with the anatomy of the animal 
as a whole, and, although Williston published an excellent photo- 
graph (here reproduced) which corrected some of the errors of Cope's 
original drawing, yet even a photograph is lacking in details. The 
relations of the pelvic region and the structure of the vertebral 
column are especially indistinct, so that an outline drawing of the 
skeleton has been introduced in Plate 5. 

ISODECTES PUNCTULATUS Cope. 

Plates 4 and 5. 

Tuditanns punctnlatiis Cope, Anier. Naturalist, 1890, p. 303. — Hay, Cat. 

Foss, Vert. N. A., 1902, p. 41.5. 
Isodectes punctulatus Cope, Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, vol. 30, 1S97, p. 88, 

pi. 3, fig. 3 ; Syllabus of Lectures on the Vertebrata, 1898, p. 61. 
Isodectes copei Williston, Jouru. Geo!., vol. 16, 1908, p. 395. — Moodie, 

Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci., 3909. [Refers to Isodectes copei Williston 

in connection with the proposed new classification of the Amphibia] ; 

Amer. Naturalist, vol. 45, p. 122. — Holland, 11th Annual Report of 

the Carnegie Museum, 1908, p. 32. 

The specimen of Isodectes punct'iJattis Cope, which is less than 
inches in length, consists of the following parts: A nearly complete 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1696. 

11 



12 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

vertebral column, including the terminal caudal centrum (45 centra 
preserved) ; portions of 27 pairs of ribs; three distal carpalia of the 
left hand; first digit of the left hand entire, and others represented 
by scattered phalanges, four digits in all ; left foot nearly entire, lacks 
only terminal phalanx for digit III ; right foot complete but elements 
scattered, both legs otherwise complete ; portion of pelvis. 

The reptile, to which the remains j^ertain, must have been an 
aquatic, or at least a semiaquatic form, if one may judge from the 
expanded foot, although the limbs show no adaptive modifications for 
aquatic conditions. The dimensions of the foot, as preserved, how- 
ever, sho^^' a broad surface, which may be given the same interpre- 
tation as McGregor has given the foot of Mesosaun/si Jjtrtsiliensis 
McGregor," from the Permian of South America. 

The long tail in the present species would tend to sup]^ort the idea 
of the aquatic habit of the animal, although there is not the slightest 
evidence of lateral flattening, nor are elongate spines and chevrons 
present as in Mesosatn-us hrasiliensis McGregor. The stout, elongate 
femur in the present species is in strong contrast with the crocodile- 
like femur of Mesosaurus. The femur resembles, in its proportions, 
that of /Sai/rarus costei Thevenin, from the Carboniferous of France.'' 
In view of the character of the beds from which hodectes comes and 
the aquatic nature of the Microsauria which were associated with 
Isodectes, it will not be far wa'ong to assume an aquatic habit of life 
for Isodectes for at least a part of the time. The clawed phalanges 
are to be looked on as indicating a partial adaptation to land 
dwelling. 

The form of the body of Iwdectes puncti/latiis Cope is remarkably 
lizard-like and resembles in its proportions some of the larger 
species of Iguana without the great length of tail. The vertebral 
column in Isodectes was solidly built and its limbs were strong, being 
supported, in the pelvic region at least, by a strong arch. 

It is extremely unfortunate that the entire skeleton of the reptile 
was not preserved, since there is no doubt that it was all embedded 
in the coal if we may judge from the nature of the fracture extend- 
ing across the anterior region of that portion of the skeleton which 
is preserved, but in the violent processes of mining the anterior por- 
tion of the body was lost. As a matter of coincidence the same acci- 
dent may be mentioned as having occurred in the case of Saiiravus 
costei Thevenin. The vertebral column in Isodectes consists of bi- 
concave centra with possibly rudimentary intercentra, although no 
definite evidence is to be had on this head. The spines of the verte- 
brae were low and almost rudimentary. The notochord was probably 

« J. H. McGregor^ Relatorio Final Conimissao de Estudos das Minas de Carvao 
do Brazil, 1908, p. 303. 

*A. Thevenin. Anuales de Paleontologie, vol. 1, 1903. pi. 2. 



NO. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES— MOODIE. ^3 

j^ersistent judging from the fractured portion of the most anterior 
centrum preserved. There are evidences of 21 presacral vertebra?, 
and there may have been 7 or 8 more, thus bringing the number of 
presacrals near 30, agreeing exactly in this instance with the vertebral 
column of Mesosaurus from Brazil and also agreeing with Sauravus 
from France, so far as can be determined. There are two sacral 
vertebrae in Isodectes. Twenty-two caudal vertebrae are preserved. 
They are very stout near the base of the tail but taper gradually 
until, at the tip, the size is reduced to near one-half. There are two 
lengths in the caudal vertebra?, as may be seen by referring to Plates 
4 and 5. The sixth vertebra from the tip is nearly one-third as long 
again as the succeeding one. There is another long vertebra four 
vertebra^ above this one. Just what the meaning of this condition is 
I can not determine, since it has not been observed, so far as I know, 
in any other early reptile. In Mesosaurus the vertebrae are appar- 
ently of uniform length. The neural canal is plainly visible in some 
of the distal vertebrae of the tail and this sinks quite deeply into some 
of the vertebrae, so that one is led to conclude that there are repre- 
sented the two unconnected halves of the vertebrae ; or, in other words, 
we have here a primitive condition of the persistence of the pleuro- 
centra such as is paralleled in the developing vertebrae of the chick 
of thirteen days' incubation « and also in the vertebrae of some lizards. 

There are evidences of 27 pairs of ribs. They are all intercentral 
in position, agreeing in this respect with the condition in all the 
Microsauria so far studied from the Carboniferous of North America, 
and also with the condition in Sauravus. In Mesosaurus the ribs 
have migrated backward from the intercentral position. Twenty- 
four pairs of presacral ribs are preserved. They are all strongly 
recurved exactly as in Sauravus^ and are stoutly built. They are not 
distally expanded and are progressively shorter backward. The ribs 
are apparently single-headed as in Sauraims, there being no evidence 
of the bicipital condition, although this may be indicated by the 
expansion of the heads. The three pairs of caudal ribs preserved are 
short and more strongW recurved than the presacral ribs. The pres- 
ence of sacral ribs can not be determined. 

The left hand is of such a size that we may safely conjecture that 
the fore limbs were of some strength, but further than this nothing 
can be said. The carpus as preserved consists of three distal car- 
palia, being the carpal elements for digits II, III, and IV. There are 
two small ossicles lying beside the phalanx of digit III, which may 
be other carpalia. The first digit is preserved entire and the meta- 
carpals of the other digits are also preserved. The phalangeal ele- 
ments are all alike in the absence of any great amount of endochon- 
drium. There are three elements in the first digit, the metacarpal 

"Lillie, Development of the Chick, 1908, p. 426, fig. 242. 



]^4 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

and the two phalanges. The elements of the other three digits are 
scattered so it is impossible to determine exactly the phalangeal 
formula for the hand, though it may have been 2-2-3-2. 

The pelvis is represented by portions of the ilia which are ex- 
posed. The ischia and pubes are not visible. The ilium of the left 
side is the better preserved. It is seen to be an elongate, flattened 
plate slightly curved to accommodate the head of the femur. Two 
sacral vertebra gave support to the ilia, possibly through the inter- 
vention t)f sacral ribs. 

The hind limbs are very strong, with the foot much expanded and 
the tarsus well developed and bony. The femur is especially strong, 
and recalls in its proportions some of the higher reptiles. Its head 
is a little obscured through crushing, but the articular surface for the 
ilium seems to have been quite large, covering at least an arc of 40°,^ 
and thus indicating a wide range of movement for the leg. The two 
ends of the bone are expanded, but there are no tuberosities for mus- 
cular attachment nor should we expect any. The articular surface 
of the distal end is divided into two clearly marked facets for articu- 
lation with the tibia and fibula, recalling in this respect the femur 
of the plesiosaurs. The tibia has a triangidar head, a contracted 
distal end, and a slender shaft. The fibula is slightly curved with the 
ends expanded. The distal end is wider than the proximal. 

The tarsus, as preserved, in the left foot is composed of eight ele- 
ments — two ])roximal and six distal tar:-a]ia, one of which may be a 
sesamoid or a fractured portion of " t 5." The astragalus (tibiale) 
and calcaneum (fibulare) are both rounded, but with articular facets 
for the accommodation of the tibia, fibula, and distal tarsalia. There 
is no evidence of a centrale carpi or intermedium. The carpus is 
quite regular, and shows more specialized characters than do the later 
Cotylosauria, in which the centmle is still present, in one species of 
Lahidosaurus at least. 

The digits of the foot are long and slender, with a progressive in- 
crease in length from the first to the fourth. The fourth and fifth 
are 'nearly equal in length. The metacarpals of all five digits are 
long and exhibit full ossification, though no evidences of epiphyses 
are present. The terminal phalanges are pointed. The phalangeal 
formula of the foot is 2-8—1—5-4, a typical reptilian arrangement. 
In closing his discussion of this species Cope says: "This specimen 
is of importance as pertaining to the oldest known reptile, and the 
only one wdiich has thus far been positively identified from the Coal 
Measures. I announced this identification in the American Natural- 
ist, 1896, page 303." 

The absence of ventral ribs is an assured character in Isodectes. I 
have searched for them under high power of magnification, and have 



NO. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES— HOODIE. l^ 

even flaked off portions of the soft coal on which the animal is em- 
bedded, without detecting at any point the slightest trace of an ab- 
dominal armature. The absence of scutellse is complete, since there 
is no reason why they should not have been preserved, as the skeletal 
elements are in place and undisturbed by any post-mortem shifting. 

The relationships of this peculiar reptile are not known. Its close 
affinities with the Microsanria is firmly established by many struc- 
tural resemblances, but to what group of reptiles it may be related is 
uncertain. There are but few characters preserved on which a rela- 
tionship could be established. The two sacral vertebrae, the phalan- 
geal formula, and the ossified carpus and tarsus are the only true 
reptilian characters present in the specimen. Too much stress has 
been laid on the phalangeal formula as a basis for relationship, and 
a study of the Microsauria has shown that the presence or absence of 
ventral armature is of no particular importance, as has been shown 
to be the case with epiphyses, on which two groups of reptiles have 
been related. No member of the- genus Tuditanus possesses abdom- 
inal ribs or scutellse, but in closely related forms, like Saurerpeton, 
SaurojjJeura^ and Ctenerpeton^ the abdominal ribs or scuta? are pres- 
ent in great profusion and with well-marked characters, which have 
been taken as generic landmarks. 

The morphology of the ventral armature still remains in mystery. 
Its origin is not to be explained on the basis of the structures found 
in any Carboniferous air-breathing vertebrate. The earliest branchi- 
osaurians possess ventral scutes, and the earliest microsaurians pos- 
sess them. Their origin and function are to be explained with the 
solution of the problem of the origin of the Amphibia from their 
piscian ancestor, which has not yet been discovered. 

Measurements of Isodectes piinctnJahis Cope. 

mm. 

Length of entire specimen, as preserved lo2 

AVidtli across body, in middle of dorsal region IS 

Length of digit I of the hand i 11 

Width of nlnare 2 

Length of metacarpal, second digit 4 

Length of rib in dorsal region 9 

Width of same rib . 7.5 

Length of dorsal vertebra 4 

Width of same 3 

Length of presacral region preserved 00 

Length of sacral region 8 

Length of ilium 9 

Greatest width of the ilium 3 

Length of femur 15 

Pi'oximal width of the femur 5 

Median width of femur 2 

Distal width of femur 4 

Length of tibia ' 8 



16 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL ^fT .^EUM. vol.37. 

mm. 

Proximal w idtli of tibia 3 

Median width of tibia 1.50 

Distal width of tibia 2 

Length of radius 8 

Proximal width of radius 2.50 

Median width of radius 1. 50 

Distal width of radius 3 

Length of tibiale 4 

Width of same 2 

Length of radiale 3.50 

Width of same 2.50 

AVidth of the distal tarsalia L 50-2 

Length of metatarsal of the fourth digit 5 

Length of the first digit of the foot 8 

Length of second digit -_ 14 

Length of third digit 18C?) 

Length of fourth digit '. 19 

Length of fifth digit 15 

Length of the tail, as preserved 62 

Width of tail at base 5 

Width of tail at tip, as preserved-^ 1. 50 

Length of distal vertebra of tail 3-5 

The specimen, a })art of the Lacoe collection, is Cat. No. 4457 of 
the U. S. National Museum. It was collected by Mr. Samuel Pluston 
at Linton, Ohio. 

TUDITANUS WALCOTTI, new species. 

Plate G, fig. 1 ; plate 7, fig. 1. 

A small species of Microsauria is jjreserved as a smooth impression 
on a block of soft coal from Linton, Ohio. Nearly the entire form of 
the body is discernible. The specimen is especially interesting and 
valuable as exhibiting for the first time among the Linton forms the 
sliaj^e of the body of the small microsaurians of the Tuditanus type. 
It differs so markedly in the form of the skull from others of the 
genus that it is regarded as new, and the name Tuditanus walcotti is 
proposed for it as an expression of the writer's indebtedness to the 
secretaiy of the Smithsonian Institution for the use of the nuiterial 
among which the jiresent form was included. 

The specimen includes, besides the body impression, the complete 
skull, a right clavicle with portions of the left, a left humerus, 12 
cervical and dorsal vertebrae, 10 pairs of ribs somewhat disturbed as 
to position, and a portion of the mandible. There are no j^ortions of 
ventral scutellse nor are there any traces of body scales in the smooth 
impression of the carbonized skin. One would expect at least to find 
impressions of the ventral scutse in this sj^ecimen if they were present. 
Cope remarked on the apparent absence of scutellse from members of 
the genus Tuditanus as they were known to him, and no contrary 



NO. 1696. AIR-nh'IJATniNG VERTEBRATES— MOOIHE. ]^Y 

evidence has since been brought to light. Until such evidence is forth- 
coming the absence of scutes will be taken as one of the generic char- 
acters of the genus Tuditanus. Under a magnification of 50 diame- 
ters the carbonized skin shows folds and wrinkles like muscle fibers in 
some places ; in others no traces of the muscular structure can be de- 
tected. The wrinkles may be impressions of the internal musculature 
of the body wall of the abdomen. It is especially well preserved in 
the pelvic and P3^gal regions. Sections of the coal were made, but 
nothing definite could be determined as to the character of the im- 
pressions, as they were too poorly preserved and the coal too soft to 
bear much handling. 

The specimen is preserved on the belly with the dorsum of the 
skull uppermost. It has been practically impossible to determine the 
arrangement of any of the cranial elements except the frontals, parie- 
tals, and the supraoccipitals which have the relations indicated in 
Plate 7, fig. 1. A median suture is clearly evident, with the pineal 
foramen Avell back in this suture. The bones of the skull are marked 
with faint, radiating lines. It is in the form of the skull and the po- 
sition of the orbits that the specific characters are found. These are 
the backward position of the eyes and in the oval, pointed shape of 
\ the skull. . The species is closely related to Tuditanus minimus Moodie 
from the Cannelton slates of Pennsylvania, and serves further to con- 
nect the forms from the Ohio and Pennsylvania localities. It differs 
from the last-named species in the position and form of the orbits, 
these structures being more oval in the present form and placed far- 
ther back. The shape of the skull differs also in the almost entire 
absence of the posterior table. The median points of the orbits 
occupy the line which bisects the skull. The interorbital width is 
less than the length of the orbit. The mandible is heavy and apj^ears 
to have borne sharp pleurodont teeth. 

The vertebral colunni is little more than a mold of the form of the 
vertebrse, so that little can be said of its character. The individual 
vertebrae are short and hour-glass shaped. The ribs are borne inter- 
centrally, as in all the microsaurians which have been studied from 
the Linton deposits. The ribs are rather long and somewhat heavy, 
slightly curved and exj)anded at the proximal end as though an 
incipient bicipital condition were present. 

The right clavicle, which is preserved as an impression, is entire. 
Its impression shows this element to have been ornamented on its 
ventral surface with radiating grooves and ridges which started at 
the lower angle of the bone. The element is distinctly triangular, 
which is characteristic of the genus Tuditanus^ so far as known. The 
fragment of the left clavicle adds nothing to our knoAvledge of the 
element. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 2 



I 



Ig rRO('ErJDI\(hS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

The left Imnieriis recalls in a striking way that of Tiiditanus longi- 
pes Cope, and it was once entertained as a possibility that the present 
form might be a member of that species, since the skull is lacking in 
T. longipes. Sufficient specific differences were found, however, in 
the ribs, which, in T. longipes, are very long, slightly curved, and 
delicate, but which, in the present form, are comparatively heavy. 
Other characters sufficiently diagnostic are found in the form assumed 
b}^ the vertebra^ in the two forms. 

Mcusnroncnls of the ti/pe of 'l'iiilit(nti(s icjilcotti. 

mm 

Length of specimen 70 

Length of skull 20 

Width of skull, posterior 14 

Width of skull, anterior to orbits 10 

Length of orbit 4 

Width of orbit 2 

Interorbital width 3 

Length of clavicle 9 

Greatest width of clavicle 4 

Length of vertebral column, as preserved 50 

Length of a vertebra 1-'J^5« 

Width of a vertebra .50^ 

Width of body impression 15 Ij 

Length of humerus 6 I 

Median width of humerus . 50 j 

Width at end of humerus 2 ' 

Length of rib ^ 8 

Width of rib . 25 

This specimen was collected by Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, Penn- 
sylvania, from Linton, Ohio. 

A second individual (Plate G, fig. 2; Plate 7, fig. 2) of this species 
{Tuditanus walcotti) is indicated by a rather poorly preserved 
specimen on a slab of soft coal from the Linton mines. The following | 
portions of the animal have been detected and will be discussed: 
Partial imf)ression of the skull, with a fragment of a minute jaw, in 
which are minute teeth; right clavicle; part of the impression of the 
body; nearly entire left hind limb; impressions of about a dozen 
vertebra^, very indistinct. 

The impression of the skull is distinct only in a favorable light, 
and even then the boundaries of the cranium are a little uncertain. 
For this reason no representation of the form will be attempted. 
The sculpturing on the parietals is, however, distinct enough to show 
relationship with the previously described specimen, and the form of 
the body impression, the absence of abdominal scutes, the shape of the 
clavicle and its sculpture, and the proportions of the hind limb al| 
agree with the characters which have been assigned to the genus 
Tuditanus. The fragment of the jaw is interesting as giving the first 
information as to the character of the mandible in the genus Tudi- 



[' 



NO. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATEf<—MOODIE. JQ 

tanus. It is very slender and of uniform width so far as preserved. 
The teeth are short, bhmt cones, apparently pleiirodont. 

The clavicle is of the tyj^ical Tuditanus form, Avith the sculptur- 
ing lines radiating out from the angle. The impression of the body 
adds nothing to that already described for the type-specimen. The 
nearly entire hind limb is of great interest as adding another ex- 
ample of the phalangeal formula. The foot is almost perfectly pre- 
served, and the formula was probably 2-2-8-3-2. The endochon- 
drium of the limb bones is not highly developed. About a dozen 
vertebrae are represented by molds in the soft coal, but nothing of 
their structure can be determined. 

The sharp, reptile-like claws in which the toes end recall those of 
Isodectes and of Tuditanus miniinus Moodie. It is another link in 
the chain of the suggested relationship between the microsaurians 
and the early reptiles. 

Measurements of the second specimen of Tuditanus ivalcotti Moodie. (Cat. 

No. J,.',81, U.S.N.M.) 

mm. 

Length of entire body impression 75 

Width across belly, maximum 16 

Length of sliull ? 17 

Posterior width of skull ? 14 

Length of fragment of jaw 4 

Width of fragment of jaw 1.5 

Length of tooth in jaw .25 

Length of clavicle 8 

Width of clavicle, maximum 4 

Length of hind limb 22 

Length of femur 8 

Length of tibia ( ?) 6 

Length of metatarsal 2 

Length of first digit 6 

Genus ODONTERPETON, new genus. 

The generic characters may be found in the triangular shape of the 
skull, the large size of the teeth, the shape of the vertebrtie, the small 
size of the orbits and their anterior position as shown in the tj-jse. 

The name of the genus is derived from the remarkable size of the 
teeth compared with the size of the skull, and it was through them 
that the specimen was first recognized as a skull. 

Genotype. — Odonterpeton tnangularis. 

ODONTERPETON TRIANGULARIS, new species. 
Plate 6, fig. 3. 

By this name may be known the smallest of all microsaurians 
ihitherto described. Ortliocosta microscopica Fritsch, from the Car- 
boniferous of Bohemia, is a rival of the present form as to size, but 
ithe form described b}^ Fritsch belongs among the Aistopoda, while 
the present form shows clear affinities with the Microsauria. 



20 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

As may be seen by referring to the list of measurements, the skull 
of the present form measures only 6i mm. in length. The form may 
possibly be larval, though I do not think so, if I may judge from the 
well-developed condition of the skull bones and the complete ossifica- 
tion of the vertebra}. The sides of the skull are equal and the base 
is a straight table, *o that the skull forms almost an exact equilateral 
triangle. The orbits are very small and are placed well forward. 
The interorbital space is four times that of the diameter of the orbit, 
a very unusual character and in itself is almost worth}' of ranking 
as a generic character. The median suture of the skull is zigzag, 
and incloses the minute parietal foramen near the posterior end of 
the skull. The relations of the elements of the skull, with the excep- 
tion of those of the frontals and parietals, can not be determined Avith 
accuracy, although there are here and there indications of sutures. 
The characters exhibited by the cranial elements, so far as they can be 
determined, are those of the family Tuditanida,', and the form may, 
for the 2:)resent, be regarded as a member of that group. The teeth 
are very long, slender, and sharp, and are placed close together. 
There is no indication of fluting on the teeth. They are slightly 
curved inward. 

There are thirteen vertebrae prcvsent. The centra are hour-glass 
shaped, and are apparently phyllospondylous, with the notochord 
largely persistent. The vertebral centra are unusually long and slen- 
der, with the ends rounded. The humerus of the right side is pre- 
served. It it a long, slender bone Avith expanded extremities. There 
is no evidence of abdominal armature nor of ribs. 

The discovery of this form in the Linton deposits is of consider- 
able interest as indicating a Avide range in size and character of the 
fauna of the time. The forms now knoAvn from Linton range fiom 
the Odo)it<'fpet<)n to the form designated Macrcr-pcton Juixleyi Cope, 
with a skull possibly 8 inches in length and whose body may have 
attained some feet in length. The large rib described below un- 
doubtedly indicates a large form of the ancient Amphibia from 
Linton, as do the vertebra; described by Marsh in 18G3 from Nova 
Scotia. 

Mt'dsiirciiKiil.s of the hji)v Odoiilcrpctdn fiiiiiu/iildri.s Moodie. 

« 

I.ength of animal, as preserved IS 

Length of skull 6. 

Posterior width of skull 5. 

Length of side of skull 6, 

Diameter of orbit . 

Interorbital width 2 

I^ength of tooth 

Length of vertebra 1. 

Width of vertebra 

Length of humerus 2. 

Distal width of humerus 



1 



NO. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES— MOODIE. 21 

The specimen is embedded on a small slab of soft coal from Linton, 
Ohio. It is Cat. No. 4405 of the U. S. National Museum collection. 

ERPETOSAURUS MINUTUS, new species. 
Plate 8, fig. 1. 

The genus Erpetosauriis will be more fully characterized else- 
where. Suffice it to say here that it is erected to include certain 
members of the genus Tvditanus. The species Erpetosaurus mhiutus 
is the smallest of the genus so far known. The specimen on which 
the species is based is composed of the greater portion of a small 
skull preserved in the hard shale from Cannelton, Pennsylvania, 
and was collected by Mr. R. D. Lacoe, of Pittston, Pennsylvania. 
The characters of the specimen had not been previously determined, 
since the museum label and number had partially obscured the snout 
of the skull. The skull is very small, but has the form assumed by 
other members of the genus. At first sight the specimen looks like 
a broken scute of some large form. Closer inspection, however, 
revealed the two impressions representing the orbits, and a Zeiss 
binocular revealed the characters. The enlarged photograph plate 8 
(fig. 1, X 5) shows the structure of the skull. The large size and 
anterior position of the orbits, the character of the sculpturing, the 
presence of a slight posterior table to the skull, as in Erpetosaurus 
{Tnditanus) tahulatus Cope, are the characters on which a specific 
diagnosis is possible. The specific characters which distinguish this 
form from the E. tdbulatus Cope, are the slight development of the 
posterior table, the more delicate form of the sculpturing, the more 
posterior position of the orbits, and the varying shape assumed by 
the parietals in the two species. Any one of these characters would 
be valid as a specific character. The pineal eye is indistinct, but is 
observed to lie in the broken tract in the median line of the skull 
in the middle of the portion posterior to the orbits. The interorbital 
width is equal to the width of each orbit. The orbits themselves are 
slightly oval and not round as in the case of E. tahulatus Cope. 

The skull elements are sculptured with sharp radiating grooves 
and ridges, and on the supraoccipitals and epiotics the grooves take 
the form of pits in a row, which undoubtedly represent the occipital 
cross-commissure of the lateral line system first observed by Andrews 
in the skull of C evaterfeton galvani Huxley. The supraorbital canal 
is represented by a slight elongate depression observable over each 
orbit and extending, in one case, for some 5 mm. The presence of 
the circular arrangement of the lateral line canals in the jugal region 
is suggested by the depression on the left of the photograph on the 
posterior edge of the squamosal. 

The portion of the skull anterior to the orbits is wanting, curiously 
enough, just as it is in Erpetosaurus tahulatus Cope. In the re- 



22 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MV8EVM. vol. 37. 

maiiider of the skull the supraoccipitals, the epiotics, the parietals, 
the squamosals, and a portion of the right frontal can be detected, 
although the boundaries of but three can be accurately defined. The 
depression bounding the anterior outline of the skull is taken to be 
the impress of the mandible, in which case this structure would be of 
some depth, as in the case of the mandible associated with E. tahu- 
latus Cope, to be described elsewhere. 

The present specimen is of interest in respect to the presence of 
the lateral line canals, its small size, and its generic identity with 
forms from Ohio. There is still another form known from the 
Cannelton slates Erpetosaurus {Tuditanus) sculptUis Moodie. It 
is No. 12315 of the University of Chicago collection. 

Measurements of Erpctosdunis mi nut us Moodie. 

mm. 

Length of skull 18 

Posterior width of skull !'<' 

Width of skull across orbits 1-1 

Length of orbit 4.5 

Width of orbit 3.5 

Interorbital width 3.5 

This specimen forms part of the Lacoe collection and is Cat. No. 
4545 of the U. S. National Museum. 

Pectoral girdle provisionally associated with Erpetosaurus sculptUis 
Moodie. 

The present specimen is preserved on a block of slate from Can- 
nelton, Pennsylvania. It is associated with the previously described 
Erpetosaurus (Tuditanus) sculptUis Moodie on account of its size 
and the character of the sculpture. It may pertain to an unknown 
species. There are preserved on the block of slate, besides the three 
element of the pectoral girdle, other remains, but they are, for the 
most part, too imperfectly preserved for recognition. Some of them 
are phalanges, and I believe I detect a scapula in the rounded curved 
plate lying near the right clavicle. The three pectoral elements, the 
interclavicle and the two clavicles, are preserved intact with the 
ventral surface uppermost. There are no evidences of pectoral ele- 
ments other than the scapula. 

The specimen is particularly important as furnishing further evi- 
dence of the simplicity of the microsaurian pectoral girdle, which 
has been regarded by Jsekel as being extremely complex, in one 
species at least, Diceratosaurus punctolineatus Cope. The three ele- 
ments are broken, but either the elements or their impressions are 
present, so that identification is possible. The elements are sculp- 
tured with radiating grooves and ridges as in so many of the Micro- 
sauria. The interclavicle is spatulate and bears a general resem- 
blance to the same element of Mctoposanrus fraasi Lucas from the 



NO. IfiOr,. Ain-nREATHIXa VERTTIBRATFJ^—MOODIE. 23 

Triassic of Arizona. The clavicles are triangular, with rounded 
angles, and the hypothenuse occupies the interior border. 

Measurements of the peetaral yinlle. 

mm. 

Width across the entire girdle 17 

Length of interchiviele 15 

Width of interclavicle 10 

Length of clavicle 11 

Width of clavicle, niaximuni 6 

The specimen is Cat. No. 4539 of the U. S. National Museum 
(Lacoe collection). 

TUDITANUS MINIMUS Moodie. 

Plate 8, fig. 2. 

A nearly complete skeleton (Cat. No. 4555 U.S.N.M.) forms the 
basis of this species, which has already been described and an outline 
of the skeleton published." A photograph of the specimen on which 
the species is based is published herewith. The form is interesting 
as showing an advanced type of endochondral formation of the limb 
bones, and also in the complete preservation of the hand and foot. 

EOSERPETON TENUICORNE Cope. 

The new genus Eoserpetoii has been erected for the reception of 
the species formerly described by Coj^e as Ceraterpeton, temiicorne. 
The characters of the new genus are found in the skull, which is 
represented by a nearly perfect specimen belonging to Columbia 
University. The skull was excellently supplemented by a nearly 
complete skeleton in the collection of the U. S. National Museum 
(Cat. Nos. 4472, 4473, U.S.N.M.), which shows characters of the 
skull which vary somewhat from the type. The horns are more 
slender in the National Museum specimen, and are more curved, and 
the form of the skull varies slightly in the two specimens. A restora- 
tion of the form has been attempted.'' Since the specimen has already 
been described by Cope a redescription will be reserved. 

SAURERPETON LATITHORAX Cope. 

Plate 9. 

The new genus Saurerpeton has been proposed " for the reception 
of the species described by Cope as Sauropleura latithorax. The 
characters on which the new genus was based were the broad ventral 
elements of the abdomen and the arrangement and form of the cranial 

"Moodie, Journ. Geo!., vol. 17, 1909, p. 50, fig. 10. 
'' Idem, p. 77. 
^Idem, p. SO. 



24 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



elements. An outline of the cranial elements has already been given, 
and a photograph of the complete specimen is given herewith to 
correct some of the inaccuracies of Cope's original drawing. It 
ought to be said, in justice to that brilliant author, that he did not see 
the proofs of the article in whicli the form was described. A fuller 
discussion and redescription of the species will be reserved. 

ICHTHYERPETON SQUAMOSUM Moodie. 

A remarkable form of amphibian was described « under this name 
from material in the collection of the U. S. National Museum (Cat. 
Xos. 447(), 4450). The species was only tentatively assigned to the 
genus Ichthyerpeton Huxley. Its closer definition must await future 
discoveries. It is, however, tJte only evidence of a completely .sc<(lcd 
ampliihian Icnown from the (Utrhoniferous of North America. That 
the specimens are amphibians and not fishes is evidenced in the well- 
developed ventral scutellation. 

CTENERPETON ALVEOLATUM Cope. 

Plate 10. 

An examination of the type (Cat. No. 4475, U.S.N.M.) of this 
peculiar form has not resulted in the discovery of any new characters. 
A photograph is given in Plate 10 to correct Cope's original drawing, 
which was inaccurate as to details. The form is interesting as fur- 
nishing another illustration of the diversity of types assumed by the 
ventral scutellation in the Carboniferous amphibians. In the genus 
TiuUtmms no evidence has ever been detected of a ventral scutella- 
tion, while in the genera Sauropleiira, /Saurerpeton, and Ctenerpeton 
the scutellation of the abdomen has assumed a well developed and 
characteristic form. 

PTYONIUS PECTINATUS Cope. 

Plate S, lis. B. 

There are four specimens of this species in the collection (Cat. 
Nos. 4514, 4458, 4463, 44G4, U.S.N.M.) . The most perfect one, shown 
on Plate 8, fig. 3, is interesting as giving an idea of the form of the 
body, which Avas long, slender, and snake-like. In this specimen there 
are no evidences of pectoral plates, although these are present on 
a specimen of another species of this genus in the collection of the 
American Museum of Natural History in New York City. The skull 
of PtyoniuH is long and attenuated. The morphology of the skull 
has not yet been determined, but it is hoped that this may be possible 
from a close study of the material at hand, which includes six skulls 
and various portions of the body. From the form of the vertebrae 

« Moodie. Journ. Geol., vol. 17, 1909, p. 69. 



xo. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES— MOODIE. 25 

in Ptyonhis we may conclude that the body was flattened from side 
to side and that the caudal region was provided with a membraneous 
fin, such as is found in the recent Petrow/yzon and its allies. 

Ptyomus is a t3'pical member of the Aistopoda, the chief character 
of which group is the absence of limbs. With this character are, how- 
ever, associated a concomitant lengthening and attenuation of the 
facial region, a recession of the orbits, an elongation and an attenua- 
tion of the body, a tendency to flattening from side to side in the 
vertebrae, an increase in the length of the tail, and the production 
of a peculiar type of abdominal armature, consisting of small rods 
arranged in a chevron pattern, ranging from just back of the skull 
in the pectoral region probabl}^ to the anus. 

In other species of the genus PtyonhiH the pectoral plates are moro 
highly developed than in P. pectinatus Cope and especially in P. 
nummifer Cope. This is to my mind almost conclusive evidence that 
the Aistopoda are a degenerate branch of the Microsauria, to which 
they are closely related in most respects. The order Aistopoda may 
be retained for the present, however, until future discoveries teach 
us differently. 

DICERATOSAURUS PUNCTOLINEATUS Cope. 

It is with much gratification that a second specimen (Cat. No. 4461, 
U.S.N.M.) of this peculiar species is to be recorded from the collec-. 
tions in the U. S. National Museum. It supplements in a beautiful 
manner the type specimen, as well as those described by Jgekel from 
the collections in Europe. In the present specimen the head is lack- 
ing. There are nineteen vertebrae preserved, and nine pairs of ribs. 
The ilium is present as a mold in the soft coal, and the femur and 
tibia (?) of the hind limb are preserved. The principal ncAV char- 
acters which are added to the knowledge of the species by this speci- 
men are the presence of the peculiar ilium and the large leg. 

The vertebra? have the same character as the type. The ribs are 
intercentral and do not differ from the type as to structure or form. 
They are but slightly curved and are of an almost luiiform width, 
with the head large. The mold of the ilium is liourglass shaped. It 
Avas evidently in the shape of a flattened plate with a rounded short 
shaft. It apparently attaches to the seventeenth vertebra? in the series 
as preserved. Since there are very probably two or three vertebrae 
gone from the cervical region, the sacral was probably the nineteenth 
or twentieth vertebra of the series. The body of the animal was 
stout, as is evidenced by the dimensions of the skeleton. 

There are no traces of ventral sciitella^. These structures are scant- 
ily preserved in the type specimen, and Jaekeldid not find them at all 
in the forms studied by him. The dimensions of the entire leg are 
those of PeJion lyelU Wyman, and at first sight it was thought that 



26 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.3?. 

the specimen pertained to that species. Closer examination of the 
vertebrae and ribs, however, revealed typical diceratosaurian charac- 
ters. The femur is very long and quite stout, with the shaft long and 
the extremities expanded. The dimensions of the tibia are not defi- 
nitely ascertained, but it has a structure essentially similar to the 
femur, with slender shaft and expanded ends. 

The relationship of Diceratosaurus to Ceraterpeton galvani Huxley 
is a close one. The peculiar form of the scapula, the number of the 
dorsal vertebrae, the regular arrangement of the pectoral elements, 
the length of the tail, the form of the vertebrae and ribs in the two 
forms are indicative of a close relationship. The two genera both find 
a place in the family Urocordylidce^ as defined by Lydekker." The 
generic character which separates the two forms in the position of 
the horn, which in Ceraterpeton is epiotic, and in Diceratosaurus 
supra temporal. 

Measurements of Diceratosaurus punctoUneatus Cope. 

mm. 

Length of specimen 94 

Length of rib 9 

Width of rib 1.5 

Length of vertebrifi 5 

Width of vei'tebrne 4. .5 

Length of femur 27 

Proximal width of femur 6 

Median width of femur 3 

Distal width of femur 7 

Length of tibia(?) IS 

Distal width of tibia 4 

Median width of tibia 2 

Length of ilium 12 

Proximal width of ilium 7 

Median width of ilium 3 

Distal width of ilium 6 

Scutes of AMPHIBIAN, SAUROPLEURA SCUTELLATA Newberry. 

Associated with certain specimens of the above-mentioned species 
are sometimes found peculiar scute-like elements (Cat. No. 4513, 
U.S.N.M.) which have been regarded as pertaining to the Amphibia 
and possibly to some species of Sauropleura itself. The position of 
the scutes on the body is uncertain. They range in size from 5 or 6 
mm. to 30 mm. in length. They are always somewhat fan-shaped, 
with one end abruptly acute. 

" Lydekker, Cat. Fos. Kept, and Amphibia Brit Mus., pt. 4, p. 196. 



NO. 1696. AIR-BREATHING VERTEBRATES— MOODIE. 27 

The measurements of the present specimens are as follows : 

mm. 

Length of larger scute 30 

Maximum width of scute 13 

Minimum widtli of scute 4 

Length of smaller scute 22 

Maximum width of scute 8 

Minimum width of scute 6 

THYRSIDIUM FASCICULARE Cope. 

The specimens designated as Cat. Nos. 4480, 4462, U.S.N'.M., corre- 
spond very closely with the figures of that species.*^ The specimens 
consist of ribs, vertebrse, and scutella3 of the abdomen. On one of the 
slabs of No. 4480 there is an impression of a small patch of rounded 
scales and carbonized skin. These scales occur about two in a length 
of a millimeter. They are rounded and without markings. Whether 
the scales covered the entire body, as is the case in Ichthyerpeton 
squamosuTTh Moodie, can not be determined. 

MOLGOPHIS BREVICOSTATUS Cope. 

The specimen (Cat. No. 4477, U.S.N.M.) resembles very much the 
one figured by Cope on plate 44, fig. 1 of the above-mentioned work." 
It consists of vertebra?, ribs, and ventral scutella?, and adds nothing 
to our knowledge of the form. 

CESTOCEPHALUS REMEX Cope. 

The species is represented by two specimens (Cat. Nos. 4511, 4460, 
4478, U.S.N.M.). They offer characters which vary somewhat from 
the type, but the remains are too imperfectly preserved to give 
definite data for specific separation. They consist of vertebrae, ribs, 
and many ventral scutellae w^hicli are in some cases disassociated, so 
that one can with ease determine the separate rod-like form of the 
ventral armature. The vertebrae in the present specimens are larger 
than in the type and do not have the wide expansions of the chevron 
and spine. 

PLEUROPTYX CLAVATUS Cope. 

The specimen designated (Cat. No. 4509, U.S.N.M.) possibly be- 
longs to this species, as defined by Cope, although it yet remains to 
be proven that the genus Pleuro'ptyx is distinct from Molgopliis. 
The specimen corresponds very closely with the one figured by Cope 
on plate 44, fig. 2, of the Ohio report for 1875. It is of interest to 
note that Udden ^ has recorded remains from the Des Moines lime- 
stone of Iowa which have been identified by Eastman as pertaining 
to this species. 

« Cope. Geol. Surv. Ohio, Pal., vol. 2, 1875, pi. 42. fig. 3. 
* Udden, Iowa Geological Survey, vol. 12, 1902, p. 406. 



28 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

LARGE RIB. 
Plate S, fig. 4. 

There is preserved on a block of soft coal a portion of a very large 
rib, which, with its impress (Cat. Nos. 4489, 4490, U.S.N.M.), repre- 
sents the possible presence of a labyrinthodont type of animal in the 
Linton beds. The rib is very strong, slightly grooved, and is curved. 
There is a tendency to a bicipital condition but the extreme head is 
lost. The bone is solid and well formed and resembles no fish rib 
with which the writer is acquainted. It may be tentatively asso- 
ciated with the skull described elsewhere" as Macrerpeton huxleyi 
Cope. 

I am under obligations to Mr. G. Dallas Ilanna, of the University 
of Kansas, for the line drawings of Plates 2 and 4. 

EXPLANATIONS OF PLATES. 
Pt.atk 4. 
The type specimen of Isodectcft pinictiihitiis Cojie. Cat. No. 44.^7, TT.S.N.M., 
about natural size. After Williston. 

Plate 5. 
Outline drawing of the sl^eleton of Isodectva punctuhitim Cope, shown in pi. 
4. About natural size. 

Plate 0. 
Fig. 1. Type si)ecimen of Tuditauiis walcotii Moodie Cat. No. 4474, U.S.N.^L 
Natural size. 
2. Second si)ecinien of Tndit(uni>i iralcoHi Moodie, Cat. No. 44S1, U.S.N.M. 

Natural size. T=tarsus. 
8. Type of Odoiifcrjicfon friannnlnris Moodie. Cat. No. 4-l(r), T\S.N.:M. X 3. 

Plate 7. 
Fig. 1. Outline drawing of the type of Tuditaiiiis walcotti ^Moodie showing the 
impression of the body and tlie muscle structure at " .1/." X 2.r). 

C7=clavicle; F=frontal; /'V=femur; //=humerus; »=uostril; 
0=orbit; ^j=parietal; 72=rib; S=supra-occipital ; r=vertebra ; 
?/= pineal foramen. 
2. The left leg of the second siiecimen of TiidUanin^ irulroiti Moodie. X 3. 

Plate 8. 
Fig. 1. Type (Cat. No. 4545, U.S.N.M.) of Erpetosaurun minuiuH Moodie, X 5. 

2. Type (Cat. No. 4555, U.S.N.M.) of Tuditanus minimus Moodie. X 1. 

3. The skeleton (Cat. No. 4458, U.S.N.AL) of PtijoiiittK iiretiiiatus Cope. 

X 1. 

4. Large rib. X 1. (Cat. Nos. 4489, 4490, U.S.N.M.) 

Plate 9. 
The skeleton of SaurvrpeUm latithora.P Cope. X l..^». (Cat. No. 4471, 
U.S.N.M.) 

Plate K). 
The skeleton of Ctrnrrpeton aJicohttum Cope. X 1. (Cat. No. 4475, 
U.S.N.M.) 

"Moodie. Journ. Geol.. vol. 17, 1909, p. 72. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 4 




Type-specimen of Isodectes punctulatus. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PU. 5 




Outline Drawing of Isodectes punctulatus. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 6 




Specimens of Tuditanus walcotti and Odonterpeton triangularis. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 7 




Outline Drawing of Tuditanus walcotti. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 8 






^^J^€\: , ■■< 






,^ ,s 












Specimens of Erpetosaurus minutus, Tuditanus minimus, and Ptyonius 

pectinatus. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 




Skeleton of Sauhp 

For explana • r ):. ' 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 9 




ETON LATITHOROX. 

ATE SEE PAGE 28. 



U. S NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 10 




Skeleton of Ctenerpeton alveolatum. 

For explanation of plate see page 28. 



FIVE NEW SPECIES OF RECENT UNSTALKED CRINOIDS. 



By Austin Hobakt Clark, 

ColIaborut(jr, Dirision of Marine Jiircrfchratcn, U. 8. National Museum. 



From time to time crinoids have been received at the U. S. National 
Museum Avhich were evident!}^ neAV species, but which have been left 
undescribed because of the absence of rehited species with which to 
make comparisons. One by one these missing species have come to 
hand and the relationships of previously obscure forms have been 
cleared up. In the present paper five sj^ecies are described, the affini- 
ties of which have been brought out through the study of material 
recently received. 

Family COMASTEEIDyE. 

Genus COMANTHUS A. H. Clark. 

Subgenus COMANTHUS A. H. Clark. 

Group BENNETTIA A. H. Clark. 

COMANTHUS (COMANTHUS) PINGUIS, new species. 

Centro-dorsal large and hemispherical, with a concave polar area, 
as in C. {€.) hennetti^ 10 mm. to 12 mm. in diameter. 

Cirri large and stout as in C. (C.) henneUl, usually XXXV-XLV, 
28-34, 30 mm. to 40 mm. long, the joints in the proximal half squarish 
or slightly longer than broad, in the distal becoming about twice as 
broad as long; at about the twelfth the distal dorsal edge of the joints 
begins to project, and later the dorsal surface becomes carinate, so 
that in lateral view the cirri appear to have well-developed dorsal 
spines. 

Division series all 4 (3+4), IIBr and IIIBr regularly, IVBr 
rarely, present, very broad and massive, the IIBr series nearly in 
apposition laterally. 

Usually thirty-five to forty arms 100 nnn. to 140 mm. long, the 
brachials slightly overlapping. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1697. 

29 



30 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Disk very large, 30 mm. to 42 mm. in diameter, naked; anal tube 
large, central or subcentral; mouth variable, radial. 

Pd very stout basally but tapering rather rapidly as far as the 
ventral surface of the disk, 35 mm. to 40 mm. long; Pp less stout 
basally, 30 mm. long; P^ 25 mm. long; P. small, weak, and slender, 
10 nnn. to 12 mm. long; P3 and P^ similar, 7 nun. and G mm. long, 
respectively; P5 and following pinnules 5 mm. long, without terminal 
combs, increasing slowly to 12 mm. distally. 

Ti/pe-specimen.— Cat No. 25517, U.S.N.M., from Sagami Bay, 
Japan. 

This is the most common comasterid along the shores of southern 
Japan, where it appears to represent 6'. (6'.) hennetti of the East 
Indian littoral. It may be at once distinguished from that species 
by the great breadth of the division series, the short distal ci»rus 
joints, which bear dorsal processes, and the much smaller number of 
arms. Carpenter's Actinometra rohustipinna appears to be a 
synom^m of Midler's Alecto 1)671716^. 

COMANTHUS (COMANTHUS) SAMOANA, new species. 

Centro-dorsal small, discoidal, the bare polar area flat, 2 mm. or 
3 mm. in diameter; cirrus sockets arranged in a single more or less 
irregular marginal row. 

Cirri short, but comparatively stout XVIII-XXIII, usually 13-14, 
10 mm. long; fourth and fifth joints about twice as long as broad, 
the seventh and following about one-third broader than long; fifth 
and following joints with the distal dorsal edge somewhat thickened, 
this thickening gradually narrowing distally and increasing in 
height, appearing in lateral view as a slight subterminal tubercle; 
third, fourth, and fifth joints " dice-box shaped " with enlarged ends, 
the following rather strongly flattened laterally so that in lateral 
view the cirri apj^ear to inci'ease in diameter distally. 

Radials and usually all of the IBr^ concealed; IIBr 4 (3+4) well 
separated laterally. 

Fifteen to twenty-one arms GO mm. to 70 mm. long, rather slender, 
resembling those of C. (6'.) trichoptera^ the brachials in the proximal 
half with rather strongly overlapping distal edges. 

Pinnules essentially as in C. {€.) tnclioptera^ but remarkable for 
the great development of spines on the dorsal surface of the joints. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 25514, U.S.N.M,, from Samoa ; collected 
by C. N. E. Eliot. 

The stout and numerous cirri of this little species render it very 
readily distinguishable from C. (C) rotalaria, while the slender and 
thread-like cirri of C (C.) trichoptera at once differentiate that 
species from it. 



NO. 1G97. FIVE NEW UN STALKED CRIN0ID8— CLARK. 31 

Family HIMEROMETRID.E. 

Genus CRASPEDOMETRA A. H. Clark. 

CRASPEDOMETRA ALIENA, new species. 

Centro-dorsal thick-discoidal, the hare polar area flat, 2 mm. to 
4 mm. in diameter; cirrus sockets arranged in a single or partially 
double alternating marginal row. 

Cirri XV-XVII, 29-36 (usually 35 or 36), 30 nnn. long, moderately 
stout basally, but tapering very gradually to a slender tip; first joint 
short, the following gradually increasing in length to the fourth or 
fifth, which is squarish, the remainder being slightly longer than 
broad; the terminal ten to fourteen may have a slight dorsal carina- 
tion ; opposing spine small but prominent, terminal or subterminal. 
about equal to one-third the diameter of the penultimate joint in 
height; terminal claw somewhat longer than the penultimate joint, 
slender and slightly curved; joints in the distal half or two-thirds of 
the cirri with purple saddle-shaped markings, as in C. acuticirra. 

Radials entirely concealed in the median line, or equal to half the 
IBr^ in length; IBr^ oblong, short, five or six times as broad as long, 
united laterally; IBro (axillary) short, almost or quite triangular, 
two and one-half to three times as broad as long; ITBr4 (3-|-4:) 
(twice 2 in one specimen) in apposition and flattened laterally; 
IIIBr2, but only once present in two specimens, developed internally. 

Fifteen to twenty arms, 140 mm. long, long, slender, and evenly 
tapering; first two brachials subequal, slightly wedge-shaped, between 
three and four times as broad as long in the median line; third and 
fourth brachials (syzygial pair) oblong, two and one-half or three 
times as broad as long; next five brachials approximately oblong, 
nearly four times as broad as long in the median line; following 
brachials triangular, somewhat over twice as broad as long, the longer 
side somewhat convex, after the proximal fourth of the arm becoming 
wedge-shaped, about three times as broad as long, and slightly longer 
terminally. Syzygies occur between the third and fourth brachials, 
again between the fourteenth and fifteenth to twentj^-ninth and 
thirtieth, and distally at intervals of from eleven to nineteen oblique 
muscular articulations. 

Pd small and weak, about 6 mm. long, with thirteen to sixteen joints, 
all of which are about as long as broad ; P^ similar, slightly larger, 
T mm. or 8 mm. long; Po 9 mm. to 12 mm. long, with eighteen joints, 
much stouter and stiffer than the preceding pinnules, ending some- 
what abruptly with a stiffened tip, as in Stephanometra, and not a 
long delicate flagellate tip, as in the other species of the genus ; first 
two joints not so long as broad, the third squarish, the remainder 
longer than broad, becoming twice as long as broad distally ; the pin- 



32 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

nule may be slightly carinate basally, and after the second or third 
joint the distal dorsal ends of the joints become thickened and project 
strongly, forming "lateral processes," as in Amphimetra vanipinna; 
Pg slightly stouter aiid slightly longer than Pj, usually with a few 
less joints, but similar to it; P^ 9 mm. long, comparatively slender, 
without lateral processes; the joints becoming squarish on the fourth 
or fifth and about twice as long as broad terminally ; following simi- 
lar, gradually increasing to 10 mm. in length and then becoming more 
slender and slowly decreasing to 8 mm. in length. 

Color (in spirits). — White, the cirrus joints with purple saddle- 
shaped markings in the distal half or two-thirds of the cirri. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 25510, U.S.N.M., from Alhatross station 
5157, west of Sunalac Island (Tataan group, Philippine Archi- 
pelago) ; 18 fathoms. 

Genus AMPHIMETRA A. H. Clark. 

AMPHIMETRA PARILIS, new species. 

Centro-dorsal thick-discoidal, the bare polar area flat, 2.5 mm. in 
diameter ; cirrus sockets arranged in one and a partial second crowded 
marginal row. 

Cirri XII, 30-33, 25 to 30 mm. long, moderately stout; joints sub- 
equal, all broader than long, at first very short, then slowly increasing 
to the seventh or eighth, which, with the three or four following, is 
about half again as broad as long, then very slowly decreasing, so 
that the joints in the distal half of the cirri are about twice as broad 
as long; twelfth and following joints with prominent median dorsal 
spines, which are directed anteriorly; opposing spine longer than the 
spines on the preceding joints, sharp, triangular, rather slencler, the 
apex median, rising to a height about equal to half the diameter 
of the penultimate joint; terminal claw longer than the penultimate 
joint, slender, more strongl}^ curved proximally than distally. 

Radials ju.st visible in the median line, forming a low triangle in 
the angles of the calyx, the lateral corners slightly swollen ; IBrj^ ob- 
long, four times as broad as long, almost entirely united laterally; 
IBr. (axillary) almost or quite triangular, somewhat over twice as 
broad as long, in apposition and laterally flattened. 

Ten arms 150 mm. long, tapering rather less rapidly than in .1. dln- 
eoidea and .1. formosa; first two brachials short, wedge-shaped, the 
second slightly the longer exteriorly, but tapering almost to a point in- 
teriorly, the first entirely united interiorly; third and fourth brachials 
(syzygial pair) oblong, two and one-half or three times as broad as 
long; next seven or eight brachials oblong, very short, about four 
times as broad as long or even shorter, then becoming wedge-shaped, 
about the same length, and in the di.stal half of the arm oblong and 
very short. In the proximal third of the arm the proximal edge of 



NO. 1697. FIVE NEW UN STALKED CRIN0ID8— CLARK. 33 

the brachials is somewhat raised, but the remainder of the arm is 
perfectly smooth. Syzygies occur between the third and fourth 
brachials, again between the ninth and tenth or fourteenth and fif- 
teenth (if the former, another occurs between the fourteenth and fif- 
teenth or fifteenth and sixteenth), and thence at intervals of from 
seven to seventeen oblique muscular articulations up to about the mid- 
dle of the arm, beyond which point syzygies are rare or entirely 
lacking. 

P^ mm. long with thirty joints, broad basally but tapering rap- 
idly and slender and flagellate in its outer half; first eight joints 
broader than long, very considerably so at first, the remainder squar- 
ish; Po 13 mm. long with thirty joints, stout like P^ in its basal third 
but tapering rapidly and slender and flagellate distally; first six 
joints broader than long, the remainder squarish; the broad lower 
joints, as in P^, are carinate; P3 19 mm. long, much stouter than P^ 
or P„, but of the same general shape, stout basally, becoming grad- 
ually slender distally with a flagellate tip, with thirty joints; P^ 20 
mm. long, stouter and stiffer than P,, with about twenty-five joints, 
the first ten broader than long, the following squarish, becoming 
slightly longer than broad distally; like P3, P^ is carinate in its basal 
half and has a low lateral keel in its outer two-thirds; P5 10 mm. 
long, about as stout basally as Po, but not tapering so rapidly, with 
seventeen joints, the first six longer than broad, the remainder squar- 
ish; first seven joints strongly carinate; Pg and following pinnules 7 
mm. long with sixteen joints, slender, about as stout as P^ proximally, 
but not tapering so rapidly, the first five or six joints broader than 
long and strongly carinate, then squarish, and finally slightly longer 
than broad; distal pinnules 10 mm. long, moderately slender; the 
carination of the lower pinnule joints gradually dies away at the end 
of the proximal fourth of the arm. 

Color (in spirits). — Greenish yellow, the cirri purple in the outer 
two-thirds; disk mottled green and brown; brachial and pinnule 
perisome light blue. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 25515, U.S.N.M., from Albatross sta- 
tion 5147; off Balinpongpong Island (south of Jolo), Philippines; 
21 fathoms. 

Family TKOPIOMETRIDzE. 

Genus PTILOMETRA A. H. Clark. 

PTILOMETRA SPLENDIDA, new species. 

Centro-dorsal columnar, 4 mm. long and 3 mm. in diameter, the 
center of the dorsal pole concave and surrounded by five broad low 
tubercles radially situated ; cirrus sockets arranged in ten evenly 
spaced columns, usually three to a column. 
Proc. N. ]M. vol. 37—09 3 



34 PR0CEEDI1S-G8 OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Cirri XXX, 8G, 50 mm. long, very long and slender, slightly taper- 
ing distally; first joint short, second twice as broad as long, the fol- 
lowing gradually increasing in length to the fifth or sixth, which is 
squarish, and still further increasing to the thirteenth or seventeenth, 
which is about half again as broad as long, or sometimes slightly 
longer, after the nineteenth to twenty-sixth decreasing rather rapidly 
in length, soon becoming twice as broad as long, and even shorter 
terminally; joints from about the seventh or eighth to twenty-fifth 
with the median portion of the ventral edge produced into a long 
slender curved overlapping spine, as in P. trichopoda, this reaching 
a maximum size on the tenth to the thirteenth joints and then grad- 
ually dying away distally; as the ventral spines on the cirrus joints 
die away, a slight prominence begins to appear on the distal edge in 
the median line which gradually becomes a prominent tubercle, and 
encroaches more and more upon the dorsal surface of the joints, 
becoming the broad, high, curved, carinate dorsal spine characteristic 
of the terminal joints of the cirri in all the species of this genus. 

Ends of the basal rays visible as small dorso-ventrally elongate 
tubercles in the angles of the calyx ; radials short, of equal height all 
around the calyx, four or five times as broad as long, with a trace of 
a broad median tubercle; IBr^ oblong, four times as broad as long, 
laterally united in the basal half; IBr^ (axillary) very broadly pen- 
tagonal, two and one-half times as broad as long, with a slightly 
produced lateral border, and, like the IBr^, faintly carinate; IIBr2; 
IIIBrS, developed exteriorly; division series externally with slightly 
produced ventro-lateral edges. 

Thirty arms, 80 mm. long, resembling in general those of P. tricho- 
poda,, but somewhat more compressed and deeper proximally, and 
sharply rounded instead of carinate distally. 

Pinnules essentially as in P. trichopoda^ but slightly stouter. 

In general shape this species is unique in the genus, resembling 
such species of Pacliylometra as P. angusticalyx,' very narrow at 
the radials and IBr^ (5 mm.), the width increases rather rapidly 
to about the seventh brachial (20 mm.), giving the dorsal part of 
the animal the appearance of being strongly constricted and dispro- 
portionately small. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 25518, U.S.N.M., from Albatross sta- 
tion 5179; between Tablas and Romblon, Philippine Islands; 37 
fathoms. 



A NEW EHYNCHOCEPHALIAN EEPTILE FROM THE 
JURASSIC OF WYOMING, WITH NOTES ON THE FAUNA 
OF " QUARRY 9." 



By Charles W. Gilmore, 
Custodian of Fossil Reptiles, U. S. National Museum. 



Tlie specimens upon Avliich the present paper is based were col- 
lected by parties of the U. S. Geological Survey, working under the 
direction of the late Prof. O. C. Marsh. Although fragmentary, sev- 
eral of the forms discussed have not hitherto been recognized in the 
Morrison fauna, and are of additional interest from the fact that they 
were found in association with the mammal remains from these beds. 

All of the specimens considered in this article are from " Quarry 
9," Como Bluff, Albany County, Wyoming, and are now preserved in 
the vertebrate paleontological collections of the U. S. National 
Museum. 

OPISTHIAS, ne>A^ genus. 

The characters of this genus are included in the description that 
follows of O pisthias varus^ the type-species. 

OPISTHIAS RARUS, new species. 
Plate 11. 

Holotyjye. — The nearly complete left dentary with teeth. Cat. No. 
2860, U.S.N.M. 

Parat^ype. — A second dentary from the left side of a somewhat 

smaller and apparently younger individual. Cat. No. 2858, U.S.N.M. 

In the collection there are parts of seven other dentaries pertaining 

I to this form, but the description to follow is based upon the two 

: specimens mentioned above. 

Description. — The left dentary of the holotype measures 34.5 mm. 

i in length, and appears to be complete with the exception of a small 

I part of the coronoid process. Although somewhat smaller in size, 

its great resemblance to the dentary of the living Sphenodon is most 

striking. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1698. 

35 



36 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Viewed from above, the tooth border is straight, but there is a twist 
in the lower part of the dentary which throws the anterior ventral 
border in toward the median line. The anterior end presents a sud- 
den incurvature toward the symphysis, and, as in /Sphenodon, the 
rami of the mandible aj^pear to have been united by ligament at their 
anterior extremities only. 

The inner and superior angle of the symphysial end of each ramus 
appears to have been separated from its fellow by a slight interspace 
above the symphysis. On the superior surface of the dentary at this 
l)art there is a well-developed subconical incisor, the base of which 
ajDpears to be embedded in the substance of the dentary. The ventral 
border of the dentarj^ is sinuous. Just posterior to the s^nnphysial 
end it has a vertical depth of 5 mm. Posteriorly the bone gradually 
widens, reaching its maximum dej)th below the second tooth from the 
last of the dental series. There is a well-developed coronoid process, 
as shown in fig. 1. The dorsal portion of this process is missing 
from the specimen, but its outline is indicated from the impression 
left in the matrix which (n'iginally inclosed the sjjecimen. 




Fig. 1. — Left dentary of opisthias karus. cat. no. 1!S60 u.s.n.m. x3 viewed from 

the internal side. 

Posterior to the coronoid process the dentary tapers to a thin 
pointed end, which articulated with the posterior elements of the 
mandible. The external surface of the dentary is gently rounded 
from above dowuAvard. Below the dental border, on this side, runs 
a low, curved, longitudinal ridge (fig. 1, pi. 11), probably for the 
attachment of the lijo. 

On the internal side (fig. 1) is a pronounced mandibular groove 
extending forward from below the coronoid process nearly to the 
symphysis, where it fades out. 

The teeth are acrodont (i. e., ankylosed to the summit of the jaw), 
as in Sjyhenodon. 

In the holotype there are, besides the incisor mentioned, 12 teeth, 
preserved. A fracture of the bone appears to have destroyed one 
tooth, so that in this individual there were 14 teeth present in the 
mandible. In the paratype (Cat. Xo. 2858) the complete dental 
series appears to be present, and I am able to distinguish 19 teeth 
in all. Giinther has found an equal number in the dentary of 
iSpheitodou. I 



NO. 1698. A NEW RHYWCHOCEPHALIAN REPTILE— OILMORE. 37 

The position of the incisor in Op-lsthias i^artis at the extreme ante- 
rior angle of the alveolar border, aside from other differences, would 
at once distinguish this form from Sphenodon. 

For a distance of 5.5 mm. the incisor is followed by a sharp alveolar 
border without teeth. Following this edentulous portion, the pre- 
served teeth are regular, and steadily increase in height from the 
front toAvard the back, reaching their maximum size in the tooth 
next to the last, wdiich again diminishes. VieAved from above, the 
unworn teeth are pyramidal in shape, the anterior face being slightly 
concave, transversely. 

The larger of the posterior teeth of the series have a single faint, 
median, vertical depression on both the outer and inner surfaces. 
Those on the outer surface reach nearly to the apex of the teeth. 

The dental series of the paratype shows but slight evidence of wear, 
and the anterior edentulous portion is much shorter than in the type 
specimen. The apices of the anterior teeth of the holotype are much 
worn, only the two next to the last having the acutely pointed apices 
of the teeth of the younger individual (Cat. No. 2858), all of which 
are sharp. The most anterior of the dental series in the paratype are 
mere denticles barely distinguishable to the naked eye. 

As in Sphenodon^ it appears that as the anterior teeth are worn 
doAvn, their function is performed by the sharp border of the dentary, 
and also, as in that genus, the teeth wear down more rapidly in front 
than behind. 

Discussion. — It is impossible, from so little of the skeleton, to say 
much of the animal's relationships, but the close resemblance of the 
specimens just described to the living Sphenodon. (compare fig. 1 
with fig. 2, pi. 11) would indicate without question their rhyncho- 
cephalian nature, and therefore they may be very properly assigned 
to the family Sphenodontida? until more is known of the skeleton. 

On account of the meagerness of the evidence, and washing to avail 
myself of his wide knowledge of the reptilia, the specimens were 
submitted to Dr. S. W. Williston, who was generous enough to give 
me an oj^inion on them. In part he writes me as follows : 

Your rbynchocephalian comes the nearest, I think, of any described form to 
that described by H. v. Meyer long ago as Homccsaurus from the Solenhoefn 
beds and the Kimeridge, but no closer than it does to the living SpJicnodon. 
There can be no doubt, I believe, but that you have in these jaws the first 
representative in America of a true terrestrial rhynchocephalian. 

Geological horizon. — The deposit from which the specimens dis- 
cussed in the preceding pages were obtained, was designated by 
Marsh's collectors as '' Quarry 9." It was from this quarry that most 
of the Jurassic mammals described by Professor Marsh were found, 
and on that account the contemporaneous reptilian fauna is of added 
interest. In 1901 Dr. ¥. B. Loomis published a" stratigraphic sec- 

« Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, 1901, pi. 27, fig. 2. 



38 PROCEEDmGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

tion of Como Bluflf, and the bed containing the fossils discussed in 
this paper is described as follows : " 

In the Como Bluff, this layer [No. 24 of his section] has sandwiched into it 
a 4-foot bed of sandstone (24b). The sandstone is of interest as marking the 
horizon at which the few Jurassic mammals were found. The mammal layer 
is the G inches of clay underlying this sandstone. Most of the American Juras- 
sic mammal remains thus far found have come from one quarry, worked most 
successfully by Marsh and later by the American Museum. This pocket seems 
to be exhausted. 

The mammal layer, as measured by Loomis, is 80 feet below the 
overlying Dakota, and 22 feet below the level where the American 
Mnseimi parties collected skeletons of Brontosaurus and Diplodociis. 

While the mammal remains are distinctive of this layer, it is evi- 
dent that the reptilian forms found associated with them are also 
important as horizon indicators. 

NOTES ON THE FAUNA OF " QUARRY 9." 

Although large collections of fossil remains have been made from 
the Jurassic of this country, the meagerness of our knowledge con- 
cerning the stratigraphic succession of the forms found has often 
been a subject of comment. That as our knowledge of the fauna 
grows it will be found to be sufficiently diversified to separate the 
formation into well-defined faunal zones appears quite certain, and 
any evidence obtainable toward that end is most important. 

It is with that idea in mind that the following list of fossils from 
this one layer in Quarry 9 has been compiled : 

List of type specimens from Quarry 9, Como Bluff, Alhdny doKnty. Wyoniiny. 

MaTmnals. — Allodon fortis Marsh. 
laiiceps Marsh. 
Astlienodon segnis Marsh. 
Ctenacodon nmitis Marsh. 
potens Marsh. 
serratus Marsh. 
Diplocynodon victor Marsh. 
Doeodon striatus Marsh. 
Dfyolestes arcuatus Marsh. 
gracilis Marsh. 
ohtusus Marsh. 
priscus Marsh. 
* vorax Marsh. 
* Ennacodon affinis (Marsh.) 
* crassus (Marsh.) 

"Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., vol. 14, 1901, p. 194. 
* Those marked with an asterisk indicate type-specimens in the paleonto- 
logical collections of the U. S. National Museum. All others, unless otherwise 
designated, are now preserved iu the Yale Museum. 



NO. 1698. A NEW RHYNCHOCEPHALIAN REPTILE— GILMORE. 



39 



* Laodon venustus Marsh. 

* Menacodon varus Marsh. 

* Paurodon valcns Marsh. 
Priacondon ferox Marsh. 

* Stylacodon gr^acilis Marsh. 

vcdidus Marsh. 
Thiodon helhis Marsh. 
ferox Marsh. 
lepidus Marsh. 
rohustus Marsh. 
Trironodon hisulcus Marsh, 
Reptiles. — Glyptops 07'natus M.arsh^= OJy pf ops pHeatultts (Cope). 
MacelognatJius vagans Marsh, 
Pterodactylus montanus^Dermoduetylus 'montanus 

(Marsh). 
* Opistliias rams Gihnore. 
f Laosanrus gracilis Marsh. 
f Coelurus fragilis Marsh. 
f Goniopholis, sp. undet. 
Like the mammals, the reptilian remains from " Quarry 9 '' con- 
sist of scattered and disassociated bones. The ffreat variety and 




Fig. 2. — Right femur of lao.saurcs gracilis marsh, cat. no. 5808 u.s.n.m. nat. size. 
a, front view ; i, side view ; c, back view ; d, view of proximal end ; e, view of 

DISTAL END ; i. C, INNER TROCHANTER. 

abundance (particularly of the smaller forms) show there was a big- 
fauna of which at this time we know only a small jDart. 

Among the fossils from this quarry was the small femur from the 
right side shown in fig, 2, The curved shaft and the positions of 

* Those marked with an asterisk indicate type-specimens in the paleonto- 
logical collections of the U. S, National Museum. All others, unless otherwise 
designated, are now preserved in the Yale Miiseum, 

t The type-specimens of these forms are from other quarries. 



40 PROCEEDINGS OF THE ^^ATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

the inner and lesser trochanters show at once that the femur pertains 
to a member of the Orthopoda. The situation of the inner trochanter 
wholly upon the jsroximal half of the shaft at once sejjarates it from 
the Camptosaurida>. On account of its small size and the fact that 
no specimen of Di'ijosaurus of these dimensions has been described, 
it is unhesitatingly referred to the genus Laosauriis, and provision- 
ally to L. gracilis, the most diminutive species of that genus. Except 
it differs in a few minor details and is much smaller in size, this bone 
closely resembles the femur figured " b}- Professor Marsh as Xanosau- 
rus rex, and which he says " may perhaps belong to the genus Laosmi- 
inisy That this was the proper disposition of the specimen has been 
recently pointed out by von Huene and Lull.'' 

The chief interest in the above specimen is its occurrence in the 
mammal layer, a discovery considered worthy of record. 

Measurcmcnift. 

mm. 

Greatest length of femur T).") 

Greatest width of pi"oxinial end of femur 13. 5 

(Jreatest width of distal eml of femur 12 

Height of lower edge of inner trochanter above distal end of femur 29 

The femur is Cat. No. 5808, U.S.N.M., and was collected by Mr. Ed. 
Kennedy in " Quarry 9," Como Bluff, Albany County, Wyoming, in 
1884. 

Several isolated caudal vertebra? I am unable to distinguish from 
Coelurus fragilis Marsh, and Mr. Barnum Brown writes me that he 
" remembers finding Coelurus vertebrae in this layer, although none 
were saved." 

^Vliile two other American species of this genus have been de- 
scribed, C. graciliii is only known from the Potomac of Marjdand, 
and C. ag'ilis from the Morrison of Colorado. 

I find among old drawings made for Professor Marsh unpublished 
figures of the caudal vertebra? which are here reproduced as further 
elucidating the characters displaj'ed by these bones. (See fig. 3). 
The type specimen of Coelurus fragilis is from Quarr}^ 13, which has 
been tentatively correlated with beds from 20 to 25 feet higher in the 
formation than those of " Quarry 9." 

Figs. 3 and 4, pi. 11, are presented as illustrating forms new to 
the Morrison fauna, but too fragmentary for satisfactory types, and 
:>n that account I have deferred naming them. 

Fig. 4, pi. 11, is a portion of the left ramus of a small reptile. 
The slender jaw is thickly studded witli delicate, round, pointed 
teeth placed in a single row on the dentary. The anterior teeth are 

o 16th Ann. Rept. U. 8. Geological Survey, for 1894-95, pt. 1, 1896, p. 200, figs. 
44 to 48. 

^ Neuen Jahrbuch, 1908, p. 142. 



NO. 16f)8. A NEW RHYNCHOCEPHALIAN REPTILE— GILMORE. 



41 



slightly smaller than the posterior. The fragment, which is incom- 
plete at both ends, is 21 mm. long and at the deepest part measnres 
3 mm. in width. 

A portion of the upper mandible of an animal doubtfully rep- 
tilian is shown in pi. 11, fig. 3. The dentigerous border is thickly 
studded with minute, sharply pointed teeth. The preserved frag- 
ment measures 13 mm. in length. 

The presence in this fauna of the larger members of the dinosauria, 
both carnivorous and herbivorous {0/>f.sfIi<)rceIi<()^ is indicated by a 
few teeth. vertebraN and foot bones. Fragmentary^ parts of turtle 




Z- 




->? 






Fig. 'A. — CAUDATi vertebra of coslurus fr.vgilis mar.sh. cat. no. 1992, yale mu.seum. 

NAT. SIZE. a, SIDE VIEW ; 6, TOP VIEW ; C, VENTRAL VIEW ; d, FRONT VIEW ; e, BACK 
VIEW ; S, .N'EUTRAL SPINE ; S, ANTERIOR ZTGAPOPHYSIS ; Z', POSTERIOR ZYGAPOPHYSIS. AFTER 
MARSH OR DRAWN UNDER HIS DIRECTION. 

and crocodile skeletons are common, and all are probably referable 
to the genera Glyptops {Coinjjsemys) and Gonioplillus {Diplosaurus), 
respectively. 

There are a few fragments that Professor Marsh apparently be- 
lieved to represent amphibians, as shown by a label in his hand- 
writing, found in one of the trays, which reads as follows : " Amphib- 
ians from Quarry 9 (almost everything, but not everything.)" I 
fail to find remains sufficiently characteristic to verify their presence. 

A large number of fish vertebra' were found intermingled with the 
other specimens, but were too fragmentary to admit of identification. 



42 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

It will be observed that of the seven identified species of reptiles, 
only two {Ghjptops ornatus and Cwlurus fragilis) have been 
recognized as occurring at other levels. 

In this paper, which may be considered preliminary, I only wish 
to call attention to what appears to be a most interesting Morrison 
fauna. In a later communication, however, I hope to be able to 
present a more detailed account of this fauna. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 11. 

Fig. 1. Left dentary of Opisthias varus. Cat. No. 28G0 U.S.N.M. X2. Ex- 
ternal view. Froui a photograpli. 

2. Left dentary of Sphcnodon punciatum. Cat. No. 29429 U.S.N.M.. Nat. 

size. "S'iewed from the outer side. 

3. Anterior portion of riglit upper mandible of undetermined animal from 

Quarry 9, Como, Wyo. Cat. No. 0133 U.S.N.M. X 2. Oblique ex- 
ternal view. 

4. Portion of left dentary of undetermined reptile?. Cat. No. G134 U.S.N.M. 

X 2. External view. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 11 




1.1 ^J ^-' 



/ 





Jaws of Rhynochocephalian and Undetermined Forms. 

For explanation of plate see page 42. 



ON THE NATURE OF EDESTUS AND RELATED GENERA, 
WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF ONE NEW GENUS AND 
THREE NEW SPECIES. 



By Oliver P. Hay, 
Of Washington, District of Columbia. 



1. DESCRIPTIONS OF THREE NEW SPECIES OF EDESTUS 

EDESTUS CRENULATUS, new species. 

The type and only known specimen of this species belongs to the 
U. S. National Museum (Cat. No. 6050), and was found in a col- 
lection of fossils purchased from Mr. G. Hambach, of St. Louis, 
Missouri. No record regarding the origin of the fossil accompanied 
it, but there can be no doubt that the specimen had been obtained 
from the Coal Measures not far from St. Louis, probably from some 
of the coal mines of western Illinois. No species of the genus is 
mentioned in Mr. Hambach 's Preliminary Catalogue of the Fossils 
Occurring in Missouri.'' 

The specimen (pi. 12, fig. 1) is almost as complete as it was on 
the death of the animal, only the apices of some of the teeth and 
some of the denticles being broken off and missing. The species 
resembles most that known as Edestus heinrichU,^ but numerous dif- 
ferences may be observed. 

The total length of the fossil is 207 mm.; the greatest height is 
58 mm. ; but to the latter measurement should be added about 2 mm. 
for the missing apex of the second tooth, counting from the right. 
The height of the shaft alone is 46 mm., the greatest thickness, be- 
neath the first tooth, 28 mm. As will be seen from fig. 1, pi. 12, the 

« Geological Survey Missouri, Bull. No. 1, 1890, pp. 60-85. 

* Doctor Eastman (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 39, 1902, p. 05) points out that 
Nevpberry's specific name heinrichsii was improperly formed. Inasmuch as 
Newberry expressly says that the species was named for Mr. Heinrich. we may 
assume that the foi'm heinrichsii was a lapsus calami, and on that ground 
adopt the form heinrHchii. Newberry himself used this form in 1879 (Geo- 
logical Survey Indiana, p. 347), although later he used the original spelling. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1699. 

43 




44 PROCEEDINGS OF THE KATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

tooth-bearing border is arched, while the opposite border is slightly 
concave in each direction from near the middle of the length. A 
transverse section (text fig. 1) taken between the 
first and second teeth, connting from the right, 
shows that the lower border is here broadly 
rounded, while a section (text fig. 2) across the 
liinder half of the fossil shows that there the 
lower border is acute. Beginning just in front 
of the first tooth a sharj:) and narrow groove 
runs along the midline of the specimen, widen- 
ing at the front end, then contracting and run- 
ning backward on the lower side (text fig. 1, 7) 
to near the middle of the length. 
, „' Along the upper border of the fossil are six 

Fig. 1. — Edestus cren- & i i 

uLATus, XI. TYPE, compresscd teeth, the anterior and posterior. 
VERTICAL SECTION BE- jjordcrs of whlch are furnished with denticles. 

TWEEN THE FIRST AND 

SECOND TEETH. 2. Of tliesc dcnticlcs there are 8 or 9 on the anterior 
SECOND sheath; 2\ Q(\frQ and perhaps 1 or 2 fewer on the hinder 

ENAMELED PROCESS OF '^ ^ i 

SECOND tooth; 3, edge. Each of these denticles is minutely cren- 
In^r^ «L/"'"'' "lated. Each tooth is covered by a layer of 

tooth ; 4, sheath of • "^ 

FOURTH tooth ; 5, enamel, and at the base of the tooth a process 
SHEATH OF FIFTH ^f ^j^j^ euamcl ruus forward beneath the hinder 

tooth ; G, UPPER BOR- 
DER OF SHEATH OF third of tlic ucxt tooth in 
SIXTH tooth; 7, j^^|^.„-,(.p ^he following 

GROOVE along LOWER _ _ . *^ 

BORDER OP ANTERIOR figurcs giYQ tlic dimcnsious 

HALF OF SHAFT. ^f ^J^^ ^^^^^^ rj^j^^ ^^^^^^^ "^ 

taken from the point where the tooth joins the 
one in front to its contact Avith the next behind. 
The height is from the apex to the lower border 
of the enamel, along the axis. Tooth, 1 ; length 
of base, 26 mm.; height, 19± mm.: tooth, 2; 
length of base, 27 mm.; height, 19± mm.: tooth, 
8; length of base, 27.5 mm.; height, 19 mm.: 
tooth, 4; length of base. 28 nun.; height, 19± fig. s.-edestus cren- 

1 ^ „, ^ . ^ ULATUS, X 1. TYPE. 

mm. : tooth, 5 ; length of base, 30 mm. ; height, vertical section be- 
19 ± mm.: tooth, 6; length of base, 30.5 mm.; ^ween third and 

... ' <=> FOURTH teeth. 3, 

lieigut, lo± mm. hinder end of third 

The thickness of most of the teeth at the lower ^ooth ; 4, sheath 

, J. , . . mi r. -Til •''■' FOURTH tooth; 4^ 

end or the axis is 8 mm. 1 he first one is slightly enameled process of 
less ; the last one is only 6 mm. thick. The angle fourth tooth ; r.. 
between the anterior and posterior borders of tooth ; 6. upper bor- 
any tooth is very close to 90°. It will be observed ^i=« '^^ sheath of 
that the hinder tooth descends to the lower 
border of the shaft. The surfaces of all the teeth are smooth. A 
number of cracks in the enamel pass from the base of each tooth to 
the apex, and these seem to follow slight ridges. 




NO. 1699. ON EDE8TU8 AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 45 

The body of the fossil is made up of a shaft of vasodentine, dense 
and rough on the surface and without enamel. As has been shown by 
other observers, in the case of other species of the genus, this shaft 
consists of trough-shaped processes, one of which runs forward from 
each tooth, and which supports and partly incloses the process of the 
preceding tooth and is supported and partly inclosed by the succeed- 
ing one. The photograph (pi. 12, fig. 1) shows the grooves limiting 
each of these processes above and below. It will be seen that measur- 
ing each process, or sheath, from the hinder end of the tooth which it 
supports to its anterior end, the first one is 84 mm. long, the second 
105 mm., the third 125 mm., the fourth 138 mm., the fifth 149 mm., 
the sixth 158 mm. This means that the anterior end of each sheath 
receded from the end of the shaft by considerably less than the 
length of the tooth to which it belonged. 

This species appears to differ from E. heinrichii in various j^articu- 
lars, some of which will be mentioned. 

1. The form of the shaft is different in the two species. In E. 
cremdatus the greatest height is in front of the middle of the length 
and under the second tooth; in E. heinriclin it is behind the middle 
and under the fourth tooth. It is possible that in the original of the 
figures of the last of these" the last-formed tooth is missing, but 
allowance for this would put the greatest height at the middle of the 
shaft. The shaft of E. crenidatus is relatively pointed in front; that 
of E. heinrichii is deep and truncated. If in the figured specimen of 
E. heinrichii the last-formed tooth is missing, a portion of its enamel 
ought to show under the last one present. If no tooth is missing, the 
shaft terminated in quite a different manner from that of E. crenu- 
lafvs. Furthermore, in case the last-formed tooth of that specimen 
of E. heinrichii is missing there would have been present 9 teeth ; in 
the type of E. crenidatus there are only 6. The type of E. heinrichii 
is a considerably larger specimen (280 mm. long) than that of E. 
crenulatus. It is difficult to see how the latter could become modified 
so as to resemble the former. 

2. It will be noted the last sheath of E. crenidatus extends much 
farther forAvard than does that of E. heinrichii; also, it covers rela- 
tively less of the depth of the shaft. 

3. In E. crenulatus a tongue-like process of the unenameled surface 
of the shaft runs backward between each tooth and the pointed 
process of enamel of the next tooth behind until it touches this hinder 
tooth ; in E. heinrichii the tongue-like process is cut off from the 
hinder tooth by a prolongation of the anterior one. 

4. The teeth of the two species are of different forms. In E. crenu- 
latus the angle between the two lines carried from the apex of the 

"Geol. Surv. 111., vol. 4, pi. 1, fig. 1; Aun.,N. Y, Acad. Sci., vol. 4, pi. 5, fig. 2. 



46 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

tooth to the ends of the anterior and posterior cutting edges respec- 
tively is close to a right angle; in E. heinrichii the angle measures 
about 75°. The height of the teeth of E. heiiirichii is six-tenths the 
length of the base, while in E. cremdatus it is seven-tenths. Never- 
theless, the teeth of E. heinrichii appear more acute than those of 
E. creniddtus because of the concavity of the cutting borders, those 
of the latter species being nearly straight. The last tooth of 
E. heinrichii seems to be less elevated than the others. Judging 
from the apical angle and the straight cutting edges of the tooth, it 
is believed that Newberry's figure 2b " represents a specimen of 
E. crenulahis. 

It has been mentioned that there is in the specimen here described a 
narrow groove that runs forward from the first tooth, becoming 
broader at the end of the shaft. Immediateh^ in front of this first 
tooth there is a rough surface just like that found bordering the 
enamel of each of the teeth. These facts suggest that some of the 
anterior and earliest formed teeth are now missing, that long before 
the animal died some teeth had dropped off. ' Certainly it is not prob- 
able that the animal became adult before it developed any teeth. 
There must have been a series of teeth from very small ones up to the 
first tooth now present. Nevertheless the writer does not believe that 
the shaft ever extended any considerable distance, if at all, in front of 
Avhat is now its anterior end. No doubt the trough-like processes or 
sheaths of these earliest teeth, like those of the ones present, shortened 
rapidly toward the front, so that they probably never extended 
beyond the shaft as we now have it. Dr. Charles R. Eastman ^ has 
figured a series of three teeth which diminish rapidly in size, and in 
which the sheath of the smallest does not reach beyond the succeeding 
one.'' Doubtless still smaller teeth occupied the space in front of the 
smallest one present. The significance then of the groove found in 
front of the first tooth of the type of E. crenulatiis is found in the 
existence there, in the eacj,^' youth of the animal, of a series of small 
teeth that were shed perhaps earl}' in life. 

Newberry '^ appears to have regarded the separate segment repre- 
sented by his fig. 2«, pi. 5, as that of a young animal. Its sheath is, 
however, too long for this. It nnist have been one of the later teeth. 
It seems possible that on sufficient maceration all the teeth, with their 

« Ann. N. Y. Acad., vol. 4, pi. 5 ; Pal. Fishes N. A., pi. 39. 

» Bull. Mus. Couip. Zool., vol. 39, p. 76, fig. 7. 

'^ In case the reduction of Eastman's figure is really one-half, it seems possible 
that his specimen belongs to an uudescribed species. Otherwise great variation 
in size of teeth in E. heinrichii is indicated. The length of the anterior teeth 
of the type is only about 30 mm., whereas the largest tooth figured by Eastman 
has a length of 37 mm. 

•^Ann. N. Y. Acad., vol. 4, p. 122. 



NO. 1699. 



Oy EDESTUS AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 



47 




sheaths, even of old individuals, might have separated from one an- 
other. The t3'pe of E. I'arpinslii lateh^ described by Missuna « is 
evidently a segment produced by an adult indi- 
vidual and freed from all its predecessors. 

At a short distance behind its anterior end 
each sheath of E. crenidatus is divided on the 
midline below into right and left portions, the 
lower edges of which run forward and upward. 
This is the origin of the groove which occupies 
the lower border of the front of the shaft. It 
is j^robable that in this groove at the point of 
sej)aration of the lateral portions of the sheath 
the nerves and blood vessels entered and ex- 
tended backward into each sheath and tooth. 

It is, of course, possible that another tooth 
would have been produced behind the sixth of 
the type of E. crenidatus ; but, in as much as that 
last tooth is considerabl}" thinner than its prede- 
cessors, it is not unlikely that old age and de- 
cadence of powers had come on and that no more 
t^eth would have been developed. 

EDESTUS SERRATUS, new species. 

The history of the type of this species is 

exactly that of the specimen described as E. 

crenulatus. It is Cat. No. G049 in the U. S. 

The length of the fossil (pi. 12, fig. 4), as found, is 150 mm. The 
sixth and last tooth of the series had been broken 
off before the time of entombment. If an allow- 
ance of 27 mm. is made for this missing part the 
whole length will be 177 mm. The greatest 
height, from the apex of the second tooth down- 
ward, is 51 mm. The greatest height of the shaft, 
between the second and third teeth, is 35 mm. 
Its greatest thickness is 21 mm. ; that at the rear 
of the fifth tooth is 9 mm. The form of the shaft 
and sections of it (text figs. 3, 4) resemble those 
of E. crenidatus^ but the hinder section, though 
not so high as that of E. crenulatus^ is fully as 
broad. The last sheath occupies two-thirds of 
the width of the shaft. The anterior half of the 
shaft is rough, with close-set patches of enamel, 
irregular in size and form. The hinder half 
also is rough for some distance below the teeth, 

but most of the surface is nearly smooth. It seems possible that the 

hinder part of the shaft had been embraced by a sheath that had not 



Fig. 3. — Edestus serr>- 

TUS, Xl. TYPE. SEC- 
TION BETWEEN FIRST 
AND SECOND TEETH. 
1, HINDER END OF 
FIRST TOOTH ; 2, 

ENAMELED PROCESS OF 
SECOND TOOTH ; 3, 
SHEATH OF THIRD 
TOOTH ; 4, SHEATH OF 
FOURTH TOOTH ; 5, 
SHEATH OF FIFTH 
TOOTH ; 6, UPPER BOR- 
DER OF SHEATH OF 
SIXTH TOOTH ; 7, 

GROOVE ALONG LOWER 
BORDER OF ANTERIOR 
HALF OF SHAFT. 

National Museum. 




Fig. 4. — Edestus serra- 
tds, x 1. type. sec- 
tion between third 
and fourth teeth. 
3, hinder end of 
third tooth ; 4, 
enameled process of 
fourth tooth ; 5, 
sheath of fifth 
tooth ; 6, upper bor- 
der of sheath of 
sixth tooth. 



* Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscow, vol. 21, 1908. p. 528. 



48 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

become consolidated, and which was lost when the specimen became 
interred. The point in the lower border from which the two con- 
cavities def)art is directly opposite the space between the second and 
third teeth. In E. crenulatus it is opposite the apex of the second 
tooth. 

The following- are the dimensions of the teeth of this specimen: 
Tooth, 1 ; length of base, 22 mm. ; thickness, 8 mm. : tooth, 2 ; length 
of base, 24 mm. ; height, 10 mm. ; thickness, 8 mm. : tooth, 3 ; length of 
base, 25 mm. ; height, 19 mm. ; thickness, 8 mm. : tooth, 4 ; length 
of base, 26 mm. ; height, 19 mm. ; thickness, 8 mm. : tooth, 5 ; length of 
base, 27 mm. ; height, 19 mm. ; thickness, 8 mm. 

The apical angle of the teeth is 80°. That of E. minor is 35° or 
40° ; that of E. crenulatus., as already mentioned, is 90°. The an- 
terior edge of the teeth is concave; the posterior is nearl}^ straight. 
The teeth are furnished with denticles, but the edges of these are 
perfectly smooth. The surfaces of the teeth are enameled. From 
the base of each tooth a number of sharply defined and frequently 
anastomosing ridges rise to the apex. The forwardly directed proc- 
ess of each tooth is brought up close to the base of the next tooth in 
front. 

In front of the first tooth there is, as in E. crenulatus^ a groove 
that was originally occupied by a series of earlier- formed teeth. The 
higher and more pointed teeth, with concave anterior cutting edge 
and smooth denticles, distinguish this species from E. crejiulatus, 
which it most resembles. 

EDESTUS MINUSCULUS, new species. 

Edestus ef. minor IvARriNSKv, Verliamll. rnss.-kais. min. Gesellsch. St. 
Petersb., 2d ser., vol. 26, 1898, p. 379, pi. 4, figs. 12, 13. 

As cited above, Karpinsky identified provisionally as E. minor and 
described with illustrations a single tooth of an Edestus which had 
been found in the lowermost Permian, the Artinskian stage, near Mos- 
cow, Russia. A comparison of Karpinsky's description and figures 
with the numerous good figures that have been published of E. minor 
Newberry has convinced the writer that the tooth in question belonged 
to a species quite distinct from E. minor. 

The tooth in Karpinskj^'s possession was a small one, the height 
from the base of the enamel to the apex, measured along the axis of 
the tooth, being onh' 14 mm., plus 1 mm. or 1.5 mm. that had been 
broken from the apex. It was therefore only about half as large as 
the specimen figured by Newberry ** and by Eastman .^ We must 

« Geol. Surv. 111., vol. 4, pi. 1, fig. 2. "E. vorax." 
* Mark Anniversary Volume, pi. 21, figs. 2, 3. 



L 



NO. 1699. OX EDESTUS AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 49 

conclude, therefore, either that it belonged to a much smaller species, 
than E. minor or that it belonged among the teeth of a half-grown 
animal. 

If now, from Eastman's beautiful figures, apparently the best yet 
jDublished, one compares the basal length of each tooth with its height, 
it is found tlir.t the ratio of the base to the height is 0.83, 0.82, and 
0.81 in the first, second, and fourth teeth, respectively, 0.91 in the 
third and sixth, 0.93 in the fifth, and 0.9T in the seventh. "W^iile 
there are some irregularities here, no encouragement is given to con- 
cluding that the ratio would rise in the earlier-formed teeth. Now, 
the ratio of the base to the height in the tooth described by Karpinsky 
IS 1.18, This means that in E. minor the base is considerably shorter 
than the height, while in the Russian tooth the base is considerably 
greater than the height. 

An examination of the figures of E. minor shows that the hinder 
border of each tooth meets the anterior border of the next at an acute 
angle. Karpinsky's figure shows that the hinder free border of the 
tooth was turned at a right angle with the hinder cutting edge, an 
arrangement that would have made the angle between successive 
teeth quite ditferent from that in E. minor. A somewhat similar 
process is seen at the hinder end of the last tooth of E. crenulatus 
and even of E. minor., but to assume that the Russian tooth was the 
last of the series is to abandon the supj)Osition that it was the tooth 
of a young animal. Attention may also be called to the fact that in 
Karpinsky's specimen the apex of the concavity of the anterior border 
is placed between the middle and lower thirds of the border, while in 
E. 7ninor it is placed considerably lower down; also that the hinder 
cutting edge of E. minusculus is far more strongly convex than that 
of E. minor. 

In the specimen studied by Karpinsky the height of the sheath, 
taken at the front end of the tooth, is 0.3 the basal length of the 
tooth. If the last tooth of E. minor had the same length as the one 
immediately in front of it, the height of the sheath, obtained at the 
hinder border of the last tooth present, would be 0.75 of the length of 
its tooth. 

The section of the sheath of his specimen that Karpinsky has pub- 
lished requires notice." This section shows that the lower border, 
close to the tooth, was rounded, not sharp, as it is in E. crenulatus., 
E. serratus., and E. heinrichii. No section of E. minor has hitherto, 
so far as the writer knows, been published. Prof. F. S. Loomis, of 
Amherst, Massachusetts, has kindly sent me an accurate drawing of 
the broken hinder end of the type of the species, now deposited in the 

" Verhaudl. rnss.-kais. iiiin. Gesellsch. St. Petersb., 2(1 ser., vol. 26, 1898, p. 380, 
fig. 16. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 1 . 




f)0 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MVSEU2I. vol. 37. 

collection of Amherst College, This drawing, here reproduced (text 
fig. 6) , represents a section across the sheath immediately in front of 
the eighth tooth, now missing. For comparison with it is shown Kar- 
pinsky's section of his specimen (text fig. 5). The difference will 
be readily observed. It may be noted here that Mr. E. T. Newton 
published « a description of a species of Edestiis, E. triserratus^ 
found in the coal measures of Britain. The shaft appears to have 
been much curved. Beneath the tooth the lower border is thin and 

angular. In front of the tooth the border is 

broadly rounded. 

2. ON THE HISTOLOGY OF EDESTUS. 

The organ called Edestus^ whatever its position 
FIG..J.—EDESTLS MINUS- aud Its functiou, is composed of dentine which 
cuLus, x3. TYPE. -^^ penetrated bv numerous terminal arteries and 

SECTION OF SHEATH }- 

JUST IX FRONT OF veius aud capillary canals. On the surface of 
'^°"'^"' what are called teeth is a thin layer of what is 

probably true enamel. The dentine must be classed with that called 
by Tomes vasodentine, although, like osteodentine, there existed no 
distinct pulp. Some sections have been made, in order to show the 
minute structure of the organ in question. These have been prepared 
from two specimens of what are regarded as Edestiis heinrirhii, 
which have been most kindly sent me by Dr. Bashford Dean, of the 
American Museum of Natural History, New York. The specimens 
came originally from western Indiana. There is rejjresented in fig. 
1, pi. 13, a section across one of the segments, so taken as to include 
the front of the tooth. That part which belongs 
to the tooth broke away from the part below it 
during mounting. An examination of this figure 
shows that in this genus the central core of 
dentine, which contains the larger vessels, was 
not sharply marked off from the- more suioer- 

n • ^ i.-^ -i. • ^ 1 IT • rr T - Fiu.6. — Edestus minor, 

ncial portions, as it is marked oii m Helicopnon^ ^j ^^^^ sec- 
as shown by Karpinsky. Below the center of tion of sheath just 
the section there is a large vessel that probably '^ front m 
corresponds to Karpinsky 's " Liingscanal." The section appears 
to have fallen where the canal was sendinp- off a large branch. In 
the specimen figured all the larger vessels and many of the smaller 
ones apparently have the lumen ojoen. They are really filled with a 
transparent mineral, probably calcite. Each, however, has a nar- 
row black border which represents a deposit of pyrite or marcasite. 
Many of the capillary channels aj^pear to be filled with pyrite, 
but this appearance seems often to be due to the position of 
the vessel in the section, for when the near and the distal walls 




"Quart. Jour. (4e(>l., vol. GO, 19()4, pp. 1^. pi. 1. 



NO. 1699. ON EDESTUS AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 51 

have been cut away the hinien appears. As the surfaces of the organ 
are approached, the filling of the channels with pja-ite becomes more 
complete. In fig. 1 of pi. 13 and also in fig. 2, in order to bring out 
the structure, the lumina of the vessels are represented as black. 
The light spaces between the network of black lines represent the 
dentine substance. 

Examination of the section shows that the longitudinal canals, 
large and small, are abundantly connected by anastomosis, so that 
the vascular apparatus formed a dense network. In the lower por- 
tion of the section, that corresponding to the root of the tooth, many 
of the larger capillary canals approach the surface, and probably 
some of them passed out into the surrounding tissues. Fig. 2 on 
pi. 13 represents a median sagittal section of another small segment 
of Edestus. This is taken in front of the tooth and includes no part 
of it. Most of the vascular canals run longitudinally. The main 
longitudinal canal is seen near the bottom of the section. As seen 
in favorable situations, fine branching lines run away from the 
borders of the capillary canals. These lines are regarded as marking 
the dentinal tubes. Often, especially near the capillaries (pi. 13, 
fig. 3, taken from near the anterior border of a tooth) , they have 
the lumen filled with pyrite, and then they resemble the canaliculse 
of bone. Where not indicated by pyrite filling, the tubes may never- 
theless often be traced out under the microscope, and they constitute 
a network of fine lines in the dentine. Nowhere does there appear 
to be any layer of dentine made up of tubes running parallel with 
one another. 

The layer of enamel is so deeply stained with pyrite that few 
observations can be made on it. In one spot it is sufficiently thin 
and translucent to allow it to be seen that the enamel is penetrated 
b}^ nearly parallel black lines, which stand at right angles with the 
outer surface of the tooth, but do not quite reach this surface. This 
is to be taken as that variety of enamel described by Tomes as being 
penetrated by dentinal tubes." 

KariDinsky * has noted the resemblances between the teeth of Hell- 
coprion and those of various sharks, living and extinct. The present 
writer has wished to compare Edestus with the spines of fossil sharks, 
and has accordingly made sections of a fragment of the spine of 
Ctenaccmthus varians (pi. 13, figs. 4, 5). Although differences be- 
tween this genus and Edestus may be observed, the writer regards 
the structure of the two as being essentially the same. In the speci- 
men of Ctenaennfhits nearly all the capillary vessels are probably 
filled with limonite, while few of the dentinal tubes are thus filled. 

"Manual Dental Anat, 6th ed., p. 30. 

* Verhandl, russ.-kais. min. Gesellsch. St. Petersb., 2d ser., vol. 26, 1898, p. 420. 



52 PROCEEDINGS OF THE JATIOXAL MUSEUM, vol.37. 



The larger blood vessels do not aj^pear to be so richly connected by 
capillaries as in Edestus. Under high power a dense network of 
bright lines, which are regarded as representing the dentinal tubes, 
is to be seen, running irregular courses and branching dichotomously. 
The shadowed areas seen around most of the capillaries are produced 
by the network of dentinal tubes, slightly stained Avitli iron. 

3. DESCRIPTION OF NEW SPECIMENS OF LISSOPRION FERRIEUI. 

In 1907 " the writer described a fossil Avhich he regarded as re- 
lated to Edestus^ but still more closely to Helicoprion. The type 
specimen, now the property of the U. S. National Museum, Cat. 
No. 6091, had been found in Upper Pennsylvanian dejiosits, near 
Montpelier, Bear Lake County, Idaho, by Mr. AV. F. Ferrier. At 
the time of publishing the description it was impossible to deter- 
mine whether the complete structure would prove to be straight or 
slightly bent, as the species of Edestus, or strongly bent, as the fossil 
described b}?^ Dean as Edestus lecoxtci^ or spirally coiled, as Heli- 
coprion hessonoici Karpinsky. Immediately after the appearance 
of that description the writer received from Mr. Ferrier two ship- 
ments of specimens from the same horizon at Thomas Fork, "Wyo- 
ming, not far from the type locality. These showed that the series of 
teeth and their shaft formed a spiral resembling closelv that of 
Helieoprion. From the best of these specimens have been prepared 
figs. 1 and 2, on pi. 14. At a later time, about October 1, 1907, Mr. 
Ferrier made a fourth shipment, consisting of a block of lime- 
stone, in which there was a complete example of this curious fossil 
(pi. 15). Unfortunately the limestone is excessively hard and 
tough, while the fossil teeth and their shaft are friable. As a result 
the plane of cleavage has passed through the shaft and most of the 
teeth instead of over their surfaces. Nevertheless the specimen dis- 
plays well the coils of the spiral and the outlines of most of the 
teeth. Taking all the specimens together, the most important facts 
regarding the structure are made known. Credit is due Mr. Ferrier 
for his interest in collecting so nnich material belonging to this 
species. He has, moreover, presented to the IT. S. National Museum 
the type of the species and important parts of the other specimens. 
Mr. Ferrier is a geologist and paleontologist of much experience, 
having been for some years assistant to Sir William Dawson, of 
the Geological Survey of Canada, and being now engaged as mining 
engineer in charge of phosphate mining for a commercial company. 

Besides the specimens of Lissoprion Mr. Ferrier has collected many 
invertebrate fossils from the deposits that furnished Lissoprion^ and 

« Science, vol. 26, p. 22. 



NO. 1690. ON EDB8TUS AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 53 

these fossils are being described by Dr. George H. Girty, of the U. S. 
(jeological Survey. Doctor Girty has verj^ kindly furnished me 
some information regarding these fossils and their relationships. He 
writes me that the specimens of Lissoprion were obtained from phos- 
phate beds of from GO to 100 feet in thickness and placed near the 
middle of the Preiiss formation. The fauna has a facies strongly 
unlike anything known from the Pennsylvanian of eastern North 
America, and man}^ features tend to ally it with the upper Carbo- 
niferous faunas of eastern Europe and Asia. In fact Doctor Girty 
feels little doubt that it is equivalent to a part of the Gschel stage 
of the Russian section. Some of the characteristic fossils of the phos- 
phate fauna are Chonetes ostiolatus, Pugnax weeks/, Amhocoelia 
arciiata, Nucula inontpelierensis, Yoldia mcchesneyana, Leda ohesa, 
Plagioglypta canna, Omphalotrochus ferrieri, O. conotdeus, and 
Gastrioceras simtdator. The genus Productus is poorly represented 
in the phosphate fauna, but contains four species closely related 
and perhaps identical with forms occurring in the Gschelian of 
Europe. These species, with the species of OmphalofrocJins and 
others occurring in the overlying strata of the same formation, are 
the forms in which the affinities with the Russian fauna are especially 
manifested. 

In the case of the specimen which furnished fig. 1, pi. 14, the rock 
split in such a way as to expose the right-hand side of the first 
five large teeth, those at the termination of the shaft, and the left 
side of the fifth of these (counting from the end), two others suc- 
ceeding this, and several small teeth of an interior whorl, as well as 
a part of the shaft. The figure has been prepared by combining two 
photographs, that of the left side having been reversed. The desig- 
nation of the sides as right and left is made on the assumption that 
the base of the spiral, the larger end, was directed backward in the 
animal, a view that may require modification. The 5 or 6 teeth 
seen in the lower part of fig. 1, pi. 13, formed probably the begin- 
ning of the second whorl, no remains existing in the specimen of 
the first or innermost whorl. Some traces are found in the matrix of 
the remainder of the second whorl. The large teeth would then 
belong to the third whorl. 

It will be observed that the shaft of the specimen extends back- 
ward (toward the left) some distance bej'ond the last tooth produced, 
and the same will be found to be true of the species called by Dean 
Edestus lecontei. The last tooth present can hardly have been the 
last one that would have been developed had the animal lived longer, 
for this tooth lacks much of having the size of the teeth of the type 
specimen. In this the largest tooth has a height of 36 mm. and a 
width of 17 mm., while the last tooth of fig. 1, pi. 14, has an axial 
height of 30 nun. and a width of 11 mm. 



54 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATtOXAL MU8EUM. vol.37. 



The small teeth of fig. 1, pi. l-t, present only a part of their upper 
portion, or blade. 

The specimen represented by fig. 2, pi. 14, presents wholes or 
parts of 13 teeth and the corresponding part of the shaft. Plate 15 
is taken from the specimen that displays the whole of the spiral. 
Unfortunately the matrix is of such a dark color that the fossil does 
not show as distinctly as is desirable. However, from this it is 
learned that the structure, dentition or spine, whichever it may be, 
consisted of a shaft of a little more than two and a half coils and a 
series of enameled teeth occupying the outer border of the shaft. The 
inner coil with its minute teeth was, of course, first produced. It 
is not probable that the smallest teeth seen are the first that the animal 
possessed. Some smaller teeth and their shaft may be hidden in the 
obdurate matrix, but it is more probable that they had been lost by 
the animal long before its death. 

The greatest diameter of the specimen, measuring from the apex 
of the last tooth to the apex of the one on the opposite side of the 
coil is IGO mm. The inner coils were not in contact with the outer 
coil nor with each other. The apices of the teeth at the beginning of 
the second coil are removed by about 10 mm. from the inner border 
of the shaft ; the innermost teeth approach within 3 mm. of the shaft. 
It is impossible to determine exactly the whole number of teeth. An 
estimate made as accurately as possible indicates that there were 32 
teeth in the outer coil, the same number in the preceding coil, and 22 
teeth in the portion remaining of the innermost coil, in all 86 teeth, 
as against 130 in Ilelicoprion hessoyiowi; but the latter species pos- 
sessed about one more coil than did the species here described. In 
Karpinsky's species there were 36 teeth in the innermost coil, 43 in 
the next, and 51 in the outer. 

Karpinsky showed that the teeth of his species might be regarded 
as consisting of three portions. The first includes the cutting blade, 
extending from the apex to the points where the edges of the blade 
come into contact with the blades of the succeeding and the preceding 
teeth, respectively; the third portion includes that part that is nar- 
rowed and turned toward the older teeth of the series; the second 
portion is found between these two. In the larger teeth of Helicop- 
rion the intermediate portion occupies half or more of the height of 
the tooth; in the case of the smaller teeth it becomes reduced in 
importance and may become merged into the third portion. In 
Lissoprioii this middle part may be said to be present in all the 
teeth, but to be relatively unimportant. In Helieoprion the blade is 
relatively longest in the oldest, or smallest, teeth, forming some- 
times more than half the height of the tooth, while in the largest 
teeth it forms onlv about a fourth of the height. In all cases 



NO. 1690. ON EDESTU8 AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 55 

the blade forms, in Lissoprion, about one-half the total height of the 
tooth. 

The apical angle of the teeth before us is obtained by drawing lines 
from the apex to the opposite ends of the cutting edges. This angle 
varies with the size of the teeth. In the teeth originally described, 
the largest yet found, the apical angle is 48°. In the largest teeth of 
pi. 14, fig. 1, the angle is 35°, while in the teeth of the specimen 
represented by pi. 14, fig. 2, it is 32°. The smallest teeth appear to 
have the same angle as just given. It is seen, therefore, that the angle 
increases rapidly in the largest teeth. Karpinsky has stated ** that in 
IIelicop7'ion hessonowi the apical angle is 30°. The present writer 
makes it 45°. 

The cutting edges of the teeth of LissopHon were originally 
described as being smooth ; but some of the newer specimens show 
that these edges were sometimes feebly crenulated. 

The middle portion of each tooth is short, convex posteriorly, con- 
cave anteriorly. It passes insensibly into the third portion. The 
latter is naiTowed to a point below and turned toward the older parts 
of the coil. In the smaller and medium-sized teeth its extremity 
reaches forward to a point opposite the hinder border of the second 
tooth in advance. In the larger teeth it extends forward only to the 
middle of the tooth immediately in front. Each tooth touches its 
l^redecessor and its successor only at the base of the blade. The 
median and third portions of the successive teeth are separated by a 
space very narrow and varying little in relative width throughout the 
series. In IleVicopr'ion hessonoiri the interdental spaces vary con- 
siderably, being much wider relatively between the smaller teeth.'' 
All the teeth of Lissoprion were covered with enamel, but this has, 
in the specimens at hand, been altered or removed. It seems to have 
been traversed by narrow ridges, which radiated from the apex of the 
tooth. 

Fig. 2, of pi. 14, furnishes a good illustration of the shaft and its 
relation to the teeth. It will be observed that a wide band of the 
shaft is exposed below the enameled processes of the teeth, the width 
in the case of the specimen figured being G mm., one-fifth the height 
of the teeth and the shaft taken together. In Helicoprion there is far 
less of the shaft visible below the teeth; according to Karpinsky's 
figures, about one-fifteenth of the height of the teeth and the shaft. 
Text fig. 7 shows a section through the axis of the second tooth from 
the right. It is seen that the sides of the shaft are convex and that in 
the lower border there is a rounded notch. This represents a gutter 
that runs along the inner border of the shaft. A similar gutter occu- 

" Verhandl. russ.-kais. miu. Gesellsch. St. Petersb., 2d ser., vol. 26, 1898, 
pp. 383. 402, fig. 23. 
^Idem, p. 394. figs. 24-29. 




56 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

pies this border in llelicoprion; and Karpinsky thinks that it might 

have conducted some kind of vessel. According to his view, the 

gutter was comj^leted below by a layer of shagreen, but I find no 

evidences of any such a covering. The sides of 

the shaft are unbroken and the edges bounding 

the gutter are smooth. 

The lateral surfaces of the shaft are covered 
i)y a layer which looks as if it might be enamel. 
For some distance below the teeth this is pitted 
so as to resemble in miniature the pittings of the 
carapace of a trionj^chid turtle; but low down 
the enamel is raised into delicate ridges that 
RiERi, XI. SECTION I'u^ i^arallcl with the shaft. Doctor Eastman 
OF SHAFT AND TOOTH, has, lu defining Helicoprion, stated that the 

1, ENAMEL OF THIRD ., j.,i ic. i ii nil 

TOOTH; 2, GROOVE sidcs oi thc sliait are traversed b}^ a double 
BETWEEN NARROWED lateral groove. This is, however, an error, which 

PROCESSES OF THIRD , ii.i • /• !• ^ i • j- 

AND SECOND TEETH; has (lOUDtless ariscu from a slight misconception 
.-?, ENAMELED PROCESS of tlic scctlous pubHshcd bv Karpinsky." In 

OP SECOND TOOTH ; 4, , , „ , i , , i ' i • i 

EXPOSED PORTION OF ihosc figurcs tlic two iiotclies on each side repre- 
shaft; 5, GROOVE sent, not sections of as manv longitudinal 

ALONG LOWER BORDER ' i;/> ' t / ^ l^ ^ i 

OF SHAFT. grooves, but or grooves between the downward 

])rolongations of the crowns of the teeth. There 
are no longitudinal grooves in Lissoprion and no room for them on 
the sides of the shaft of HeUcojmon. 

4. DESCRIPTION OF A NEW UENUS. 
TOXOPRION, new genus. 

The type of this genus is Dean's Edestv.9 lecontei. Doctor Eastman 
has recognized that this species did not belong to Fdestvs, inasmuch as 
he included it in his genus Campylo prion; and afterwards, on remov- 
ing the type of the genus, O. amiectens to Heliocoprion, he essayed to 
make lecontei the type. The writer called attention to this matter in 
] 907.^ Even were this procedure admissible it w^ould not be advisable, 
for the species annectens may yet prove to belong to a genus distinct 
from Helicoprion and would then require the name C ampyloprion. 

The teeth of Toxoprion resembled most those of Lissoprion, but the 
shaft, though strongly bent, formed only a part of one coil. In this 
genus the present writer includes H. Woodward's Eclestus damsii, 
found in Australia. In this species it will be observed that the wndth 
is considerably reduced in passing from the newer to the older ends 
of the specimen, so that it is not likely that a complete coil was 

" Verhandl. niss.-kais. niin. Oesellsch. St. Petersb., 2cl ser., vol. 26, 1898, p. 397, 
figs. 30, 31. 

" Science, vol. 26, p. 22. 



NO. 1699. ON EDESTU8 AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 57 

formed. It will be seen, too, that the teeth change considerably as 
they are followed from one end of the shaft to the other. In the 
newer ones the downw^ard prolongations are pointed and carried for- 
ward even to the extended axis of the fourth tooth in advance, while 
in the smaller and older teeth the prolongations are truncated and 
reach only the extended axis of the second tooth in advance. The 
part of the shaft exposed is very narrow. 

5. DEFINITIONS OF THE GENERA. 

It is evident that Lissopnon is closely related to Helicoprion^ but 
it is believed to be sufficiently distinct. It is possible that future 
discoveries may abolish the differences noted. 

Edestvs. — Shaft straight or slightly bent, roots of the teeth be- 
traying distinct traces of their original distinctness, and forming the 
greater portion of the fossil. Blades of the teeth strongly denticu- 
lated. Type, E. vorax Leidy. 

T 0X0 prion. — Shaft bent, but forming less than a complete coil, 
mostly concealed under the bases of the teeth. Roots of teeth show- 
ing no traces of their original distinctness in the shaft. Blades of 
teeth high, pointed, feebly denticulated. Type, T. lecontei (Dean). 

Lisso prion. — Teeth and their shaft forming a spiral, the coils not 
in contact. Roots of teeth indistinguishably consolidated. Shaft 
widely exposed below the teeth. Inner border of shaft with a 
longitudinal groove. Teeth high, the middle portion short, the 
cutting edges smooth or feebly denticulated. Type, L. ferrieri Hay. 

HeUcoprion. — Teeth and shaft forming a spiral, the coils not in 
contact. No traces of the separate roots of the teeth. Blades of teeth 
distinctly denticulated. Little of the shaft exposed below the bases 
of the teeth. A longitudinal groove along inner border, as in 
Lissoprion. Middle portion of teeth variable; in the larger teeth 
greatly developed. Type, H. hessonowi Karpinsky. 

6. THE NATURE OF THE OBJECTS CALLED EDESTUS, TOXOPRION, 
LISSOPRION, AND HELICOPRION. 

In discussing this subject it is not necessary to enter into the his- 
tory of opinions regarding the position occupied and the function 
performed by the structures that have been described above. The 
literature of the subject may be found cited in Doctor Eastman's 
papers." In the first of these papers this author, who has devoted 
so much attention to the fossil fishes and with such profit to science, 
discusses the homology of the objects before us. He there frames a 
strong argument in favor of regarding them as the consolidated 
symphysial teeth of the lower jaws of sharks. Karpinsky had pre- 

«Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 39, pp. 55-99, and in the Mark Anniversary 
Volume, pp. 281-289. 



58 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

viously expressed the opinion that the spiral of Helicoprion was 
composed of the symphysial teeth of the upper jaw, the spiral 
having been pushed outside of the mouth and carried above the 
snout. 

Eastman based his conclusions on the fossil called Campodus^ 
which he shows was composed of the symphysial teeth of probably 
the lower jaw. This roAv of teeth would corresj^ond to the median 
row of lower teeth mlleterodontus phih'ppi. the Port Jackson shark. If 
in this shark the outer and older teeth should, instead of dropping 
off, cohere with the younger teeth, there would be formed at least 
two-thirds of a coil, a structure that would resemble that of 
Campodxs. If. then, the teeth .should become strongly compressed 
the mass would resemble considerably that object that we call here 
Toxoprion. Further coiling would result in a series like Lisso prion. 

However, when Ave come to homologizing Edestus, Lisso prion, and 
HeJicoprion with the teeth of Campodus and Heterodontus diffi- 
culties are encountered. In the case of the two latter genera, the 
difficult}' is to determine what disposition to make of such large 
spirals. If in Heterodontus the symphysial teeth should cohere with 
one another, a spiral of several coils might eventually be formed; 
but unless there were some especial arrangement developed, the spiral 
could be completed only by a pushing of the older end of it through 
the skin and into the flesh and cartilage of the jaw. This would not 
contribute to the comfort of the animal or the strength of the jaw, 
however much it might aid our efforts at homologizing. It would 
be necessary, too, to conjecture a shark with a lower jaw of tremen- 
dous proportions to accommodate a spiral like that of Helicoprion., 
the diameter of which is sometimes as much as 260 mm. If it be 
said that the spiral projected far enough beyond the jaw to escape 
burial in the tissues, it may be objected that it would have been in 
a position to be troublesome to the animal and exposed to injuries. 
The slender and bent dental mass of Toxopnon., too, would have hung 
down in a position dangerous to its existence. 

A strong objection to placing any of these fossils in the mouth of a 
shark is to be found in the fact that none of them show an}' indica- 
tions of wear. The species of Edestus, described above, present no 
attrition of the enamel or of the most delicate denticles or crenations. 
Dr. A. S. Woodward, in speaking of Helicoprion ° has sought to 
escape this objection by supposing that the rows of teeth were so 
far apart that they did not rub against one another. Nevertheless, 
constant contact with the food taken into the mouth must have pro- 
duced some wear. 

It seems certain that the general conclusions of Karpinsky regard- 
ing Edestus and Helicoprion must be accepted, namely: (1) These 

° Geol. Magazine, dec. 4, 1900, vol. 7, p. 33. 



NO. 1690. ON EDE8TUS AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 59 

animals belonged among the Elasmobranchii ; (2) the organs that 
represent to us these sharks were more or less imbedded in the soft 
parts; (3) they must have been organs in the median plane of the 
body; (4) a considerable part of each of these organs must have 
been exposed externally — that is, they were not wholly buried in 
the flesh. If these supposed dental masses w^ere in the mouth they 
were consolidated teeth. The blades and the processes of enamel 
descending from them correspond to the crown of the teeth, while 
the shaft was formed through more or less complete fusion of the 
roots of the teeth. Now, while the crowns of the teeth in Edestus 
resemble closely those of some kinds of sharks, it must not be sup- 
posed that the cutting edges and the denticles correspond to those 
of sharks. Through strong compression of the teeth the original 
cutting edges would have been brought to occupy what is now the 
middle of the lateral faces of the teeth, while the anterior and pos- 
terior midlines would have become the cutting edges. The denticles 
of these edges were develo^Ded later and could not have been derived 
from the original denticles. It will be seen, therefore, that the whole 
tooth, if a tooth, suffered great transformation. 

If the organs under consideration w^ere not teeth they must have 
been placed either in front of some of the median fins, like many 
of the other ichthyodorulites, or possibly behind a dorsal fin, like 
the stings of the Masticura, or on the back of the head, as the spine 
of Xenacanthus. As regards Edestus^ it does not seem to be im- 
portant whether the new segment of the compound spine, if spine it 
was, came up before or behind the older ones, since probably the 
whole shaft was buried in the flesh. If it came up behind the older 
ones the spine might have been directed horizontally from the fin; 
if the new^ tooth arose in front of the older ones the spine may have 
been directed upward and backward in the fleshy front of the fin. 
If in the case of HeUcoprion and Lissoprion the new tooth had arisen 
behind the older ones the spiral would have been directed forward, 
and on being subjected to oblique blows would have been liable to be 
twisted from its socket. It seems almost certain, therefore, that the 
new teeth came up in front of the older ones, in case, of course, the 
organ belonged outside of the mouth. If this is true, the end that 
has in this paper been called the front end is the hinder end and the 
end called the hinder is the front end. 

The stings of the Masticura appear to be shed and replaced by new 
ones. In Aetobatis there may be as many as five or six of these 
spines present at once. The statements regarding the origin of the 
new spines do not agree. Giinther " says that in the Trigonidae the 
stings are shed from time to time and replaced by others growing 

"Study of Fishes, p. 342. 



60 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

behind the one in function. Newberry ^ states that the worn spine 
is succeeded by another from behind. Jsekel ^ writes that usually one 
finds in front of the base of an old spine the germ of a new one. 
In a specimen of Rhinoptera honasus in the U. S. National Museum 
there is found a very small spine, loosely attached, in front of the 
one in function. In the German edition of Giinther's Study of 
Fishes, translated by Hayek (p. 23G), is a figure of the tail of a 
Myl'tohatis bearing two spines, the smaller of which is in front of 
the larger one. Storer,<" speaking of Mijliohatis aeuta^ states that the 
smaller spine is in front of the larger. It appears, therefore, that 
in the Myliobatida^ the new spine comes up in front of the older 
ones. On the other hand, Mr. B. A. Bean, of the U. S. National 
Museum, has shown me a specimen of Urolophus jamaicensis and one 
of an undetermined species of Twninra in which a considerably 
smaller spine is behind the functional one; from which fact it may 
probably be inferred that in the Dasyatida* the new spine arises 
behind the one in function. 

It appears to the writer, therefore, that the objects called Edestus.^ 
Lissoprion, Helicoprion, etc., may for the present be most easily dis- 
l^osed of by supposing that some ancient elasmobranchs developed 
in front of a median dorsal fin, or in place of it, not a single spine, 
but a succession of them. The new compressed spine, serrated in 
front and behind, arose in front of the older ones. Nevertheless, the 
root of the new spine became directed backward beneath and on each 
side of the preceding one, so as partly to embrace it. At first prob- 
ably the older spines were shed, but in time they began to cohere and 
thus form a compound spine. In Edestus this was straight or slightly 
bent. All of it, or nearly all, except the serrated teeth, was buried in 
the flesh. As more and more elements were added, the organ became 
more curved and finally in some species formed a spiral, which was 
directed backward and the last turn of the shaft of which was ele- 
vated enough to keep the teeth from cutting into the skin. Such a 
weapon could be brought into action if only its possessor had dived 
under its victim and brought the spine across its abdomen, thus dis- 
emboweling it, a suggestion already made by Trautschold. It is in 
this way, as Doctor Gill informs me, that Gasterosteus attacks its 
enemies. 

If possibly these organs belonged in front of a dorsal fin, that of 
Edestus might have had its shaft buried in the fleshy part of the 
front of the fin and directed upward and backward. The spiral of 
Helic'oprio7i may be supposed to have been coiled on one side of the 
fin to which it belonged. The fin would have formed a partial sheath 
for the spiral. 



« Paleoz. Fishes N. A., p. 224. 

*Sitz.-Ber. Naturfor. Freunde, Berlin, 1890, p. 124. 

" Fishes of Massachusetts, p. 270. 



NO. 1699. ON EDE8TV8 AND RELATED GENERA— HAY. 61 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 
Plate 12. 

Figs. 1-3. Eclestus crenulatus, Xf. 
Fig. 1. View of right side. 

2. View of section at tlie fracture tliroiigli tlie second tootli from tlie 

riglit. 

3. View of section at tlie fracture tlirougli tlie fourtli tooth from right. 

4. Edcstus scrratus, Xt- View of right side. 

In Figs. 2, 3, the narrow white lines are at the boundaries between the con- 
tiguous sheaths. 

Plate 13. 

Figs. 1, 2. Edestus hcinrichii, X G. 

Fig. 1. Cross-section through shaft and front of tooth. 

2. Vertical sagittal section of shaft and part of tooth. 

In both of the figures the vascular channels are represented in black. 

3. Edestus hcinrichii, X45. 

Part of sagittal section through tooth to show vascular canals and 
the dentinal canals diverging from them. 
4,5. Ctcnacanthiis varians, X6. Cat. No. 604S, U.S.N.M. 

4. Transverse section. The vascular canals are black. 

5. Longitudinal section. 

Plate 14. 

Lissoprion fcrricri, Xts. 

Fig. 1. Part of the outer whorl, with 7 large teeth, and some small teeth of 
an inner whorl. 
2. The axis and about 12 teeth of another specimen. 

Plate 15. 

EissoiJiion ferrieri, Xiu. View of spiral showing the whorls and some of the 
teeth. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 12 







U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 13 







\sf''/'' /A'- '•' '.■.>' -' • ■-■— '^^v^^^'siir ' 

«'//7i,"T» i,y>^ V *?' 2<v_t .^' ff^^fc^ ^^^« "Jr-^- - --*< J 




-^■"id 





Edestus heinrichii and Ctenacanthus varians. 

For explanation of plate see page 61. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 14 



'i^^ 
^X^^^. 







LiSSOPRION FERRIERI. 
For explanation of plate see page 61. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 15 




LiSSOPRION FERRIERI. 
For explanation of plate see page 61. 



REPORT ON BARNACLES OF PERU, COLLECTED BY DR. 
R. E. COKER AND OTHERS. 



By Henry A. Pilsbry, 

Of the Academy of 'Satural Sciences, Philadelphia. 



Our knowledge of Peruvian Cirripedia is chiefly due to Charles 
Darwin's "" Monograph on the Subclass Cirripedia," 1852, 1854, and 
to a few records made by W. Weltner of specimens in the Museum 
fiir Naturkunde in Berlin. The specimens collected by Dr. R. E. 
Coker and Dr. W. H. Jones, U. S. Navy, have been studied in the 
preparation of this report, which has been prepared at the request of 
the Ministerio de Fomento of the Peruvian Government as a contribu- 
tion to the knowledge of the aquatic resources of Peru. 

No parasitic cirripedes, or forms commensal on crabs, have been 
found, although specially looked for on the Crustacea collected by 
Dr. Coker. The apparent absence of such species on the west coast 
of North and South America is remarkable. Further collecting will 
doubtless add largely to the list of littoral barnacles, as well as to the 
deep-water fauna, of which nothing is now known. 

The figures and descriptions are all from Peruvian examples. The 
occasion has been taken to offer sufficiently enlarged figures to show 
the details of the plates of Balanidcp. It is hoped they will make 
the identification of specimens of this difficult genus much easier. 

KEY TO FAMILIES AND GENERA OF BARNACLES KNOWN TO OCCUR IN PERU. 

a\ Sessile barnacles. 

&\ Walls symmetrical, conic, or subcylindrical ; movable or opercular plates 

paired Family Balanid^e. 

c\ Wall composed of four compartments (the sutures sometimes obliterated 

externally) Genus Tetraclita. 

c^ Wall composed of six compartments. 

d\ Rostral compartment having overlapping radial areas at the sides, 

Genus Balanus. 
d^ Rostral compartment having side wings or ahie overlapped by the 

adjacent lateral compartments Genus Chthamalus. 

b'. Walls asymmetrical; only two dissimilar movable plates, 

Family Verrucid.e. 
Genus Verruca. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1700. 

63 



64 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

a^ Stalked or pedunculate barnacles. 

6\ Peduncle scaly ; capitulum composed of many stout plates, 

Family Scalpellid.e. 
Genus MiteUa. 

6^ Peduncle nude Family Lepadid.«. 

c\ Capitulum covered by five large thin plates Genus Lepas. 

c^ Plates of the capitulum very small or wanting Genus Conchodcrma. 

Family BALANID.^. 
Genus TETRACLITA Schumacher. 

Acorn barnacles composed of four compartments, externally cal- 
cified together, obliterating the sutures in some species ; permeated by 
pores in several rows; base flat, calcareous or membranous. 

The single Peruvian species is readily distinguished from Balanus 
by the absence of external sutures and the thick spongy walls. 

TETRACLITA POROSA (Gmelin). 
I'late IG, fig. 2. 

1791. Lcpas porosa Gmelin, Syst. Nat., 13th ed., p. 3212. 
1854. TctracUta porosa Gmeliu, Darwin, Monograph on the Cirripedia, 
BalauidiP, p. 320. 

Localihj. —Fayhx (Dr. W. H. Jones, U. S. Navy). 

The barnacle is rounded-oval in contour, conic, with a rather 
small orifice. The sutures are obliterated externally, though visible 
inside, and the outer layer of the Avall is removed in adult shells, 
leaving the surface peculiarly tessellated by exposure of the ends 
of the fiUed-up pores. The wall, viewed from the base, is seen to be 
reduced to a spongy texture by the crowded pores. The usual size 
is about 30 nun. long, 12 to 15 high. The opercular plates are tri- 
angular, as in Balanus. 

Genus BALANUS Da Costa. 

Acorn barnacles with walls composed of six compartments, the 
side areas or radii of the rostrum overlapping the alee of the adja- 
cent lateral compartments; lateral compartments with ahv on the 
rostral, radii on the carina! sides; walls permeated by usually only 
one row of pores or none ; rostrum with ala^ only. Opercular plates 
triangular, the scutum and tergum interlocking. 

Besides the following species, several others will probably, from 
their known distribution, be found on the Peruvian coast." 

'^Balanus amphitrite niveus Darwin has been reported from "Peru on Venus 
flex.'" by Weltner ; but Venus flexuosa is a species unknown on the west coast 
of America, and no other locality on that coast has been recorded for the 
barnacle in question. 



NO. 1700. O^ THE BARNACLES OF PERU—PILSBRY. 65 

BALANUS TINTINNABULUM (Linn«us). 

Plate 16, flg. 3; plate IS, figs. 5-S. 

175S. Lepas tintinnabulnm Linn^us, Syst. Nat., 10th Ed., p. 668. 
1854. Balanus tintinuabulum var. communis Darwin, Monograph on the 
Cinipedia, Balauidae, p. 195, pi. 1, figs, a, b. 

Localities. — Bay of Sechura, about midway between Bayovar and 
Matacaballa, 5 to 6 fathoms, R. E. Coker, April 10, 1907. Pacasmayo, 
from a chain on the pier, Dr. W. H. Jones, October 9, 1881. 

The barnacle varies from cylindric, with the orific3 as large as the 
base, to conic, volcano shaped. The height is about equal to the 
carino-rostral length, or sometimes is greater, in which case the basis 
forms part of the side walls. The largest Peruvian example seen 
measures 5 cm. high and long. Color varying from crimson to dull 
purple. Orifice longer than wide, more or less distinctly hexagonal. 
The parietes are not ribbed. The wide, conspicuous, transversely 
striate radii are level at the orifice. The sheath is glossy and nearly 
smooth, and the plates are smooth or weakly ribbed below it (pi. 16. 
fig. 3). 

The tergum is irregularly trapezoidal, the basal and basi-tergal 
sides about equal. It has a conspicuous sculpture of concentric lam- 
ellar ridges, joining by pairs at the occludent margin, and in the in- 
tervals fine stria? radiate from the apex. The plate is bent along a 
longitudinal line of flexure, the tergal third standing at an angle of 
about 15° with the rest of the surface. The articular furrow is very 
deep and narrow, the articular ridge high, usually overhanging at 
its lower end. Adductor ridge high, overhanging toward the tergal 
side (figs. 6, 8). 

The tergum is triangular, its spur long and separated from the 
scutal angle by fully double its width. The longitudinal furrow is 
usually reduced to an impressed line by the infolding of its edges. 
The external sculpture is otherwise like that of the scutum. Inside 
there is a wide and open articular groove, a strong articular ridge, 
and a stout rib running to the spur. Crests for the insertion of the 
depressor muscle are weak or wanting (figs. 5, 7). 

This is a common barnacle in all warm seas, probably derived from 
an oriental center. It is one of the most abundant forms carried on 
ship bottoms. Whether it reached the west coast of South America 
by natural means, or was carried there by commerce has not been 
ascertained. If it proves to be wanting in pleistocene or pliocene 
deposits of the west coast, the theory of recent introduction may 
safely be held. 

The Peruvian examples seen all belong to the typical form of B. 
tintinnahulum, which was called var. communis by Darwin. 
Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 5 



66 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

BALANUS PSITTACUS (Molina). 

Plate 16, figs. 1, 4 ; plate 18, figs. 1-4. 

1782. Lepas psittacus Molina, Saggio sulla storia iiaturale del Chili." 
1831. Balanm picas Lesson, Voyage autour du Monde de la Ooquille, 

Zoologie, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 445 (Concepcion, Talcahuano, S. Vincent, 

Chili). 
1854. Balanus psittacus Darwin, Monograph on the Cirripedia, Balanidie, 

p. 206, pi. 2. figs. 3 a-d (Arica to Chiloe I., Chili). 
1905. Balanus psittacus Vayssiere, Anuales de la Faculte des Sciences 

de Marseille, vol. 15, Fasc. V, p. 161, pi. 1, figs. 1^ (" Taleahuana," 

Chili). 

Localities.—Paciismayo (W. H. Jones) ; Chincha Islands and Pes- 
cadores Islands (R. E. Coker) ; Callao (Weltner). 

"VMien typically developed, this barnacle reaches a length of 16 to 
over 20 cm. It is more or less cylindric, pink or flesh colored, smooth- 
ish in old or large examples when not worn, but often showing ribs 
near the ends of the parietes, showing that the yoimg barnacles are 
ribbed. The orifice is large and hexagonal or quadrangular. The 
radii are very broad and transversely striated, and in old shells occupy 
only the upper portion of the cylinder, the rest being formed of the 
greatly lengthened base. The sheath is short, and the parietes are 
smooth inside. The pores which permeate the base and wall (parietes 
and radii) are often exposed by wear (pi. IG, fig. 1, Pacasmayo). 

This large form is what all but the first of the authors cited have 
described. It is apparently most fully developed on the Chilean 
coast, where it is fished in about G fathoms of water, and is esteemed 
a delicious food. Only one example from Peru of this large form has 
come under my notice, the one figured on pi. 16, fig. 1 (Cat. No. 15474, 
U.S.N.M.). It is less ponderous than Chilean examples. Darwin 
recorded it from a single Peruvian locality, Arica ; but this place is 

"The date of original publication of B. psittacus has been in doubt. Darwin's 
reference is "Molina, Hist. Nat. Chili (1788), vol. 1, p. 223." I have not seen 
the original edition of Molina's work. Five later editions are in the library 
of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. The earliest of these is 
entitled " Versuch I einer I Naturgeschichte I von I Chili. | von j Abbe J. 
Ignatz Molina. I Aus dem Italianischen iibersetzt, | von I J. D. Rrandis, | 
Doctor der Arzneywissenschaft. I mit einer Laudcharte. | mit Churfiirstl. Siichsi- 
cher Freyheit. | Leipzig, I bey Friedrich Gotthold .TacobJier 1786." In the 
translator's preface it is stated that the manuscript had been ready for publi- 
cation since 1784 — -four years earlier than Darwin's date. Lcpas psittacus is 
described on page 179. 

A French translation by M. Gruvel D. M. bears date of 1789. Lcpas psit- 
tacus is described on pages 179 and 328. An American edition translated " by 
an American gentleman" appeared at Middletovni, Conn., in 1808, and an 
English edition, apparently taken from the American, in 1809. The natural 
history matter seems to be practically identical in all of these editions. The 
second Italian edition, Bologna, 1810, evidently contains extensive interpola- 
tions, and the systematic list of animals is omitted; but in the preface the date 
of the original edition is given as 1782. 



NO. 1700. ON THE BARNACLES^ OF PERU—PILHBRY. 67 

now on Chilean territory. Besides the large form there is also on 
the Peruvian coast a littoral form of B. psittacus^ which agrees better 
with Molina's description than the large form hitherto considered 
typical. 

Examples from Chincha Islands, " abundant on the shore rocks" 
and Pescadores Islands, collected by R. E. Coker, are small, though 
clearly adult. They measure 3.5 to 4.5 cm. high, 2.5 to 3.5 in basal 
diameter. The shape is conic or vertical sided ; parietes irregularly 
ribbed, radii rather wide. The orifice is ovate, or angular at the sides 
and truncate at the rostral end. The color is dull whitish gray, some- 
times partly dull pink. The parietes are ribbed lengthwise inside 
below the sheath. The base is as flat as circumstances permit, and 
either forms no part of the side walls, or is but slightly excavated. 

A group from the Chincha Islands, No. 38692 U.S.N.M., is figured, 
of the natural size (pi. 16, fig. 4). 

The scutum is trapezoidal, the basi-tergal side parallel to the oc- 
cludent and about as long as the basal margin. The tergal third is 
bent at an angle of about 45° with the rest of the surface. The apical 
third or fourth of the surface is smooth, the rest sculptured with 
concentric lamellae and radial strise which crenulate the edges of the 
lamelhe. Inside there is a deep and narrow articular groove and a 
high acute articular ridge, which is confluent below with the ad- 
ductor ridge. The latter continues nearly to the base, arching over a 
cavity whirh peiietntfes nearly to the apex. The adductor muscle 
scar is Avell marked (figs. 3, 4). 

The tergum is long and narrow, terminating in a long beak, from 
one-third to one-fourth the length of the plate. The spur is long 
and narrow, near the scutal margin. The longitudinal groove has its 
sides closely folded together. The surface is sculptured otherwise like 
the scutum. Inside, the articular ridge overrides the rib running 
to the spur. Between this ridge and the carinal edge there is a short 
narrow longitudinal ridge. The ridges and the space betAveen them 
are jjurple. There are no crests for the depressor muscles (pi. 18, 
figs. 1, 2, Chincha Islands). 

While it is related to B. tinfinnahulum by the porous Avails and 
base, B. psitfaevs is very distinct by the narrow, long-beaked tergum 
and the arched-over cavity of the scutum. The opercular plates, in 
place, have the shape of a parrot's beak. 

BALANUS CONCAVUS Bronn. 

1838. Balanus concavus Bronn, Lethsea Geogiiostica, Vol. 2, p. 1155, pi. 36, 

fig. 12. 
1854. Balanus concavus Bronu, Darwin, Monogrnpli ou the Cirrii>e(iia, 

Balanidfe, p. 235 (Peru, etc.). 

Locality. — Peru (Darwin, Balanidae, p. 236) ; Island of S. Lorenzo 
in a recent elevated beach, 85 feet above the sea (Darwin). 



68 PROVEEUINGH OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

The barnacle is conical, orifice rather small, radii narrow. Surface 
generally smooth; color dull reddish-purple with whitish or darker 
rays, pale rose-pink with white rays, or wholly white. Diameter of 
the largest Peruvian (fossil) specimens about 4 cm. Recent ex- 
amples are smaller, often about 15-20 mm. in diameter. 

The scuta are striated longitudinally, beading or denticulating the 
transverse costulse. Articular ridge rather small; adductor ridge 
usually very prominent. 

Terga very slightly beaked. There is a longitudinal furrow, usu- 
ally deep, with the edges folded in and touching, extending doAvn to 
the spur. 

This species may be distinguished from B. amphitrite by the longi- 
tudinal striation of the scuta. 

BALANUS L.ffiVIS NITIDUS Darwin. 

Plate 17 ; plate 19, figs. 5-9. 

1854. Balanus Icevis Bruguiere var. nUidiis Darwin, Monograph on the 
Cirripedia, Kalauida>, p. 227, pi. 4, fig. 2 (Chili, Peru, California). 

Loeality. — Arica, on the gastropod Coneholepas peruviana Jja- 
marck; San Lorenzo Island, on i3ebbles at low tide (Dr. W. H. Jones, 
U. S. Navy) ; Peru, on Coneholepas (coll. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.). 

The barnacle is nude, not covered with a cuticle, conic, white or pale 
purple, or marked with purple lines near the summit; smoothish, 
with very narrow radii. Orifice small, ovate or trapezoidal, with an 
even, not toothed, margin. The parietes and calcareous base are 
porous; the purple lines often visible near the summit being caused 
by a purple calcareous filling of the parietal pores. The size varies 
from a carino-rostral diameter of 8 to 10 mm., the height being about 
the same, or in large crow^led groups they may become higher. 

The scutum is triangular, the basal and tergal margins of about 
equal length. Surface covered with a yelloAv cuticle, to which re- 
mains of old cuticle generally adhere; sculptured with fine transverse 
riblets and having one or two deep longitudinal furrows. Inside, the 
articular groove is narrow and deep, the articular ridge high and 
strong, projecting in a point below. The adductor ridge is massive 
and strong. The pit for the insertion of the lateral depressor muscle 
is very deej), passing almost or quite through the calcareous layer of 
the plate (figs. 6, 8, 9). 

The tergum has a broad spur, truncated at the end and nearly half 
as wide as the whole plate. The longitudinal furrow is wide, with 
the edges narrowly folded in. Surface elsewhere finely costulate 
parallel to the basal margin. Inside there is a moderate articular 
furrow and strong articular ridge. The crests for the depressor 
muscles are strongly developed (figs. 5, 7). 



NO. 1700. ON THE BARNACLED OF PERU—PILSBRY. 69 

This barnacle grows on the shell of the gastropod Concholepas 
peindnana Lamarck, wholly covering the outer surface, as showni in 
pi. 17, showing dorsal and ventral aspects of two shells so over- 
grown. The barnacle profits no doubt by riding a gastropod, but 
whether the Concholepas benefits hy the protection afforded is some- 
what in doubt. It is distinguished from B. Iwms Bruguiere, of more 
southern waters, chiefly by the diminished size and absence of cuticle 
over the outer walls. B. I. n'ttkhis is usually quite nude, but occa- 
sionally retains some of the cuticle around the base of the walls. 
The furrows of the scutum are characteristic and present in very 
many individuals I have examined, but Darwin mentions finding in- 
dividuals without the grooves. 

BALANUS PERUVIANUS, new species. 

Plate 19, figs. l-l. 

Locality. — Salt creeks at La Palasada, near Tumbez, growing on 
mangroves. 

Cotijpes.—CAit. Nos. 38691 and 38G92, U.S.N.M. 

A species of Darwin's Section 1). The parietes are ])ermeated by 
pores near the base ; the radii and base are not porous. 

General form conic, with flat or concave base and rather small 
aperture; dirty purplish white or dull purple; very solid and strong. 
The parietes are smoothish, without ribs, and only minutely rough- 
ened ; radii narrow, their summits sloping 
steeply; summits of the alse also steeply 
sloping. The aperture is pentagonal, with 
a strongly notched margin. The sheath is 
horizontally regularly ribbed, each rib bear- 
ing a row of short bristles pointing upward. 
Below the sheath the surface is strongly 
ribbed vertically. fi'- i.— bal.\nu.s peruvianus, 

The scutum is triangular, nearly half as lateral view. 

wide as long. It is white inside, dirty whitish outside, suffused with 
dull purple near the apex, and with a narrow streak of the same near 
the tergal margin. The basal margin is slightly curved, and the baso- 
tergal angle is rounded off. The surface is sculptured with flat, 
slightly overhanging concentric ribs parted by narrower intervals. 
There are uo radial striae. Inside there is a strong and very high 
articular ridge, a much lower adductor ridge joining it, and rapidly 
diminishing downward. Articular furrow deep. The cavity of the 
adductor muscle is very deep (figs. 3, 4). 

The tergum is bicolored, the scutal half white, carinal half dull 
purple. The spur is short, w^de, and obliquely truncate at the end. 
Its width is contained about two and a half times in the length of 




70 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

the basal margin. The outer face of the phite is flat, except that the 
scutal border is turned up a little; there is no longitudinal furrow, 
but two impressed lines run from apex to the sides of the spur. The 
surface is marked with concentric striae and low, flattened riblets, 
much less conspicuous than on the scutum. There are also numer- 
ous unequal radial striae, chiefly on the carinal half of the plate, and 
mostly rather weak. Inside there is a broad and rather deep articu- 
lar furrow^ and a massive though not high articular ridge. The 
crests for the depressor muscle are high, acute, and project beyond 
the basal margin of the plate. The carinal half of the interior is 
finely I'ugose throughout. 

Carino-rostral length of the base 31 mm.; width, 28.5 nnn. ; height, 
23 mm. Length of the scutum, 10.5 mm. ; width, 5 mm. Length of 
the tergum, 8 mm.; width, 5 mm. 

This species is related to B. glandida Darwin of California. It 
differs from that species chiefly by the shape of the scutum, w^hich is 
narrower than in B. glandida^ and differs in the shape and propor- 
tions of the ridges of the interior. (Compare Darwin, Balamdw^ pi. 7, 
fig. \a). B. glandula^ moreover, has the "walls rugged, longitudi- 
nally folded." B. trigonus Darwin differs by having rows of pits 
on the scutum and longitudinal ribs on the parietes. It is almost 
identical with 'peruinanu8 in the shapes of the opercular plates. 

The pores of the parietes are filled up except close to the base, and 
might readily be overlooked. The base is solid. In these features 
B. peruvlanus resembles B. glandida and B. trigomis. Unlike B. 
patellaris (Spengler), the base (Miryes to fit the shape of the support. 

BALANUS TRIGONUS Darwin. 

1854. Bulanuft trigonus Dakwin, JNIonograpli on the Cirripedia, Balanidje, 
p. 223, pi. 3, figs, lu-lf. 

Locality. — Peru, without special locality (Darwin). Also reported 
from (California, Australia, and New Zealand (Darwin). The origi- 
nal description by Darwin is as follows: 

Shell conical, generally depressed; parietes ribbed, mottled pnrplish red; 
orifice broad, trigonal, hardly toothed. Scutum thick, with from one to six 
longitudinal rows of little pits. Tergum without a longitudinal furrow; spur 
truncated, fully one-third of the width of valve. 

The scutum and tergum resemble those of B. peruvkim/^ in outline, 
but differ in sculpture. No definite locality in Peru has been 
recorded. 

Genus CHTHAMALUS Ranzani. 

Barnacles like Balamis in general appearance, but the rostrum has 
alae, or underlying side areas, while in Balunus these areas lie over 
the adjacent edges of the lateral compartments. They are small 



y. 



NO. 1700. 



ON THE BARNACLES OF PERU—PIL8BRY. 



71 



and almost always very deeply eroded, dull and gray, with little of 
the original surface remaining on the exterior of either wall or 
movable plates. The specific characters are most clearly exhibited 
in the shape of the scuta, or larger opercular plates. 

CHTHAMALUS CIRRATUS Darwin. 

1854. CMliamalwi elrratus Darwin, Monograph ou the Cirripedia, Balan- 
idje, p. 461, pi. 18, figs. 4a, 4b. 

Localities. — Northeast side of San Lorenzo Island, shore, on rocks ; 
Pescadores Islands, on Balanus psittacus Molina (R. E. Coker). 

The barnacle is small, diameter of base 10 to 13 mm., and usually 
low, irregular in contour, the individuals often crowded, forming a 
crust on the rocks. Wlien free the peripheral portion is costate and 
strongly crenated or toothed at the edge. The upper part of the wall 




FlO. 



-Chtham.\lits cireatu.s. inside views of tergdji and scutdm enlarged, and 
group of three entire animals, nat. size. 



and the opercular plates are deeply eroded, dull gray. The sutures 
are obliterated. The orifice is rather large. The interior is dull 
purplish. 

The sutures of the opercular plates form a figure the shape of the 
Greek letter *. The scutum is triangular, the articular groove mak- 
ing a deep notch at the tergal side. Articular ridge well developed. 
The adductor muscle impression is very deep. The tergum has a 
ridge inside along the upper and scutal margins. The baso-carinal 
angle projects. There are two very short crests for the insertion of 
the depressor muscles. 

This species is most readily recognized by the shapes of the terga 
and scuta, both differing conspicuously from those of C. scahrosvs. 
According to Darwin, large specimens from Coquimbo and Val- 
paraiso have a height of 1 inch with a basal diameter of half as much. 
All of those I have seen from Peru are depressed. 



72 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

CHTHAMALUS SCABROSUS Darwin. 

1854. Chthamalns scabrosu.s L).\r\vin, Monograph on the CirriptMli.i, Balan- 
ida>; p. -iUS. pi. ]<), fig. 2. 

Locality. — Peru to Falkland Islands (Darwin). 
The barnacle is dull jjurplish brown when weW preserved, dirty 
gray when eroded; surface generally rugged. 

Aeeordhig to Darwin the opercular plates generally have llieir summits much 
worn down. The scuta are elongated in the line of the longer axis of the orifice ; 
the articular ridge is very prominent, and is placed in the middle of the tergal 
margin. The terga are very narrow; they are remarkable in two respects, 
namely, in the depressor muscle being attached to a plate formed apparently by 
the union of the usual crests, parallel to the outer lamina of the valve itself, 
a deep narrow cavity being thus formed; and secondly, in the far more extraor- 
dinary circumstance of the existence of a small pit at the extreme basi-scutal 
corner of the valve, in which about half of the scutal lateral depressor muscle is 
attached. 

No definite locality in Peru has been recorded. 

Family VERKUCID.^ Darwin. 

Genus VERRUCA Schuniacher. 

Sessile, box-like cirripedes, Avith u shell composed of six plates. 
Scuta and terga without depressor muscles, movable only on one 
side, on the other immovably united with the rostrum and carina into 
an asymmetrical shell. 

VERRUCA L.ffi:VIGATA (Sowerby). 

71826. CUlia lavigata Sowerby, Genera of Recent and Fossil Shells, figs. 1. 8. 
1854. Tenuca lavigata Sowerby. Darwin, ;Monograph on the Cirripedia, 
Balanidae, p. 520, pi. 21, fig. 3. 

Locality. — Tierra del Fuego to Peru, attached to shells and to Ba- 
lanus (Darwin). Tumbez (Weltner). 

Family SCALPELLID.^. 

• Genus MITELLA Oken. 

Valves of the capitulum from 18 to over 100 in number, all with the 
umbones apical above; latera of the lower whorl numerous. A sub- 
rostrum always present. Peduncle closely scaly. These barnacles 
live attached to fixed, or rarely, floating objects. 

MITELLA ELEGANS (Lesson). 

1831. rollicipes <h'ganfi Lesson, Yoy. autour du Monde de "la Coquille" 
Zoologie, pi. 2. p. 441 ; Illustrations Zoologitjnes. iil. 30. 

1851. /'. clegans Lesson, Darwin, Monograph on the Cirrlpe<lia, Lepadidae, 
p. 304. 

Locality. — Payta, on piles (Lesson) ; Lobos Island (Cuming). 



I 



NO. 1700. ON THE BARNACLES OF PERU—PILSBRY. 73 

The capitiilum has two or more rows of valves under the rostrum. 
Valves and scales of the peduncle are reddish orange, the latter sym- 
metrically arranged in close whorls. 

Family LEPADID^ Darwin. 

Genus LEPAS Linnaeus. 

Valves 5, approximate, thin; carina extending up between the 
terga, terminating below in an embedded fork or external disk ; scuta 
subtriangular, umbones at the rostral angle; caudal appendages uni- 
articulate; peduncle long and nude. 

Common barnacles in all seas, on floating objects such as buoys, 
driftwood, or ships' bottoms. Most of the species are almost world- 
wide in distribution. The following key includes those likely to be 
found on the Peruvian coast, though up to this time only two species 
have actually been recorded. 

KEY TO SPECIES. 

fl\ Carina terminating below in a flat oblong external disk, umbo angularly pro- 
jecting; valves thin, papery L. fascicularis. 

a'. Carina terminating below in a fork, umbo basal; valves well calcified. 
&\ Valves radially furrowed or strongly striate. 

c\ Occludent margin of the scutum arched, protuberant L. anserifera. 

cc". Occludent margin close to the ridge from the umbo to the apex, 

L. pectinata. 
b". Valves smooth or very minutely striate radially, 
c*. Valves smooth or delicately striate; an internal umbonal tooth on the 

right-hand scutum L. atiatifera. 

&. Valves not striate radially ; no internal umbonal teeth on the scuta, 

LEPAS ANATIFERA Linnaeus. 

19{yr. Lepas atiatifera LinniBus, Pilsbry, Cirripedia of the U. S. National 
Museum, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 60, p. 79, pi. 9, figs. 3-5. 

Locality. — Chincha Islands, abundant on bottoms of " lanchas " 
(lighters) used in embarking guano (R. E. Coker). 

LEPAS PECTINATA Spengler. 

1907. Lepas pectinata Spengler, Pilsbry, Cirripedia of the U. S. National 
Museum, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 60, p. 81, pi. 8, figs. 4-8. 

Locality. — Peru, without special locality (Weltner). 

Genus CONCHODERMA Olfers. 

Nude cirripedes, with the peduncle long, capitulum generally 
striped or maculate, with two to five small vestigeal widely sepa- 
rated plates; scutum at base of the orifice, two or three lobed, with 
the umbo near the middle on the occludent border; carina narrow 



74 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

arched, with the two ends aearly alike, umbo near the middle ; some- 
times it is wanting; terga small or, in adults, sometimes wanting. 
Lateral filaments numerous; mandibles with five finely pectinated 
teeth ; maxillae with distinct steps. Caudal appendages none. Cirri 
with the spines arranged comb-like. 

These pelagic forms live on whales' " bonnets," turtles, the bottoms 
of ships, buoys, etc. The two species are nearly or quite world-wide 
in distribution. C. im^gatum is a handsomely striped form, with the 
plates rather well developed, though small, and without fleshy ear- 
like processes. It has been reported from Iquique, Chile, and from 
California. While not yet known from Peru, it doubtless occurs on 
that coast. C. auritum is readily known by the two large "• ears " 
rising behind the positions of the terga. The terga and carina are 
very small, sometimes absent in adults. 

CONCHODERMA AURITUM (Linnaeus). 

1907. C. auritnm Linnfens, Pilsbry, Cirripedia of the U. S. National Mu- 
seum, Bull. IT. 8. Nat. Mus., No. 60, p. 99, pi. 9, flg. 2. 

Locality. — Tumbez, on Coronula diadema growing on a whale 
(Weltner). 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 16 



!;;im4- 



d 



/■■ ) 



Wh 




i-'i 



-^,^ 



^ 




'f %j 




-•^-j^^^y^^fK 



1, 4, BaLANUS PSITTACUS; 2, TETRACLITA POROSA; 3, BaLANUS TINTINNABULUM. 
For explanation of figures see pages 64, 65, 66. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS. VOL. 37 PL. 17 




i^L^*'', 




Balanus l/evis nitidus on the Shell of Concholepas. 

For explanation of figures see page 68. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 18 




1-4, Balanus psittacus; 5-8, Balanus TINTINNABULUM. 
For explanation of figures see pages 65, 66. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 19 




1-4, Balanus PERUVIANUS; 5-9, Balanus L/EVIS NITIDUS. 
For explanation of figures see pages 68, 69. 



ISOPODS COLLECTED IN THE NORTHWEST PACIFIC BY 
THE U. S. BUREAU OF FISHERIES STEAMER " ALBA- 
TROSS " IN 1906. 



By Harriet Richardson, 

Collaborator, Division of Marine Invertebrates, U. S. National Museum. 



The following report is of the Isopocla collected by the U. S. 
Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross during its cruise in 1906, from 
San Francisco to Alaska, the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, Kam- 
chatka, Japan, etc. A large number of specimens were obtained, in- 
cluding known species and twenty-nine new ones. The new forms 
are herein described and a list of the known species given with their 
stations. References to the literature are to be found at the end of 
the paper. 

CYMOTHOIDEA or FLABELLIFERA. 

Family GNATHIID^. 

Genus GNATHIA Leach. 

GNATHIA TUBERCULATA, new species. 

Body oblong, ovate. 

Head large, squarish, with the anterior margin produced in a 
rounded lobe and the antero-lateral angles acute. The eyes are small, 
round, composite, and situated at the base of the antero-lateral angles 
of the head. The surface of the head is granulate and covered with 
numerous small spines. 

The first pair of antenna? have the first two articles short and sub- 
equal ; the third is twice as long as the second ; the flagellum is com- 
posed of five articles. The second pair of antennae have the basal 
article short, the last two articles elongate ; the flagellum is composed 
of seven articles. The mandibles are large and conspicuous, and 
project straight in front, with their inner edges contiguous along the 
middle and the tips crossing. There is a small dentation about the 
middle of the outer margin. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1701. 

75 



76 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUil. 



VOL. 37. 




Fig. 1. — Gnathia tcber- 
cuLATA. Head and 

THOEAS. X lih- 



On the ventral side of the head the anterior margin is provided 
with four spines on either side close to the antennae and within them. 

The first segment of the thorax is short and 
narrow and almost inconspicuous. The sec- 
ond segment is about half as long as the third, 
but is equally wide. The second is covered 
with small spines and tubercles, the third at 
the sides and on the posterior half. The 
fourth segment is a little longer than the 
third and a little narrower; it is also fur- 
nished with tubercles. The fifth segment is 
one and a half times longer than the fourth 
and has only a very few tubercles on the 
dorsal surface. The sixth segment is a little 
shorter and a little narrower than the fifth 
segment and is furnished with but few tuber- 
cles, more, however, than on the fifth segment. 
The seventh segment is short and almost in- 
conspicuous. 

The abdomen is abruptly about half as wide 
as the sixth thoracic segment. The five ante- 
rior segments are subequal. The terminal 
segment is produced to a long, narrow extremity. The inner angle of 
the peduncle of the uropoda is produced and extends about half the 
length of the inner branch. The branches 
are similar in shape and size, the inner one 
being a little longer than the outer and also 
a little longer than the tip of the terminal 
segment of the abdomen. Both are fringed 
with long hairs. 

The fourth pair of 
legs have the basis 

furnished with two long spines, one being at the 
distal extremity and the other about the middle; 
the ischium is furnished with one spine and the 
merus with one. The fifth pair have the basis 
furnished with three spines on the exterior mar- 
gin ; the ischium is furnished with one spine and 
the merus with one. The sixth pair have the 
basis furnished with four spines, (The rest of 
the leg is lost in the only specimen.) The first 
pair of legs are modified into an operculum cov- 
ering the mouth parts; each appendage is com- 
posed of three articles, the last one being minute. 
Only one specimen, a male and imperfect, comes from station 4831, 
on the way from Nanao, Hondo, Japan, to Isuruga, Hondo, Japan, 





Fig. 2. — Gnathia tuberculata. 
Anterior maegin of head 

(VENTRAL). X 27h- 



Fig. 3. — Gnathia tu- 
berculata. ab- 
DOMEN. X 275. 



NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 



77 




at Sudzii Misaki Light, N. 68° W., 24 miles (lat. 37° 22' 30" N.; long. 
137° 47' E.) at a depth of 619 fathoms in green mud. 
Type-S'pecimen.— Cut No. 39496, U.S.N.M. 

Family ANTHURID.^. 

Genus PARANTHURA Bate and Westwood. 

PARANTHURA JAPONICA, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate. Color, in alcohol, yellow, Avith irregular 
markings of black. 

Head about as long as wide, 1 mm. : 1 mm. Anterior margin exca- 
vate and with a small median point. Eyes rather large, round, com- 
posite and placed in the antero-lateral angles. 
The first pair of antennse have the first article of 
the peduncle elongate; the second and third are 
subequal in length, and both together are not 
longer than the first article; the flagellum con- 
sists of four articles, the last of which is minute. 
The second pair of antenna} have the second article 
elongate; the third and fourth short and subequal, 
and both together not longer than the second ; the 
fifth is about one and a half times longer than the 
fourth; the flagellum consists of a single, taper- 
ing article, furnished with hairs. 

The first five segments of the thorax are sub- 
equal in length, each being 1| mm. long. The 
sixth segment is shorter, being only 1 mm. long. 
The seventh is half as long as the sixth, being 
The first five segments of the abdomen taken together are equal in 
length to the sixth thoracic segment. These seg- 
ments are all fused in the middle of the dorsal 
region but are distinct at the sides. The sixth 
segment is almost as long as half the length of 
the other five segments taken together. The 
telson is liguiform, with the posterior extremity 
rounded. The peduncle of the uropoda extends 
about three-fourths the length of the terminal 
abdominal segment. The inner branch is short, 
rounded posteriorly, and does not extend be- 
yond the extremity of the terminal abdominal 
segment. The outer branch arches over the 
telson and is as long as the peduncle of the 
uropoda. 

The first three pairs of legs are prehensile, 
the first pair being stouter and larger than the others. The last 
four pairs are ambulatory. 



Fig. 4. — Paraxthuea 
JAPONICA. Head 

AND FIRST THREE 
SEGMENTS OF 
THORAX. X 91. 

mm. in length. 




Fig. 5. PARANTHURA 

JAPONICA. Last 

FOUR SEGMENTS OF 
THORAX AND ABDO- 
MEN. X 91. 



78 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Only one specimen, a female, was collected at Mororan, Japan, on 
the shore. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 39497, U.S.N.M. 

Family CIROLANID.^. 

Genus BATHYNOMUS A. Milne Edwards. 

BATHYNOMUS DODERLEINI Ortmann. 

Bathynomns dodcrlcini Ortmann, Pi-oc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, pp. 191- 
193.— BouviER, C. R. Acad. Sci., vol. 132, pp. 643-645.— A. Milne Edwards 
and BouviER, Mem. Miis. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, vol. 22, No. 2, 1902, 
pp. 159-165, pis. 7, 8. 

Locality. — Tavo fine specimens were collected at station 5067, in 
Suriiga Gulf, Japan, at Ose Saki, 50° E., 6.5 miles (lat. 35° 05' 50" 
N.; long. 138° 41' 15" E.). 

Depth. — Two hundred and ninety-three fathoms in broken sand 
and shells. 

The type-specimens of this species were collected in Sagami Bay, 
near Enoshima, Japan. The flagelli of the second pair of antennae 
were broken in both specimens, the longest fragment being com- 
posed of 25 articles and reaching to the end of the first segment of 
the thorax. In the two perfect specimens obtained by the Bureau 
of Fisheries steamer Albatross., the flagelli are entire and extend to 
the posterior margin of the fourth thoracic segment in one specimen 
and almost to the posterior margin of the fifth thoracic segment in 
the other specimen. The articles in the flagellum number about 73. 

Family CORALLANID^F]. 

Genus ALCIRONA Hansen. 

ALCIRONA NIPONIA, new species. 

Bodj" narrow, elongate, nearly three times as long as wide (4 mm. : 
11 mm.). Surface smooth. Color, in alcohol, pale yellow. 

Head twice as wide as long (1 mm.: 2 mm.). Anterior margin 
widely rounded. Eyes small, round, composite, and situated in the 
post-lateral angles. The first pair of antenna^ have the first two 
articles of the peduncle short and subequal; the third is about one 
and a half times longer than the first two combined ; the flagellum 
is composed of about 11 articles and does not quite reach the pos- 
terior margin of the first thoracic segment. The second antennae, 
with a flagellum of 19 articles, extend to the posterior margin of the 
third thoracic segment. 

The segments of the thorax are about equal in length with the 
exception of the first, which is a little longer. Epimera are present 
on all the segments, except the first; those of the second and third 



NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 



79 



segments do not extend beyond the posterior margin of the segment 
and are quadrangular ; those of the last four segments have the outer 
post-lateral angle produced so that they extend beyond the posterior 
margin of the segment, each being increasingly longer. Each 
epimeron is furnished on the outer post-lateral angle with a bunch of 
long hairs, a most conspicuous feature. 

The first two segments of the abdomen are entirely concealed. The 
three following are short and subequal. The terminal segment is 
triangular, with apex rounded. The inner branch of the uropoda 
IS about twice as wide as the outer branch and is a little longer. It 
is widely rounded posteriorly and extends a 
little beyond the tip of the abdomen. Both 
branches, as well as the terminal segment of the 
abdomen, are furnished with hairs and a few 
spines. 

The first three pairs of legs are prehensile, the 
other four pairs ambulatory. In the first pair of 
prehensile legs the merus is armed with four 
blunt spines, the car|)us with one, the propodus 
with seven rounded teeth, and the dactylus with 
four low rounded serrations. 

Only one specimen, a male, was collected at sta- 
tion 4879, in the eastern channel of Korea Strait, 
vicinity of Oki Shima, S. 70° W., 7.5 miles (lat. 
34° 17' N.; long. 130° 15' E.), at a depth of 59 
fathoms in fine gray sand and broken shells. 

This species is very close to Alcirona insularis 
Hansen " from Samoa, but differs in the character of the prehensile 
legs, in having a bunch of hairs on each epimeron at the outer post- 
lateral angle, and in having the first two segments of the abdomen 
entirely concealed. 

Type-specimen.— C2ii. No. 39498, U.S.N.M. 




Fig. 6. — Alcirona 
NiPONiA. Leg op 

FIRST PAIR. X 27J. 



Family ^GID^. 
Genus ^EGA Leach. 

.ffiGA SYMMETRICA Richardson. 



^ga symmetrica Richardson, Bull. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 24, 1905, 
pp. 211-212; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905. pp. 185-187. 

Localities. — Station 4771, on " Bowers Bank," Bering Sea, at lat. 
54° 30' N.; long. 179° 17' E., and station 4772, at lat. 54° 30' 30" N. ; 

"Vidensk. Selsk. Skr. 6te Rsekke, naturvidenskabelig og mathematisk Afd., 
vol. 5, pt. 3, 1890, pp. 393^395, pi. 8, figs. 2-2n. 



80 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

long. 179° 14' E. ; station 4781, on the way from " Petrel Bank," 
Bering Sea, to McDonald Bay, Agattii Island, Aleutians, by the pas- 
sage east of Semisof)Ochnoi and Amchitka Islands, at lat. 52° 14' 30" 
N. ; long. 174° 13' E. 

Depth. — Three hundred and forty-four to four hundred and eighty- 
two fathoms in fine gray sand and pebbles, in green and brown sand, 
and in broken shells. 

JEGA MAGNOCULIS, new species. 

Body ovate, about twice as long as wide (11 mm. : 21 mm.). Sur- 
face smooth. Color, in alcohol, yellow. 

Head wider than long, 2^ mm. long by 5i mm. wide. Front pro- 
duced in a small median point, separating the basal articles of the 
first antenna?. Eyes large, oval, occupying almost the entire surface 
of the head, and separated from each other by a distance equal to 
half a millimeter. The first pair of antennae have the two basal ar- 
ticles not dilated, and subequal; the third is narrow, elongate, and 
equal in length to the first two articles taken together ; the flagellum is 
compo.sed of eighteen articles. The first antennas 
extend to the posterior margin of the first thoracic 
segment. The second antennae, with a flagellum 
of twenty-one articles, extend to the posterior mar- 
gin of the third thoracic segment. The frontal 
^'nocdl^^'' H rro lamina is conical, with the distal end flat and 
AND FiBST TWO sEG- ovate, tlic proxlmal end produced to a point- 
MENTs OF THORAX. ^j^^ scgmcuts of thc thorax are subequal. the 
last one being slightly shorter than the others. 
The epimera are large, subquadrate, with the outer post-lateral angle 
acute and produced posteriorly in the last three segments beyond the 
posterior margin of the segments. 

The first segment of the abdomen is almost entirely covered by 
the seventh thoracic segment, especially in the middle dorsal region; 
the following three segments are subequal; the fifth segment is 
slightly longer in the middle dorsal region; the sixth or terminal 
segment is rounded, with the apex produced in a small point, on either 
side of which the posterior margin is serrulate. The uropoda extend 
a little beyond the terminal abdominal segment; the inner branch 
is slightly longer than the outer branch, is also wider and has the ' 
posterior margin obliquely truncate, with the outer angle produced I 
acutely ; the outer branch is ovate with the posterior extremity acute. I 
Both branches have the margins serrulate. 

The first three pairs of legs are prehensile. There is one small i 
spine at the distal extremity of the propodus, and one larger spine | 
on the carpus. A few small spines are also on the merus. The last | 





NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC I80P0DS— RICHARDSON. 81 

four pairs of legs are ambulatory and are furnished with a few 
spines and hairs. 

Nine specimens of this species come from the following localities: 
Station 4772, on " Bowers Bank," Bering Sea, at lat. 54° 30' 30'' N. ; 
long. 179° 14' E., and station 4771, at lat. 50° 30' N.; long. 179° 17' 
E. ; station 4781, on the way from " Petrel Bank," Bering Sea, to 
McDonald Bay, Agattu Island, Aleutians, by the passage east of 
Semisopochnoi and Amchitka Islands, at lat. 52° 14' 30" N. ; long. 
174° 13' E., at a depth of 344-482 fathoms in broken shells, brownish- 
green sand, and fine gray sand and pebbles. 

This species is very close to ^ga symmetrica Richardson, but 
differs in the much larger and oval eyes, which are also closer together, 
in the greater number of articles in the flagellum of both pairs of 
antenna?, and the longer second antenna?, and in the 
lesser number of spines on the prehensile legs. 

Type-specimen.— Cat No. 39499, U.S.N.M. 

One specimen from station 4906, 10-20 miles 
southwest of Koshika Islands, Eastern Sea, at fig. 8.— ^ga syn- 
Tsurikake Saki Light, S. 85° E., 17.2 miles (lat. 31° 7^'™ "fwo 
39' N.; long. 129° 20' 30" E.), taken at a depth of segments of 
369 fathoms, I have doubtfully referred to this ''^'*^^^- ^ ^^■ 
species. It differs from the other specimens in the less oval eyes, in 
the shorter second antennae, which extend to the posterior margin of 
the second thoracic segment, and in the narrower and longer body, 
being 8^ mm. :20 mm. In color it is reddish brown. 

.ffiGA SYNOPTHALMA, new species. 

This species is very similar to the preceding, but differs in having 
the eyes confluent and not separated from each other; in having the 
first antennae, with a flagellum of only 12 articles, extending to the 
middle of the first thoracic segment; in having the second antenna?, 
with a flagellum of 16 articles, extending to the middle of the third 
thoracic segment ; in having the outer post-lateral angles of the first 
three epimera rounded and not acute ; and in having the distal end of 
the frontal lamina rounded and not flat, and more circular in outline 
instead of oval. 

Only one specimen comes from station 5091, in Uraga Strait (en- 
trance Gulf of Tokyo), at Joga Shima Light; N. 15° W., 4.2 miles 
(lat. 35° 04' 10" N.; long. 139° 38' 12" E.), at a depth of 197 
fathoms in green mud and coarse, black sand and pebbles. 

Type-specimen.— Cat. No. 39500, U.S.N.M. 
Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 6 



82 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Genus ROCINELA Leach. 
ROCINELA CORNUTA Richardson. 

Rocinela comma Eichardson, Proc. Amer. Pbilos. Soc, vol. 37, 1898, p. 12, figs. 
1-2; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 827; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 
vol. 4, 1899, p. 169; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, p. 219; Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 192-193. 

Locality.— ^i'Aiion 4772, on " Bowers Bank," Bering Sea, lat. 54° 
30' 30" N.; long. 179° 14' E. 

Depth. — Three hundred and forty-four fathoms in green and brown 
sand. Only one specimen found. This is the only one, besides the 
type-specimen, which has been taken. 

ROCINELA BELLICEPS (StimpsonV 

Mga belliceps Stimpson. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila., vol, 16, 1864, p. 155. 

^ga alascensis Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 1877, pt. 1, p. 46. 

Rocinela alascensis Richardson, Proc. Amer. Phllos. Soc, vol. 87, 1898. p. 11. 

Rocinela belliceps Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 827; 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, p. 169; American Naturalist, vol, 34, 
1900, p. 219 ; Harriman Alaska Expedition, Crust., vol. 10, 1904, p. 214 ; Proc. 
U, S, Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, p. 659 ; Bull. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 24, 
1905, p. 213; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 199-201. 

Localities. — Unalaska; Nazan Bay, Atka; station 4782, on the 
way from Agattu Island to Chichagof Harbor, Attu Island, by 
the Semichi Islands, Aleutians, at East Cape, Attu Island, S. 
22° W,, 4 miles (lat, 52° 55' N.; long. 173° 27' E.) ; station 4784, 
on the way from Chichagof Harbor, Attu Island, around eastern 
end and south of Attu Island to Preobrajenij^a Bay, Medni Island, 
Komandorski Islands, at East Cape, Attu Island, S. 18° W., 4 
miles (lat. 52° 55' 40" N,; long. 173° 26' E.) ; station 4803, on 
the way from Milne Bay, Simushir Island, Kuril Islands, to Ha- 
kodate, Hokkaido, Japan, by the Boussole Strait, at Cape Rollin, 
Simushir Island, N. 59° W., 9 miles (lat. 46° 42' N,; long. 151° 
45' E.) and station 4804, N, 58° W., 9,7 miles (lat. 46° 42' N.; long. 
151° 47' E.) ; station 4812, on the way from Hakodate, Japan, to 
Ebisu, Sado Island, Sea of Japan (by the Tsugaru Strait), at north 
point Sado Island, S. 31° W., 15 miles (lat. 38° 33' N. ; long. 138° 40' 
E.) ; station 4860, on the way from Matsu Shima, Sea of Japan, to Na- 
gasaki, Japan, at C. Clonard, S. 23° W., 13 miles (lat. 36° 18' N. ; 
long. 129° 44' E.) ; station 4779, on "Petrel Bank," Bering Sea, at 
Semisopochnoi Island, r. t, S. 59|° W,, 1. 1. S. 37° W. (lat. 52° 11' N. ; 
long, 179° 57' W.). 

Depth. — Shore; 54-229 fathoms in green mud, fine brown mud, 
black sand, coarse pebbles, rocks, gravel, broken shells. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 83 

Remarks. — There are four spines on the propodus of the prehensile 
legs in these specimens. 

ROCINELA ANGUSTATA Richardson. 

Rocinrla laticauda Richardson (not Hansen), Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc. vol. 37, 
1898, pp. 14-15, figs. 5-6; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 828 (part). 

Rocinela angustata Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904. p. 33; Bull. 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 24, 1905, p. 214 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 
1905, pp. 206-207. 

Locality. — Station 503G, south coast of Hokkaido at Urakawa 
light, N. 444° E., 16.8 miles (lat. 41° 58' N.; long. 142° 30' 30" E.) ; 
station 5045, at lat. 42° 11' 10" N. ; long. 142° 12' E. 

Depth. — 359-464 fathoms in brown mud, fine black sand and in 
coral and sand. 

ROCINELA MACULATA Schioedte and Meinert. 

Rocinela maculata Schicedte and Meinert, Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (3), vol. 
12, 1879-80, p. 393, pi. 12, figs. 10-12 ; vol. 14, 1883-84, p. 413, pi. 18, fig. 13.— 
Bovallius, Biliang till Kgl. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handling., vol. 10, No. 11, 1885, p. 
10, pi. 2, figs. 18-23. — Hansen, Vidensk. Meddel. naturli. Foren. i. Kj0bh., 
1887, p. 187.— Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 198-199. 

Locality. — Station 4807, on the way from Hakodate, Japan, to 
Ebisu, Sado Island, Sea of Japan (by the Tsugaru Strait) at Cape 
Tsiuka, S. 58° W., 10.3 miles (lat. 41° 36' 12" N.; 
long. 140° 36' E.). 

Depth. — Forty-four fathoms, in shells and coarse 
gravel. This species has been recorded from West 
Greenland, Vladivostok, Kamtchatka, and east Asia, p i g. o.— rocinela 

The specimen taken by the Bureau of Fisheries niponia. head 

^ 111 1 j» 1 ^^^ FIRST TWO SEG- 

steamer Albatross has a black spot on the fourth ments of thorax. 
and fifth segments of the abdomen on either side ^ ^=- 
as well as on the last segment at the base. The spines on the propodus 
are not as long as mentioned in the description of the type by Schioedte 
and Meinert. 

ROCINELA NIPONIA, new species. 

Body ovate, a little more than twice as long as wide (8^ mm.: 
18 mm.). 

Head triangular in shape, 2 mm. long and 3 mm. wide, with the 
front produced in a broad median triangular process. Eyes large, 
composite, ajid separated in front by a distance equal to the length 
of one eye. The first pair of antennse extend to the posterior margin 
of the head and almost to the end of the peduncle of the second an- 
tennae; the flagellum is composed of six articles, the first one of which 
is twice as long as the second and the two terminal ones minute. The 




84 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

second antennae extend to the posterior margin of the second thoracic 
segment; the flagellum is composed of sixteen articles. 

The first, second, and seventh segments of the thorax are about 
equal in length ; the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth are slightly longer. 
The epimera of the second and third segments are f)Osteriorly rounded ; 
those of the four following segments are posteriorly acute, and in the 
last three segments are produced beyond the posterior margins of 
the segments. 

The first segment of the abdomen is covered in the middle by the 
last thoracic segment, but is visible at the sides; the three following 
segments are subequal; the fifth segment is narrower than any of 
the preceding segments, but is longer in the middle portion of the 
dorsal surface. The sixth or terminal segment is posteriorly tri- 
angulate, with the margin furnished with short spines and hairs. 

The uropoda do not extend beyond 
the extremity of the abdomen; the 
outer branch is slightly shorter and 
slightly narrower than the inner 
branch; they are both armed with 
spines and furnished with hairs. 
The posterior extremity of the inner 
liranch is more rounded than the 

Fig. 10. — RociNELA NiPONiA. Third LEG. outer brinch 

X 14^. ' 

The propodus of the first pair of 
prehensile legs is produced in a palmar process furnished with a 
marginal row of ten curved spines; the two following pairs of legs 
have eight spines on the propodus; the carpus is furnished with one 
long spine; the merus is furnished with five long spines, the most 
anterior one being very long, almost twice as long as the others. The 
last four pairs of legs are also furnished with numerous spines. 

Only one specimen, a female, was collected at station 4815, on the 
way from Hakodate, Japan, to Ebisu, Sado Island, Sea of Japan, at 
Niigata Light, S. 25° E., 21.5 miles (lat. 38° IC/ N. ; long. 138° 
52' E.), at a depth of 70 fathoms, in dark green sand. 

This species is very close to Rocinela propodialis Richardson, but 
differs in having 10 spines on the palmar process of the propodus of 
the first pair of legs and 8 on the next two instead of 6 teeth; in 
having five long, sharp spines on the merus instead of five low, blunt 
ones ; in having the posterior margin of the abdomen triangidate in- 
stead of rounded; and in having the last three epimera produced 
beyond the posterior margins of the segments instead of only the last. 

Type-specimen.— C2ii. No. 39501, U.S.N.M. 



I 




NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 



85 



Genus SYSCENUS Harger. 

SYSCENUS INFELIX Harger. 

Syscenus infelix Harger, Report U. S. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries for 
1878, pt. 6, 1880, pp. 387-390 ; Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. Harvard College, vol. 11, 
1883, No. 4, pp. 100-102, pi. 3, figs. 5-5a ; pi. 4, figs. 3-3h.— Richardson, Proc. 
Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 37, 1898. p. 8 (footnote) ; Amer. Naturalist, vol. 34, 
1900, p. 219 ; Proc, U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1901, p. 524.— Norman, Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 14, 1904, p. 437.— Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 
54, 1905, pp. 212-214. 

Harponyx pranzoides Sars, Forhandlungen 1 Videnskab Selsk. Christiania, 
No. 18, 1883, p. 60 (young). 

Rocincla lilljcborgii Bovallius, Bihang. till Vetensk. Akad. Handl., vol. 10, No. 
10, 1885, pp. 3-10, pis. 1-11. 

Syscenus Ulljeborgii Bovallius, Bihang. till K. Sv. Vet. Akad. Handl., vol. 11. 
No. 17, 1886-87, pp. 17-18. 

Locality.— Station 5066, at Ose Saki, S. 52° E., 7.3 miles (lat. 35° 
06' 05" N.; long. 138° 40' 20" E.). 

Depth. — Two hundred and eleven to two hundred and ninety-three 
fathoms, in fine black sand. 

Remarks. — Only one imperfect specimen was collected. 

SYSCENUS LATUS, new species. 

Body 41 mm. long and 20 mm. wide at its greatest width. Thorax 
broad, ovate; abdomen abruptly narrower than thorax, only 8 mm. 
wide at the base, and becoming gradually 
a little narrower from the anterior to 
the posterior extremity. Surface of body 
smooth. Color, in alcohol, yellow. 

Head nearly twice as wide as long, 
4 mm. : 7 mm. Front of head triangu- 
larly produced in the middle. Eyes en- 
tirely wanting, but ocular swellings are 
present, showing the position of the eyes. 
Ocular swellings large and occupying the 
entire lateral margin. The first pair of 
antenna^ have the first two articles about 
equal in length ; the third is twice as long 
as the second ; the flagellum is composed 
of thirteen articles and extends three arti- 
cles beyond the peduncle of the second 
antenna^. The second pair of antenna? 
have the first two articles short and sub- 
equal ; the third is a little longer than either the first or second ; 
the fourth and fifth are long and subequal. each being about as 




Fig. 11. — Syscenus latus. X 
1.3. (Drawn by Miss V. 
Dandridge.) 



86 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

long as the first three taken together; the flagellum is composed 
of twenty-eight or twenty-nine articles. The second antennae, when 
retracted, extend to the middle of the sixth thoracic segment. The 
frontal lamina is large, triangular in front, wedge-shaped, with 
the post-lateral angles produced and widely separating the basal 
articles of the second pair of antennae, f'irst, fifth, and sixth segments 
longest, and subequal, each being 4 mm. in length. Second, third, 
and seventh segments 3 mm. each in length ; fourth segment 3i- nun. 
long. The segments increa.se gradually in width to the fifth, which 
is the widest ; the sixth and seventh decrease in width gradually, the 
seventh being 12| mm. wade. Epimera are distinctly separated on 
all the segments with the exception of the first; they are broad 
plates, w4th the posterior extremities rounded. 

The abdomen is abruptly narrower than the thorax, the basal seg- 
ment being only 8 mm. wide. All six segments are distinct; the first 
is 1^ mm, long; the four following segments are 2 mm. in length. 
The post-lateral angles are acute and in the fifth segment are some- 
what produced. The fifth segment also has the posterior margin 
produced backward in a sharp, median point, about 1 mm. long. The 
sixth or terminal segment is 7^ mm.- wide and 10 mm. long; it is 
widely rounded posteriorly. The uropoda are about as long as the 
terminal segment; the inner branch is a little longer and a little 
wider than the outer branch; they are similar in shape and widely 
rounded posteriorly. 

The first three pairs of legs are prehensile, the last four pairs 
ambulatory. The last four pairs gradually increa.se in length, the two 
last pairs being extremely long. The legs are all free from spines. 

One large specimen, a female, comes from station 4907, 10-20 miles 
southwest of Koshika Islands, Eastern Sea, at Tsurikake Saki Light, 
S. 83° E., 14.7 miles (lat. 31° 39' 30" N. ; long. 129° 24' E.). Another 
small specimen, a young female, comes from station 4906, Tsurikake 
Saki Light, S. 85° E., 17.2 miles (lat. 31° 39' N. ; long. 129° 20' 30" 
E.). They were taken at a depth of 406 fathoms in gray globigerina 
ooze. 

This species differs from Syscenits infelix Harger in the much 
broader and more ovate thorax, in the narrower abdomen, the longer 
antenna) and antennulse, in the differently shaped head, terminal 
segment, and uropods, the broader frontal lamina, and the longer 
legs. The fifth abdominal segment also has a median point on the 
posterior margin produced backward, not found in S. infelix. 

Type-specimen.— C^i. No. 39502, U.S.N.M. 



NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS—RICHARDSON. 



87 



Family CYMOTHOID^. 

Genus MEINERTIA Stebbing. 

MEINERTIA TRIGONOCEPHALA (Leach). 

Cymothoa trigonoccphala Leach, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 12, 1818, p. 353. — Milne 

Edwards, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 3, p. 272. — De Haan, Faun. Japon., vol. 50, 

1850, p. 227, fig. 7a-b. 
Ceratothoa trigonocephaJa Schicedte and Meinert, Naturhist, Tidsskrift, (3), 

vol. 13, 1883, pp. 358-364, pi. 16, figs. 1-7. 
Meinertia trigonocephala Stebbing, Hist. Crust., 1893, p. 354. — Richardson, 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, p. 46. 

Locality. — Tanegashima, Japan. 



Genus LIVONECA Leach. 

LIVONECA PROPINQUA Richardson. 

Livoneca propinqua Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, pp. 37-38. 

Localities.— Stsition 5060, at Ose Said, S. 53° E., 7.3 miles (lat. 35° 
06' N. ; long. 138° 40' 10" E.) ; station 4967, going from Kobe, Japan, 
to Yokohama, Japan, at Shio Misaki Light, 
N. 83° E., 6.5 miles (lat. 33° 25' 10" N.; long. 
135° 37' 20" E.). 

Depth. — One hundred and ninety-seven 
fathoms in coarse black sand; 244 fathoms in 
brown mud, sand, and foraminifera. 

Host. — Mouth cavity of chalinura. 

LIVONECA SACCIGER, new species. 

Body of adult female, ovate, 20 mm. wide 
and 34 mm. long. Surface smooth. Color, 
in alcohol, pale yellow. 

Head almost as long as wide, 4 mm. : 5| mm. 
Anterior margin rounded and produced in a 
small median point. Posterior margin rounded. 
Eyes almost entirely absent, with only a slight 
trace of them. First pair of antenna^, com- 
posed of eight articles, extend to the antero-lateral angle of the 
first thoracic segment. Second pair of antenna^, composed of twelve 
articles, extend to the middle of the first thoracic segment. 

The first thoracic segment is 3 mm. long, the second 2f mm,, the 
third 3i mm., the fourth and fifth each 3J mm., the sixth 3^ mm., the 
seventh 2 mm. 

The first segment has the antero-lateral angles acutely produced. 
Epimera are present on all the segments, with the exception of the 
first, in the form of elongated plates, extending the entire length of 




Fig. 12. — Livoneca sac- 
ciGER. X 1.5. (Drawn 
by Miss V. Dandridge. ) 



88 PROCEEDINGS OP TTTE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

the segment, gradually becoming wider from the first to the last, and 
all with the posterior extremity rounded, sac-like. 

The abdomen is immersed in the seventh thoracic segment. The 
first four segments are about equal in length, each being about 1 mm. 
long; the fifth segment is a little longer, being 1^ mm. in length. 
The sixth or terminal segment is a little wider than long, 7 mm. : 8^ 
mm. It is posteriorly rounded. The uropods are equal in length, 
the inner one being a little wider and both rounded posteriorly. They 
do not reach the extremity of the terminal segment. The outer 
branch is 1 mm. wide and a little over 3 mm. long. 

All the legs are jjrehensile; the basis of the last four jaairs is 
furnished with a very low carina. 

Only one adult female comes from station 4957, having been col- 
lected on the way from Kagoshima, Kagoshima Gulf, Japan, to 
Kobe, Japan, by way of Bungo Channel and Inland Sea at Mizimoko 
Shima Light N. 22° W., 29 miles (lat. 32° 36' N.; long. 132° 23' E.), 
at a depth of 437 fathoms, in greenish-brown mud, fine gray sand, 
and foraminifera. 

Three young females and two males were collected at station 5044, 
on the south coast of Hokkaido, at lat. 42° 10' 40" N., long. 142° 
14' E. (approximate position), at a depth of 309 fathoms. They 
are from the mouth cavity of /Si/naphohranehus. 

The males differ from the females in the presence of eyes, the 
longer antennae of the first and second pairs, the first extending to 
the middle of the first thoracic segment, the second to the posterior 
margin of the first thoracic segment, and in the narrower and 
smaller body. The second antennae in the young female are also a 
little longer than in the adult. 

Type-specimen.— Cat. No. 39503, U.S.N.M. 

LIVONECA EPIMERIAS, new species. 

Body of adult female, elongate-ovate, almost twice as long as wide 
(15 mm.: 29 mm.). Surface smooth. Color, in alcohol, dark yellow. 

Head almost as long as wide (3 mm. : 4 mm.). Anterior margin 
widely rounded. Eyes small, distinct, and placed in the lateral 
angles. Posterior margin of head also rounded. First pair of 
antennae, composed of eight articles, extend to the antero-lateral 
angles of the first thoracic segment. Second pair of antennae, com- 
posed of seven articles on one side and eight on the other, extend 
one-third of the lateral margin of the first thoracic segment. 

The first segment of the thorax is 3^ mm. long, the second 2| mm. 
long, the third 2f mm., the fourth 3 mm., the fifth and sixth each 2f 
mm., the seventh 2 mm. All the segments are furnished with distinct 
epimera with the exception of the first. They are in the form of 
narrow plates, except the last, which are very broad. All, except 



\ 



NO. 1701. 



XONTHWEST PACIFIC If^OPOnS— RICHARDSON. 



89 



those of the fourth and fifth segments, extend to the posterior margin 
of the segment. The posterior extremities are rounded. 

The abdomen is deeply immersed in the seventh thoracic segment. 
The first four segments are about equal in length, each being 1 mm. 
long. The fifth segment is 1^ mm. long. The sixth, or terminal, 
segment is wider than long, being 10 mm. : 6^ mm. It is posteriorly 
rounded. The outer branch of the uropoda is a little wider arid a 
little longer than the inner branch. The outer is oval in shape, the 
inner more tapering. They are shorter than the abdomen, and do not 
reach its extremity. The outer branch is 1 mm. 
wide and 2^ mm. long. 

All the legs are prehensile; the last four are 
furnished with a rather high carina. 

Two specimens, both females, were collected 
at Hakodate, Japan. The second specimen has 
twelve articles to the second pair of antennae, 
but is otherwise similar to the first. 

The species is very close to Lironeca propinqua 
Eichardson," but differs in its larger size, in the 
shape of the head, the larger seventh epimera. 
the longer abdomen, and the differently shaped 
carina on the last four pairs of legs. 

It is also similar to Lironeca r<iynaudii Milne 
Edwards,'' but differs in the shape of the head 
and the epimera. 

This species differs from Livoneca- caudata 
Schicedte and Mienert " in the more rounded head, in the larger and 
more conspicuous epimera of the seventh segment, in the narrower 
abdomen as compared with the width of the thorax, in having the 
outer branch of the uropoda slightly longer instead of shorter than 
the inner branch, and in having a rather high carina on the basis of 
the last four pairs of legs. 

T tj pes pecimen.— Cat. No. 39504, U.S.N.M. 




Fig. 13. — L I V o n e c a 
EPIMERIAS. X 1.86. 
(Drawn by Miss V. 
Dandridge.) 



Family SPH^ROMID.E. 

Genus TECTICEPS Richardson. 



TECTICEPS RENOCULIS, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, very broad, 20^ mm. in length and 13 mm. in 
width. Surface minutely granulate. Color pink, with the lateral 
margins becoming white. 

" Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, vol. 27, 1904, pp. 37-38. 

^ Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 3, p. 262.— Schicedte and Meinert, (3), vol. 14, 1883-84, 
pp. 367-372, pi. 15, figs. 9-10. 

c Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift, (3), vol. 14, 1883-84, pp. .360-362, pi. 15, figs. 1-2. 



90 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 




Head wider than long, 7 mm. : 4 mm., wider anteriorly than poste- 
riorly, with the eyes, which are large, composite and kidney sliaped, 
situated in the posterior half, at the post-lateral angles. Front of 
head roundly produced. In a dorsal view both pairs of antennae are 
entirely concealed. The first pair have the basal article large and 

dilated; the second article is about half as 
large as the first ; the third is slender and 
elongate; the flagellum is composed of 
about 11 articles and extends to the posterior 
margin of the first thoracic segment. The 
second antenna^, with a flagellum of 11 ar- 
ticles, extend to the posterior margin of the 
third thoracic seginent. 

The fii'st segment of the thorax has the 
antero-lateral angles produced so as to sur- 
round the posterior half of the head. All 
the segments are about equal in length. The 
epimera are not distinctl}'^ separated from 
the segments; they are produced posteriorly 
in a quadrilateral process, with rounded 
angles. 

The abdomen consists of tAvo segments, 
the first of which has three suture lines, in- 
dicating partly coalesced segments. The second, or terminal, seg- 
ment is about twice as broad as long, 5| mm. : 11 mm. The posterior 
extremity is roundly truncate. A carina crosses the basal portion 
of the segment on either side. The inner branch of the uropoda 
is fixed, immovable, and does not extend beyond the posterior margin 
of the terminal abdominal segment. 
The outer, movable branch is much 
narrower than the inner branch, is a 
little longer, and is produced to a 
pointed extremity. In the female the 
outer branch is equal in length to the 
inner branch. 

The first two pairs of legs in the male 
are subchelate. In the first pair the 
propodus is large and oval in shape, 
and is armed on the inferior margin 
with stiff bristles and hairs. In the second pair of legs the propodus 
is long and narrow, and has a rudimentary pollex at the base. The 
following five pairs of legs are ambulatory and increase gradually 
in length. In the female only the first pair of legs are subchelate 



Fig. 14. — Tecticeps renoc- 
ULis. X 2.6. (Drawn 
by Miss V. Dandridge.) 




Fig. 15. — TECTiCEr.s rexoctlis. 

FiR.ST LEG OF MALE. X 14 J. 



and are similar to those of the male. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC IS!OPODS—RICnARDSO:S[. 91 

Twenty-three specimens, both males and females, were collected 
by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at stations 5023 
and 6024, off eastern coast, Saghalin Island, vicinity of Cape Pa- 
tience, in Okhotsk Sea, at Flat Hill, N. 53° W,, Cape Patience, 
S. T7° ^Y. (lat. 48° 43' 30" N.; long. 145° 3' E.), and N. 48° AV.; 
Cape Patience, S. 74° W. (lat. 48° 43' 10" N. ; long. 144° 53' 30" E.). 

This species differs from T. alascensis Richardson « in the shape of 
the terminal segment of the abdomen, which is truncate and not 
acutely triangular, in the shorter outer branch of the uropoda, in the 
broader body, and in the tuberculate character of the surface of the 
body. It differs from T. convexus Richardson ^ in the position of the 
eyes, which are placed in the posterior half of the head, and not in 
the middle as in T. convexus, in the shorter antenna?, in the differently 
shaped abdomen, the broader body and 
the tuberculate character of the sur- 
face of the body. It differs from both 
species in the shape of the eyes, which 
are semi-lunate or kidney-shaped. 

Type -specimen. — Cat. No. 39505, 
U.S.N.M. 

Genus SPH./EROMA Latreille. 

SPH^ffiROMA SIEBOLDI Dollfus. 

Bpliceroma sieholdi Dollfus, Notes from the 
Leydeu Museum, vol. 11, pp. 93-94, pi. 5, 
flg. 3a-3b. 

Locality. — Hakodate, Japan. 

Depth.— Siiriace. ^'«- i6.— tecticeps renoculis. 

. a T Second leg of male. X 144. 

Ihe type species came from Japan. 
The specimen, collected by the Bureau of Fisheries steamer Alba- 
tross, differs from the type as described by Dollfus in the longer 
first pair of antennae, which have a flagellum of eleven articles 
instead of eight, and the longer second pair of antennae, which have 
a flagellum of fifteen articles instead of ten. The tubercles on the 
abdomen form two longitudinal parallel rows, one on either side 
of the median line, not divergent rows. The other tubercles on the 
abdomen do not appear to be arranged in rows. The tubercles on 
the anterior part of the body are very small, hardly perceptible, 
and not numerous. 

Hansen '' does not mention this species in his list of those belonging 
to the genus Sphcerovta, but it belongs without question to this genus. 

« Bull. U. S. Nat, Museum, No. 54, 1905, pp. 276-278. 

' Idem, pp. 278-280. 

" Quart. Jouru. Microscopical Science, vol. 49, 1906, pp. 115-117. 




92 PROCEEDINCxS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Genus EXOSPH^^ROMA Stebbing. 

EXOSPH^ROMA OREGONENSIS (Dana). 

Exosphwroma oregonenais Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Thila., vol. 7, 1854-55, 
p. 177; U. S. Expl. VjXV. Crust., vol. 14, 1853, p. 778, pi. 52, fig. 4.— Stimpson, 
Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 0, 1857, p. 509.— Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Museum No. 54, 1905, pp. 296-298. 

Sphwroma oUvacea Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 1877, pt. 1, p. 45. 

Sphceroma oregonensis Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 836; 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, p. ISO; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 
1900, p. 223: Harriman Alaska Exp. Crust., vol. 10, 1904. p. 214; Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1004, p. 659. 

Localities. — Nazan Bay, Atka ; Unalaska ; Attn. 
Depth. — Shore, 

Genus CYMODOCE Leach. 

CYMODOCE JAPONICA Richardson. 

Cymodoce japnnica Richardson, Proc. TJ. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 31, 1906. pp. 7-8 

(male). 
Ci/ukmIocc affinis Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 31, 1906, pp. 11-12 

(female). 

Localities. — Hakodate Bay, Japan ; Otaru, Hokkaido ; Nanao ; Mo- 
roran, Japan; station 4879, at Oki Shimi, S. 70° AY., 7.5 miles (lat. 
34° 17' N.; long. 130° 15' E.) and station 4877, S. 37° W., 6.3 miles 
(lat. 34° 20' 30" N.; long. 130° 11' E.) ; station 4840, on the way 
from Saigo, Dogo Island, Oki Group, to Matsu Shima, Sea of Japan 
(off coast of Korea) at lat. 36° 46' N.; long. 132° 15' E. 

Depth. — Collected around surface light; shore; 59 fathoms in fine 
gray sand, broken shells ; 840 fathoms, in green mud and globigerina. 

Remarks. — Cymodoce a^nis is probably the female of Cymodoce 
japonica, and I therefore luiite these two species. A large number of 
specimens of both sexes were collected in the same locality, which has 
conviced me that the two species heretofore recognized are the same. 

Cymodoce acuta Eichardson " is the female of an unknown male, 
which is probably quite similar to Cymodoce japonica. The female of 
Cymjodoce acuta is very much like the female of Cymodoce japonica. 

One specimen, a male, which I have doubtfully referred to this 
species, was collected at station 4876 in eastern channel of Korea 
Strait, vicinity of Oki Shima, at S. 29° W., 5.3 miles (lat. 34° 20' N.; 
long. 130° 10' E.), at a depth of 59 fathoms, in fine gray sand and 
broken shells. It differs from the type in having longer uropoda 
and in having the body covered with thick hairs. It is a small speci- 
men and probably younger than the others in the collection. 

"Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, pp. 3S-39. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 93 

HOLOTELSON, new genus. 

Head of normal size. Basal article of first pair of antenna* with 
the distal posterior angle not produced in an acute process. 

Seventh thoracic segment in male produced backward in two small 
processes, one on either side of the median line. These processes are 
much smaller in the female, but are indicated. 

First segment of abdomen produced in the median line on the 
I30sterior margin in a small tubercle, represented in both sexes. 

Terminal segment of abdomen, with the posterior margin pro- 
duced backward in one long median process, at the base of which 
on either side is a small rounded process. The median process is 
shorter in the female, and the lateral processes are also reduced. 

The branches of the uropoda are similar in size in the male, the 
exojDod of the female being somewhat smaller than the endopod. 

The second pleopod of the male is furnished with a stylet. 

The exopod of the third pleopod is jointed near the extremity. 

Both branches of the fourth and fifth pairs of pleopods are fleshy, 
with transverse folds, and are without marginal 
setpe. The exopod of the fifth pleopod is jointed. 

This genus belongs in the section euhranchiatm 
of Hansen, but differs from the other genera in that 
section in not having the terminal segment of the 
abdomen emarginate. 

The type of the genus is Holotelsoii titberculatus^ 
the description of which follows: 

HOLOTELSON TUBERCULATUS, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, about twice as long as wide, '''"o n''™cu'la: 
5^ mm. : 11 mm. tds. pirst.an- 

Head wider than long, rounded in front, and with 
a small median point. Eyes round, composite, and 
placed at the post-lateral angles. The first pair of antennse have 
the basal article large and dilated, about twice as long as wide; 
the second article is short, about as wide as long, and nearly as 
wide as the basal article; the third article is narrow and elongate, 
being only half as wide as the second article and twice as long; 
the flagellum is composed of fourteen articles and extends to the mid- 
dle of the first thoracic segment. The second antennse have a flagellum 
of fifteen articles and extend to the middle of the second thoracic 
segment. 

The first segment of the thorax is about one and a half times longer 
than any of the following five segments which are of nearly equal 
length. The lateral parts of these segments are short and broad and 
produced at the post-lateral angles in rounded triangular processes. 



TENNA OF FEMALE. 
X 15J. 



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VOL. 37. 




Fig. 18. — Holotel- 
son tuberculatus. 
Abdomen of male. 
X ?>h 




The seventh segment is a little longer in the middle portion than any 
of the five preceding segments and is produced backward in two short 
rounded processes, one on either side of the median 
line, which extend over the first abdominal segment, 
covering its anterior portion. 

The first segment of the abdomen is longer in 
the middle portion than at the sides, and is pro- 
duced in the median line in a triangular process 
which ends in a small tubercle. There are two 
suture lines on either side, indicating partly coa- 
lesced segments. The terminal segment has a 
transverse row of three tubercles about the middle of the segment, 
one in the median line and one on either side. Posteriorly it is pro- 
duced in a long median process, about twice as long 
as wide and rounded at the extremity. At the base 
of this process on either side is a small, rounded 
tooth. The branches of the uropoda are about equal 
in size and similar in shape; they are oar-like and 
do not extend bej^ond the lateral teeth at the base of 
the median process. 

The female differs from the male in the sliorter 
terminal abdominal process, in the less pronounced 
teeth at the base of this process, in the shorter proc- 
esses on the posterior margin of the seventh abdominal segment, 
which are only slightly indicated, and in not having the first ab- 
dominal segment triangularly produced in the 
middle and terminating in a tubercle. 

Five specimens, two females and three males, 
Avere collected by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
steamer Albatross at Mororan, Japan, on the 
shore. 

The female of this species is similar to Spluc- 
roma aspera Haswell "' from Port Jackson, Aus- 
tralia, but dilfers in having three tubercles in a 
transverse line about the middle of the terminal 
segment, in lacking the '" prominent tubercle on 
the posterior margin on either side of the middle 
line " of the first segment of the abdomen, and 
in not having the last abdominal segment " ornamented with two 
slightly convergent irregular rows of minute tubercles." 
Type-specimen.— Cat No. 39506, U.S.N.M. 



Fig. 19. — II o L o - 

TELSON TUBERCU- 

L A T u s . Abdo- 
men OF FEMALE. 
X 3*. 




Fig. 20. — Holotel- 
son tuberculatus. 
Second i-leopod of 

MALE. X 15 J. 



"Proc. Linn. Soc. New South Wales, vol. 5, ISSl, p. 472, pi. 16, fig. 3. The 
species described by Haswell is probably a Cymodoce, the specimen obtained 
being the female. 



NO. 1701. SORTHWEfiT PACIFIC ISOPODS^RICHARDSON. 95 

Family LIMNORIID.^. 

Genus LIMNORIA Leach. 

LIMNORIA JAPONICA, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, 2 mm. : 5 mm. Color of body, in alcohol, yellow, 
with the fifth, sixth and seventh segments of the thorax reddish 
brown. 

Head three times wider than long (| mm. : 1| mm.). Front with 
a ronnded excavation. Eyes large, round, composite, and situated 
close to the lateral margin. The head is very bulbous, and from the 
anterior margin projects upward to form a large rounded prominence. 
The first pair of antennae are composed of four articles; the first two 
are subequal; the third is a little longer than either of the preceding; 
the fourth is minute and terminates in a bunch of long hairs. The 
second antenna? have a peduncle of five articles, the first two of which 
are short, the last three longer and subequal; the flagellum is com- 
posed of about five articles, and is furnished with a few hairs. 

The first segment of the thorax is twice as long as the head or any 
of the six following segments, which are subequal. Epimera are dis- 
tinctly separated on all the segments witli the 
exception of the first and are in the form of wide 
plates, gradually becoming Avider from the first 
to the last. 

The first four segments of the abdomen are 
subequal in length, and each is a little shorter 
than any of the preceding six thoracic segments. 
The fifth segment is twice as long as any of p j a 21.— limnokia 
the four i^receding segments and has two low me- japonica. abdo- 

... . . MEN. X 15a. 

dian tubercles in longitudinal series. The sixth 
or terminal segment is large, almost circular in outline, and con- 
cave on the dorsal surface. It has a large prominent tubercle in 
the median line near the base, and two j^rominent tubercles, close 
together, one on either side of the median line, about one-third the 
distance between the anterior and the posterior margin. These 
tubercles are continued in two Ioav parallel ridges. The uropoda are 
about as long as the abdomen; the inner branch is shorter than the 
peduncle; the outer is minute. 

Thirty-one specimens of this species were collected at station 4828, 
on the way from Nanao, Hondo, Japan, to Isuruga, Hondo, Japan, 
at Sudzu Misaki Light, N. 57° W., 16 miles (lat. 37° 23' N.; long. 
137° 3G' E.) at a depth of 163 fathoms. They were taken " from 
crevices in water-logged fragment of bamboo." (H. Heath.) 

This species differs from Limnoria lignorum Rathke in having the 
fifth abdominal segment armed with two low tubercles: in having 
the terminal abdominal segment armed with three tubercles and two 




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parallel ridges, and in the lack of markings on the body, with the 
last three thoracic segments reddish brown in contrast to the yellow 
color of the rest of the body. 

Ti/pe-specimeti. — Cat. No. 39.507, U.S.N.M. 

IDOTHEOIDEA or VALVIFERA. 
Family ARCTURID.^. 

Genus ASTACILLA Cordiner. 

ASTACILLA DILATATA, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate, '2^ nnn. wide and JH mm. long. Surface of 
body thickly tuberculate. 

Head with the front deeply cxcavale, the antero-lateral angles 
produced and bifid; the lateral margin is also produced in an 

acute triangular process. The eyes are large, 
round, composite, and situated close to the 
lateral margin. About the middle of the 
head on the dorsal surface are two prominent 
tubercles, one on either side of the median 
line. The first pair of antenna? have the 
basal article large and dilated; the second 
and third are short and slender and sub- 
equal, each being only half the length of the 
basal article; the fourth article is about twice 
as long as the third. The first antennse ex- 
tend a little beyond the second article of the 
second pair of antenna^. The first two arti- 
cles of the second antennae are short, the first 
being shorter than the second ; the third 
article is nearly twice as long as the first two 
taken together; the fourth and fifth are about 
equal in length and each is twice as long as 
the third; the flagellum consists of three 
articles, the first of which is nearly three 
times as long as the second, and the last is 
minute, less than half as long as the .second. 
The second -antennse are as long as the body. 
The head is coalesced with the first thoracic 
segment. The antero-lateral angles of the 
first segment are acutely produced. The first, 
second, and third segments are about equal in 
length; close to the posterior margin of the 
second and third segments are two tubercles, 
one on either side of the median line, those of the third segment being 
long and conspicuous. The fourth segment is twice as long as the third 
and is much broader anteriorly than posteriorly. The antero-lateral 




Fig. 22. — Astacilla dila- 
TATA. 5g. (Drawn by Miss 
V. Dandridge. ) 



NO. 1701. yORTHWE8T PACIFIC IHOrODS—RICHARDSOy. 97 

margins of the second, third, and fourth segments are produced on 
each side in a small lobe, beneath which the epimera are conspicuous 
each in the form of two small triangular processes. On the dorsal 
surface of the fourth segment, close to the posterior margin, are four 
small tubercles, two on either side of the median line, in longitudinal 
series. The last three segments gradually decrease a little in length, 
with the tubercles arranged, two on either side of the median line, in 
longitudinal series on each segment. The epimera project at the sides 
in the form of large triangular processes, one on each side of the 
segment. 

The abdomen is com^wsed of two short segments anterior to the 
large terminal segment, all of which appear to be coalesced. The 
first two segments have each two transverse rows of small tubercles 
on the dorsal surface. In both segments the lateral margins are pro- 
duced on either side in a small triangular process. The terminal seg- 
ment is produced to an acute triangular point and has two triangular 
processes on either side of the lateral margin, a pair at the base, and 
a pair about the middle of the segment. The first four pairs of legs 
are furnished w^ith long hairs ; the last three pairs are ambulatory. 

The marsupium consists of two pairs of plates, as is also true of A. 
caeca and A. granulata^ the anterior pair having been overlooked in 
previous examinations of these two species. 

Only one specimen comes from station 4815, on the way from 
Hakodate, Japan, to Ebisu, Sado Island, Sea of Japan, at Niigata 
Light, S. 25° E., 21.5 miles (lat. 38° 16' N.; long. 138° 52' E.) at a 
depth of 70 fathoms in dark green sand. 

Type-specimen.— Q'^i. No. 39508, U.S.N.M. 

Genus ARCTURUS Latreille. 

ARCTURUS HIRSUTUS Richardson. 

Arcturus hirsutm Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Museum, vol. 27, 1904, pp. 41^3. 

Localities. — Station 4769, on " Bowers Bank," Bering Sea, at lat. 
54° 30' 40" X.; 179° 14' E.; station 4770, at lat. 54° 31' N.; 
long. 179° 15' E. ; station 4771, at lat. 54° 30' N. ; long. 179° 17' E. ; 
and station 4772, at lat. 54° 30' 30" N.; long 179° 14' E.; station 
4780, on the way from "" Petrel Bank," Bering Sea, to McDonald Bay, 
Agattu Island, Aleutians, by the passage east of Semisopochnoi and 
Amchitka Islands, at lat. 52° 01' X.; long. 174° 39' E. ; station 4781, 
at lat. 52° 14' 30" N.; long. 174° 13' E.; station 4784, on the way 
from Chichagof Harbor, Attn Island, around eastern end and south 
of Attu Island, to Preobrajeniya Bay, Medni Island, Komandorski 
Islands at East Cape, Attu Island, S. 18° W., 4 miles (lat. 52° 55' 40" 
N. ; long. 173° 26' E.) ; station 4786, on the way from Preobrajeniya 
Bay, Medni Island, to Nikolski Bay, Bering Island, by the passage 

Proc.X.M.vol.37— 09 7 



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between islands, at North Point Copper Island, N. 84° E., 8.2 miles 
(lat. 54° 51' 30" N. ; long. 1G7° 14' E.) . A large specimen, nuitilated, 
comes from station 5084, off Omai Saki Light (20 to 40 miles distant), 
N. 291° E., 41 miles (lat. 34° N.; long. 137° 49' 40" E.), at a depth 
of 918 fathoms, which I have doubtfully referred to this species. 

Depth.— M4: fathoms; 244 fathoms; 482 fathoms; 135 fathoms; 24T 
fathoms; 426 fathoms; 1,040 fathoms; in gray sand and green mud; 

in broken shells; in green and 
brown sand; in gray mud, sand, 
and pebbles; in fine gray sand; in 
coarse pebbles. 

ARCTURUS GRANULATUS, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate, about 
four times as long as broad, 4 
mm. : 15| mm. Surface of body 
rugose, with the anterior and pos- 
terior margins of all the segments 
furnished with a row" of tubercles. 
Abdomen covered with low tu- 
bercles. 

Head a little wider than long, 
1^ mm. : 2 mm. Front deeply 
excavate, with the antero-lateral 
angles produced. There is a small 
median point. The eyes are large, 
round, composite, and paced close 
to the lateral margin, about half- 
way between the anterior and the 
posterior margins. The rugosities 
on the posterior half of the head 
form two low elevations, one on 
either side of the median line. 
The first pair of antennse have the 
basal article large and dilated; 
the next two articles are slender 
and subequal ; the fourth article is 
about twice as long as the preced- 
ing article and extends to the end of the .second article of the second 
pair of antennae. The second pair of antennae have the first article 
very short; the second is longer and is about 1^ mm. long; the third 
is 2h nun. in length; the fourth is tAvice as long as the third, beinsT 
5 mm. long; the fifth is almost as long as the fourth, being 4| mm.; 
the flagellum is 2 mm. long and is composed of seven articles. 




Fig. 2.3. — Aucturvs graxulatus. X 4 
(Drawn by Miss V. Dandridge.) 



NO. 1701. . NORTHWEST PACIFIC IHOPOD^—RICHARDHON. 99 

The first three segments of the thorax are siibequal in length, 
being each about 1^ mm. long ; the fourth segment is but little longer 
than these, being only If mm. in length; the last three segments are 
subequal and each is 1 mm. long. The anterior part of the lateral 
margin of the second, third, and fourth segments is produced on 
either side in a small lobe ; lateral to this lobe is the epimeron, which 
is in the form of a narrow plate, gradually increasing in size. On 
the last three segments the epimera are in the form of large, angular 
processes extending laterally on either side of the segment and oc- 
cupying one-half the lateral margin in the fifth segment, two-thirds 
of the lateral margin in the sixth segment, and nearly all of the 
lateral margin in the seventh segment. 

The abdomen is composed of three segments, two short ones an- 
terior to the terminal segment. At the base of the terminal segment 
are two lateral projections, one on either side, which, together with 
the depression wdiich extends across the segment, mark the place of 
coalescence of another segment. The terminal segment is produced 
to a bifid extremity ; it is 2^ mm. wide and 4 mm. long. 

There are four pairs of incubatory plates." 

The first four pairs of legs are directed forward and are furnished 
with long hairs ; the last three pairs are ambulatory. 

Five specimens, males and females (the female is described and 
figured) were collected at station 4803, on the way from Milne Bay, 
Simushir Island, Kuril Islands, to Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan, by 
the Boussole Strait at Cape Rollin, Simushir Island, N. 59° W., 
9 miles (lat. 46° 42' N.; long. 151° 45' E.), and at station 4804, at 
N. 58° W., 9.7 miles (lat. 46° 42' K; long. 151° 47' E.), at a depth 
of 229 fathoms in coarse pebbles and black sand. 

This species is close to Arcturus heringanus Benedict,^ but differs 
in the rugose and tuberculate character of the body, in the shorter 
fourth thoracic segment and in the shorter abdomen, the apex of the 
terminal segment not being produced as in A. heringanus. 

Type-specimen.— Cvii. no. 39509, U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS HASTIGER, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate, 8^ mm. : 52 mm. Surface minutely granu- 
late. Head deeply excavate in the middle, with a small median 
point. Antero-lateral angles acutely produced. Eyes very large, 
composite, about twice as wide as long, transversely oval. Two 
tubercles, one on either side of the median line, are situated about 
the middle of the head between the eyes. The first pair of antennae 

" In the genus Arcturus there are four pairs of incubatory plates and not 
three, as I have heretofore stated. The first pair are small and somewhat 
obscured by the overlapping second pair. 

^ Proc. Biol. Soc, Washington, vol. 12, 1898, pp. 46-47. 



L 



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VOL. 37. 



have the basal article large and dilated ; the second and third articles - 
are narroAA% elongate, about equal in length, and shorter than the 

basal article; the fourth article 




Fig. 24. — Arcturcs 
(Drawn by Miss 



HASTIGER. X IJ. 

V. Dandridge. ) 



is one and a half times longer 
than the third, and is about as 
long as the basal article. Sec- 
ond antenna; Avith the first 
article short, not reaching be- 
yond the first article of the first 
pair of antennae; second article 
reaching to the end of the fla- 
gellum of the first pair of an- 
tennae, being 4 mm. long ; third 
article elongate, about three 
times longer than the second 
article, being 13 mm. long; 
fourth article more than one 
and a fourth times longer than 
the third, being 23 mm. long; 
fifth article about equal to the 
fourth in length, being 21 mm. 
long ; the flagellum is composed 
of 10 articles, the first one of 
Avhich is almost as long as all 
the others taken together. 

All seven thoracic segments 
are furnished Avith tA\'o tuber- 
cles each, close to the posterior 
margin, one on either side of 
the median line. The fourth 
segment is about one and a 
fourth times longer than the 
third. The epimera are distinct 
on all the segments a\ ith the ex- 
ception of the first ; on the sec- 
ond, third, and fourth segments 
they are small and anteriorly 
placed ; on the three last seg- 
ments they are large and con- 
spicuous and situated about 
the middle of the lateral 



uiargin. 

The abdomen is composed of three segments, tAAO short ones and the 
terminal segment, AA'hich ends in a pointed extremity, and has tAvo 



NO. iroi. N0RTJTWE8T PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 101 

small tubercles on the middle of the dorsal surface, one on either 
side of the median line. At the base of the segment there is a prom- 
inent lateral tooth or projection on either side. 

The first four pairs of legs are furnished with long hairs and are 
anteriorly directed; the last three pairs are ambulatory. There are 
four pairs of marsupial plates. (The female is described and figured.) 

A large number of specimens come from station 4982, on the way 
from Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan, to Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, by 
the Tsugaru Strait, at Benkei Mizaki Light, S. 3° E., 10.5 miles (lat. 
43° N.; long. 140° 10' 30" E.), and station 4983 (lat. 43° 01' 35" N.; 
long. 140° 10' 40" E.). 

Depth. — Three hundred and ninety to four hundred and twenty- 
eight fathoms in green mud. 

Young specimens differ from the adults in having the tubercles on 
the head replaced by spines, which are, however, not very long. 

This sj3ecies is very close to At'cturus haffini var. tuhej'osus Sars, but 
differs in the much larger eyes, in having two large and well devel- 
oped tubercles on the head, and in having two distinct, though small, 
tubercles on each one of the segments of the thorax, and no tubercles 
on the first two segments of the abdomen. This species is also dis- 
tinct from Arctm'us ha-ffini var. intermedia Norman.'' 

Tyi)e-specimen.— Cat. No. 39510, U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS GLABER Benedict. 

ArcUiriis glahrus Benedict, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash., vol. 12, 1898, p. 46. 

Arcturuft gUibcr Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 855; 
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 14, 1899, p. 277; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 
1900, p. 230 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 330-331. 

Localities. — Station 4782 on the way from Agattu Island to Chi- 
chagof Harbor, Attn Island, by the Semichi Islands, Aleutians, at 
East Cape, Attn Island, S. 22° W., 4 miles (lat. 52° 55' N.; long. 
173° 27' E.) ; station 3253, between Bristol Bay and Pribilof Islands, 
Alaska. 

Depth. — Thirty-six to fifty-seven fathoms. 

ARCTURUS TRIT.ffiNIATUS, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate, a little more than four times as long as 
wide (44 mm. : 19 mm, ) . Surface perfectly smooth. Color, in alcohol, 
yellow, with numerous brown spots close together, covering the entire 
surface of the body, with the exception of three longitudinal bands 
of yellow, one median, and a lateral band on either side, which ex- 
tend the entire length of the body to about the middle of the terminal 
segment. The median longitudinal band stops at the base of the 
terminal segment. 

"Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 14, 1904, p. 445. 



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VOL. 37. 



Head wider than long (2 mm. : 3 mm.) and with the anterior 
margin deeply excavate between the produced antero-lateral angles; 
there is also a small median point separating the basal articles of the 
first pair of antenna?. The eyes are large, composite, wider than long, 
and placed close to the lateral margin half way between the anterior 
and the posterior margins. The first pair of antennae have the basal 
article large and dilated ; it extends to the end of the first article 

of the second antennae; the second and 
third articles are narrow and subequal 
in length; the fourth article is equal in 
length to the second and third articles 
taken together and extends to the end of 
the second article of the peduncle of the 
second pair of antennae. The second 
antennae have the first article very short ; 
the second is 2 mm. long; the third is 
twice as long as the second, being 4 mm. 
in length; the fourth is 7 mm. and the 
fifth is 5 mm.; the flagellum is 3 mm. 
long and is comiDOsed of five articles, the 
first of which is twice as long as the 
second. 

The segments of the thorax are about 
equal in length, with the exception of 
the fourth, which is one and a half times 
longer than any of the others. The an- 
terior part of the lateral margin in the 
second, third, and fourth segments is 
produced in a lobe on either side ; lateral 
to these lobes the epimera are placed and 
are in the form of narrow plates, grad- 
ually becoming wider; on the last three 
segments the epimera are large and con- 
spicuous, projecting laterally and oc- 
cupying half the margin of the fifth 
segment, two-thirds of the margin of the 
sixth segment, and nearly all of the margin of the seventh segment. 
The abdomen is composed of three segments, two short ones 
anterior to the terminal segment, which is produced posteriorly to a 
narrow rounded extremity. At the base on either side the terminal 
segment is produced in a rounded lobe ; the incision between the lobe 
and the rest of the segment marks a depression extending across the 
segment, which is the indication of another coalesced segment. 
There are four pairs of marsupial plates. 




Fig. 25. — Arctl'ru.s trit;e\ia- 
TUS. X 3. (Drawn by Miss 
V. Dandrldge. ) 



^ro. 1701. 



yORTHWF:8T PACtFtC t8OPODS^RlCItARDS0N. 



103 



The first four pairs of legs extend 
forward and are furnished with long 
hairs; the last three pairs are ambula- 
tory. 

Two specimens, a male and a fe- 
male (the female is described and 
figured) were collected at station 4778, 
on the way from " Bowsers Bank " to 
" Petrel Bank," Bering Sea, at Semi- 
sopochnoi Island, r. t. S. 45° W., 1. t. 
S. 12° W., about 12 miles (lat. 52° 12' 
N.; long. 179° 52' E.), at a depth of 
43 fathoms in fine black gravel. 

This species is very close to Arctu- 
rus glaher Benedict "^ from Bering 
Sea, but differs in the shorter and 
more thickset bod}^; in the shorter 
second antennae; in the shorter ab- 
domen, with the apex less pointed; 
in the shorter fourth segment of 
the thorax; and in having the three 
longitudinal bands of yellow on the 
body. 

This species is also similar to Arctu- 
rus myops Beddard ^ from New Zea- 
land. 

Type - specimen. — Cat. No. 39511, 
U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS MAGNISPINIS, new species. 

This species is very close to Arctu- 
rus longispinus Benedict,^ so that a 
complete description does not seem 
necessary. It differs fi-om that form 
in having the tubercles of the first 
thoracic segment replaced by small 
spines; in having the third, fourth, 
and fifth articles of the peduncle of 

° Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 12, 
1898, p. 46. 

6 Challenger Report, vol. 17, 1886, p. 100, 
pi. 22, figs. 5-8. 

^ Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, vol. 12, 
1898, pp. 44^5; Richardson, Bull. U. S. 
Nut. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 329-330. 



U^ 



Fig. 2G. — Akcturus magnispinis. 
X 2.4. Female. (Drawn by 
Miss v. Dandridge. ) 



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VOL. fil. 



the second antennae shorter (the second article is 3 mm. long, the 
third is 9 mm., the fourth is 14 nnn., the fifth is 13 mm.) ; in having 

the spines of the head and of the second, 
third, and fourth segments of the thorax 
stouter and longer; in having the body 
shorter and more thickset (8 mm. :3() 
mm.), and densely covered with hairs; 
and in having the abdomen below the 
median dorsal spines shorter. The first 
antennae do not extend beyond the sec- 
ond article of the second antenna?. 
The young are similar to the adults. 
A number of specimens (about twelve) 
were collected at station 4777, on " Petrel 
Bank," Bering Sea, at Semisopochnoi 
Island, r. t. S. 44° W., 1. t. S. 4° W., 
about 12 miles (lat. 52° 11' N.; long. 
179° 49' E.), and station 4778, r. t. S. 
45° W., 1. t. S. 12° W., about 12 miles 
(lat. 52° 12' N.; long. 179° 52' E.), at a 
depth of 43-52 fathoms. 

One small specimen from station 4779 
agrees in every respect with the other 
specimens, except that the terminal seg- 
ment, instead of terminating in two 
points, is rounded posteriorly. This is 
probably an abnormal condition. 

Type-specimen. — C at. No. 39327, 
U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS DIVERSISPINIS, new species. 

This species is also close to Arcturris 
lo7igispiniis Benedict, but differs in hav- 
ing the tubercles of the first thoracic seg- 
ment replaced by well-developed spines, 
which are almost as long as those of the 
three following segments, and in having 
the spines of the seventh thoracic seg- 
ment rudimentary. The first antenna? 
extend the length of the last article be- 
yond the second article of the second 
antenna^; the last article of the first an- 
tenna^ is about twice as long as the pre- 
ceding article. There is a small, blunt spine on the outer distal end of 
the second article of the second antenna.', and one on either side of the 




Fig. 27. — Arcturus d i v e r s i- 
SPINI.S. X 1.2. Female. 
(Drawn by Miss V. Dandridge.) 



NO. 1701. 



XORTfrWEl^T VICIPTO TfiOPOD^—RICHARDSOY. 



105 



head at the antero-hiternl angles. The surface of the body is smooth and 
covered with long hairs. More «*^ 

than fiften specimens of this '' 

species were collected at sta- 
tion 4T8-1:, on the way from 
Chicagof Harbor, Attn Is- 
land, aronnd eastern end and 
south of Attn Island to Pre- 
obrajeniya Bay, Medni Is- 
land, Komandorskii Islands 
at East Cape, Attn Island, S. 
18° W., 4 miles (lat. 52° 55' 
40" N.; long. 173° 26' E.), 
at a depth of 135 fathoms. 

Type-spechnen . — Cat. No. 
39432, U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS BREVISPINIS, new 

species. 

This species ditfers from 
Arcturus longisjnnus Bene- 
dict in having all the spines 
quite short, those of the last 
three thoracic segments and 
the first two abdominal seg- 
ments being almost rudi- 
mentary. The terminal ab- 
dominal segment in all these 
specimens is longer than in 
A. longispiniis. The body is 
covered with small, pointed 
tubercles. The first antennaj 
extend the length of the last 
article bej^ond the second ar- 
ticle of the second antennae. 
The last article of the first 
antennae is about three times 
longer than the third article. 

About nine specimens were 
collected at station 4784, on 
the way from Chichagof 
Harbor, Attn Island, around 
eastern end and south of 
Attu Island to Preobrajeniya Bay, Medni Island, Komandorskii 




Fig. 28.- 
Male. 



-Arcturus brevi.spixis. x ' 
(Drawn by Miss V. Dandridge. ) 



106 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MV8EVM. 



roL. 37. 



Islands, at East Cape, Attn Island, S. 18° W., 4 miles (lat. 52° 55' 

40" N.; long. 173° 26' E.) 
at a depth of 135 fathoms. 
Type - specimen. — Cat. 
No. 39313, U.S.N.M. 

ARCTURUS CRASSISPINIS, new 
species. 

This species is likewise 
close to ArctufHs longis- 
pinus Benedict, but differs 
in having spines present 
on all the segments of the 
thorax and abdomen, only 
they are all of the same 
length and short, none being 
rudimentary. The termi- 
nal segment of the abdomen 
is also longer than in ^1. 
Jojigispiniis. This species 
is very large, measuring 44 
mm. in length and 8 J mm. 
in width. 

The spines on the body 
are short and stout. The 
surface of the body is cov- 
ered with short hairs. The 
first pair of antenna? do not 
extend much beyond the 
second article of the second 
pair of antennoe. The sec- 
ond antenntie have the sec- 
ond article 4 mm. long; the 
third 13 mm. ; the fourth 
20 mm.; and the fifth, 17 
mm. in length. 

About 45 specimens come 
from the following local- 
ities: Station 5005, in 
Aniwa Bay, approaching 
Korsokov, Saghalin Island, 
at lat. 40° 4' 40" N.; long. 
142° 27' 30" E.; station 
5006, at lat. 46° 4' N.; long, 
station 5007, at lat. 46° 3' N.; long. 142° 31' E.j 




Fig. 29. — Arctcrus crassispinis. X 1.5. 
(Drawn by Mis.s V. Dandridgo. 

142° 29' E. 



Female. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS^—RICIIARDSiOX. 107 

station 5008, at lat. 40° T' 50" X. ; long. U2° 37' 20" E. ; station 5009, 
at lat. 46° 21' 10" N.; long. 142° 40' E. ; station 5010, at Korsokov 
Light, N. 5° E., 9.5 miles (lat. 46° 30' 30" N.; long. 142° 43' 30" E.) ; 
station 5020, off eastern coast, Saghalin Island, vicinity of Cape 
Patience, in Okhotsk Sea, at lat. 48° 32' 45" N. ; long. 145° 7' 30" E. ; 
station 5021, at lat. 48° 32' 30" N.; long. 145° 08' 45" E.; station 
5022, at lat. 48° 35' 30" N.; long. 145° 20' E.; station 5024, Flat Hill, 
N. 48° W.; Cape Patience, S. 74° W. (lat. 48° 43' 10" N.; long. 
144° 59' 30" E.) ; station 4854, on the way from Matsu Shima, Sea 
of Japan (off coast of Korea), to Nagasaki, Japan, at Cape Clonard, 
N. 31° W., 13.3 miles (lat. 35° 54' N.; long. 129° 40' E.) ; and sta- 
tion 4861, S. 27° "W., 16.5 miles (lat. 36° 19' N.; long. 129° 47' E.). 

Depth. — 21-73 fathoms. 

Type-specimen.— Cat. No. 39309, U.S.N.M. 

Family IDOTHEID^. 
Genus MESIDOTEA Richardson. 

MESIDOTEA ENTOMON (Linnaeus). 

Oniscus entomon Linn.eus, Syst. Nat., 12tla ed., vol. 1, pt. 2, 1767, p. 1060. 
Idotea entomon Bosc, Hist. Nat. des Crust., vol. 2, 1802, p. 178. 
Idotccga entomon Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 1877, pt. 1, p. 45. 
Glyptoiwtus entomon Miers, Traus. Liun. Soc. London, vol. 16, 1883, pp. 12-13, 

pi. 1, figs, 1-2. (See Miers for further synonymy.) 
Mesidotea entomon Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus.. No. 51, 1905, pp. 348-350. 

Locality. — Petropaulovsk. 

Genus IDOTHEA Fabricius. 

IDOTHEA OCHOTENSIS (Brandt). 

Idotea oehotensis Brandt, Middendorff's Sibirische Reise, vol. 2, 1851, Crust, 
p. 145, pi. 6, fig. 33.— Miers, Jour. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 16, 1883, p. 32, pi. 1, 
figs. 8-10.— Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 846; Ann. Mag. 
Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, p. 265; American Naturalist, vol. 84, 1900, p. 227; 
Harriman Alaska Expedition, Crust., vol. 10, 1904, p. 219; Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 27, 1904, p. 663 ; Bull. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 1905, p. 216. 

Idothea oehotensis Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 366-367. 

Localities. — Milne Bay, Simiishir Islands; Nikolski, Bering Island; 
Petropanlovsk. 
Depth.— Shore. 

IDOTHEA METALLICA (Bosc). 

Idotea metaUiea Bosc, Hist. Nat. Crust., vol. 2, 1802, p. 179, pi, 15, fig, 6,— Miers, 
Jour, Linn. Soc. London, vol. 16, 1883, pp. 35-38 (.see Miers for further syn- 
onymy). 

Idotea robusta Kr0yer, Naturh. Tidsskr., (2), 1846-49, p. 108. — Stimpson, Proc, 
Acad, Nat, Sci. Phila., vol. 14, 1863, p. 133.— Harger, Report U. S. Fish Com., 
pt. 6, 1880, p. 349, pi. 6, figs. 30-32. 

Idothea metallica Richardson, Bull. U. S, Nat. Mus,, No. 54, 1905, pp. 362-363. 



108 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATlONAL MV8EUM. vol.37. 

Localities. — Station 4883, on the way from Nagasaki, Jai:)an, to 
Kagoshinia, Kagoshima Gulf, Japan, at Xomo Zaki, X. 83° E., 10.25 
miles (lat. 32° 33' 30" N. ; long. 129° 32' E.) ; station 1819, on the 
way from Saigo, Dogo Island, Oki Group, to Matsu Shima, Sea of 
Japan (off coast of Korea) at lat. 3G° IG' N.; long. 132° 15' E.; sta- 
tion 1850, at Liancourt Rocks, XW. (mag.), 13.8 miles (lat. 3G° 56' 
N.; long. 132° E.) ; station 37GG, Shioya Saki Light, X. 78°, W. 108 
miles. 

Depth. — Surface; 800-81(') fathoms in green mud and globigerina. 
In dip net with Porpita. 

Genus PENTIAS Richardson. 

PENTIAS HAYI Richardson. 

Pentias hayi Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, pp. 47-49. 

Loeality. — Hakodate, Japan. 

A single small specimen, a male, of this species was collected, 
which differs from the type in the narrower body and narrower 
epimera. The lateral margins of the segments are not incised as 
deeply for the reception of the epimera as in the type. Owing to 
the difference in size, the difference in sex and the insufficient ma- 
terial, I have referred the two specimens to the same species. The 
small specimen has the first segment of the thorax marked with ten 
parallel longitudinal lines of dark brown, close together. There is a 
small spot of dark brown on each one of the six following segments in 
the median line, close to the anterior margin, as well as one at the 
base of the abdomen. On the seventh thoracic segment is a large 
spot on either side on the lateral margin, and there is a large brown 
spot on either side of the abdomen close to the lateral margin about 
the middle of the segment. 

Genus PENTIDOTEA Richardson. 

PENTIDOTEA JAPONICA Richardson. 

Idotea japonica Richardson, Proi-. V. S. Nnl. Mus., vol. 22. 1900, jip. 1.31-134; 
Idem, vol. 27, 1904, p. 47. 

Localities. — Mororan. Japan: Hakodate, Japan; Same. Kikuoku, 
Japan; Tomakomai, Japan. 

Depth. — Shore. 

Inasmuch as the palp of the maxillipeds is composed of five articles, 
this species must be referred to the genus Pentidotea. 



NO. 1701. 



XORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS—RICHARDt^OX. 



109 



PENTIDOTEA WOSNESENSKII (Brandt). 

Iclotca loosncscnskii Brandt, in Micldeuclorff's Sibirische Reise, vol. 2, 1851, 
Crust, p. 146. — Stimpson, Bost. Jour, Nat. Hist, vol. 6, 1857, p. 504. — Spence 
Bate, Lord's Naturalist in British Columbia, vol. 2, 18G6, p. 281. — Mip:rs, 
Journ. Linu. Soc. London, vol. IG, 1883, p. 40. — Richardson, Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 189U, p. 840; Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, p. 265; 
American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, p. 227 ; Harriman Alaska Expedition, 
Crust, vol. 10, 1904, p. 218; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, p. 663; Bull. 
U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, 1905, p. 216. 

Idotca hirtipcs Dana, U. S. Expl. Exp., Crust., vol. 14, 1853, p. 704, pi. 46, fig. 6. 

Idotea orcgonensis Dana, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 7, 1854, p. 175. 

Idotca media (Dana?) Spence Bate, Lord's Naturalist 
in British Columbia, vol. 2, 1866, p. 282. 

Pentidotea wosnescnskii Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 370-373. 

Localities. — Agattti Island ; Union Bay, Bayne 
Sound, British Columbia ; Unalaska ; Attu Is- 
lands; Xazan Bay, Atka. 

Depth. — Shore. 



PENTIDOTEA WHITEI (Stimpson). 

Idotca wJiitci Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila.. 
1864. p. 155. — Miers, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 16, 
1883, pp. 42-43.— Richardson, Proc. V. S. Nat. :Mus, 
vol. 21, 1899, pp. 846-847; Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), 
vol. 4, 1899, p. 266 ; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, 
p. 227. 

Pentidotea irliitci Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
No. 54, 1905. pp. 373-374. 

Locality. — Xazan Bay, Atka. 



PENTIDOTEA ROTUNDATA, new species. 

Body narrow, elongate, about five and a half 



Fig. 30. — Pentidotea 
eotundata. x 2. 
(Drawn by Miss V. 
Dandridge.) 



Front excavate. 



times longer than wide (6|^ mm. : 35^ mm.). Sur- 
face smooth, color light green, with markings 
and dots of a darker green. 

Head a little wider than long (4 mm.: 5 mm.), 
and the antero-lateral angles rounded. Eyes small, round, situated 
on the lateral margins, close to the posterior margin, and scarcely 
visible in a dorsal view. The first pair of antenna have the basal 
article large and dilated, quadrate; the three following articles are 
short and subequal. The first antenna? extend to the end of the second 
article of the peduncle of the second antenna^. The first article of 
the second antennae is extremely short and is scarcely visible in a 
dorsal view; the second and third articles are about equal in length, 
being each 1^ mm. long; the fourth article is a little longer than the 



no 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



two preceding, being 2i mm. long. The second antennae arc broken 
at the fourth article. The maxilliped has a palp of five articles. 

The first segment of the thorax is not M'ider than the head, and 
has the antero-lateral angles produced, surrounding the posterior 
portion of the head. In the median line this segment is onh' 'I mm. 
long and is the shortest segment with the exception of the seventh, 
which is also but 2 mm. in length. The second segment is 3^ mm. 
long; the third and fourth -1 mm. each; the fifth 3 mm.; and the 
sixth 2| mm. long. Epimera are distinct on all tlie segments Avith the 
exception of the first. They are in the form of extremely narrow, 
elongated plates, which in the second segment extend a little more 
than half the length of the lateral margin, in the 
third and fourth segments about two-thirds of 
the lateral margin, and in the last three seg- 
ments the entire length of the lateral margin. In a 
dorsal view the first three epimera are not visible. 
The abdomen is composed of three segments, 
two short ones anterior to the long terminal seg- 
ment. At the base of the terminal segment is a 
suture line on cither side, indicating another 
partly coalesced segment. The terminal segment 
is 9^ mm. long and 5 mm. wide at the base; it 
tapers gradually to a rounded extremity. 

The first four pairs of legs are directed for- 
ward, the last three j^airs backward. All the 
legs are very small and short. 
Only one specimen, a female, was collected at Same, Rikuoku, 
Japan. 

Type-specimen.— Cat No. 39516, U.S.N.M. 




Fig. ol. — Pendidotea 

ROTUNDATA. MaXIL- 
LIPED. X 15J. 



Genus SYNIDOTEA Harger. 

SYNIDOTEA BICUSPIDA (Owen). 



Idotea hicuspida Owen, Crustacea of the Blossom, 1839, p. 92, pi. 27, fig. 6. 
Idotea pulchra Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Scl., vol. 7, 1877, p. 44. 
Edoica hicuspida Miers, Journ. Linn. Soe. London, vol. 16, 1883, p. 66. 
Synidotca hicuspidd Sars. Crust. Norweijian North Atlantic Exp., 1885. p. 116, 

pi. 10, figs. 24-26.— Benedict, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Pbila., 1897, pp. 391-392.— 

Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, p. 848; Ann. Mag. Nat. 

Hist. (7), 1899, 1). 268; American Naturalist, vol 34, 1900, p. 228; Bull. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 385-386. 

Localities. — Station 3253, between Bristol Bay and Pribilof Islands ; 
station 3255, N. and X. ^V. of Unimak Island. 

Depth. — Thirty-six to forty-nine fathoms, in green mud, broken 
shells, and gray sand and gravel. 



NO. 1701. X0RTHWE8T PACIFIC ISOPODS—RICHARDSON. Ill 



I 



SYNIDOTEA ACUTA, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, about twice as long as wide, 5 mm. : 12 mm. 
Color yellow, with the exception of the third and fourth segments, 
which are red. 

Head with the front produced in a wide border on either side of a 
median cleft. The frontal excavation is slight. The lateral portions 
of the frontal border form an angle with the dorsal portion. Just 
behind the median cleft is a prominent median tubercle. The eyes 
are small, round, composite, and placed close to the lateral margins. 
The first i)air of antennse extend to the middle of the fourth article 
of the j^eduncle of the second pair of antennae; the first two articles 
are about equal in length; the third and fourth are about equal in 
length and each is a little longer than the second article. The second 
pair of antenuffi have the first two articles about equal in length; 
the third and fourth are also equal in length 
and each is twice as long as either of the two 
preceding articles; the fifth article is about one 
and a half times longer than the fourth; the 
flagellum consists of ten articles. When retracted 
the second antennae extend to the posterior margin 
of the first thoracic segment. 

The lateral margins of the first and second 
thoracic segments are angulate; those of the fol- 
lowing five segments are straight. All the epimera 
are coalesced with the segments. The first four 
segments are about equal in length; the last three 
gradually decrease a little in length. 

The abdomen is composed of a single segment, 
with a suture line on either side at the base, indi- 
cating another partly coalesced segment. This segment is trian- 
gulate, with the apex very slightly excavate. 

Only one specimen was collected b}^ the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
Steamer Albatross at station 4778, on " Petrel Bank," Bering Sea, at 
Semisopochnoi Island, r. t. S. 45° W., 1. t. S. 12° AV., about 12 miles 
(lat. 52° 12' N.; long. 170° 52' E.) at a depth of 43 fathoms, in fine 
black gravel. 

Type-specimen. — Cat. No. 39517, U.S.N.M. 

This species is very close to Sytiidotea hie usp Ida (Owen), but differs 
in having the first two segments of the thorax with lateral margins 
angulate, in having a prominent median tubercle on the head, and in 
the shape of the frontal border. The abdomen is also different, in 
being as long as wide, while in S. hicuspida it is wider than long, and 
in having a more shallow excavation at the extremity. The second 
antenna3 are also shorter, with fewer articles in the flagellum. 




112 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 




Fig. 33. — Synidotea 
epimekata. x 3j. 



SYNIDOTEA EPIMERATA, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, a little more than twice as long as wide (6 mm. ; 
13 mm.). 

Head with the front excavate, the antero-lateral angles being very 
acutely produced. In the middle of the frontal excavation is another 
small excavation. The eyes are large, composite, 
and situated close to the lateral margin, about 
half way between the anterior and the posterior 
margins. In front of each eye. close to the anterior 
margin, is a prominent tubercle. Just posterior to 
the median excavation of the anterior margin is a 
single prominent median tubercle. A series of 
.small tubercles in a transverse row lies just back 
of the median tubercle. The transverse ridge at 
the posterior extremity of the head has a single 
median tubercle. The first pair of antenna^ have 
the first two articles about- equal in length; the 
two folloAving are also about equal in length and 
each is a little longer than either of the preceding 
articles. The first antennae extend to the middle 
of the fourth article of the second pair of antenna^. 
The fir.st two articles of the second antenna^ are short and subequal 
in length; the third and fourth articles are also subequal, and each 
is twice as long as either of the preceding articles; the fifth article 
is about one and a half times as long as the fourth ; the fiagellum 
consists of twelve articles. The second antennse, when retracted, 
extend to the posterior margin of the third tho- 
racic segment. 

The first thoracic segment is shorter and nar- 
rower than the three following segments and has 
the lateral margins angulate. There are distinct 
epimera on the anterior part of this segment which 
are not present on any of the following segments. 
The epimera arise from the underside of the lateral 
margin and project anteriorly beyond the place 
Avhere they are visible in a dorsal view. The lateral 
margins of the second segment are also angulate: 
those of the following segments are straight. The 
last three segments gradually decrease a little in 
length. The second, third, and fourth segments are about equal in 
length. On each one of the segments is a small median tubercle sit- 
uated close to the posterior nuirgin. 

The abdomen is composed of a single segment with a suture line 
distinct at the sides, but less distinct in the middle, indicating another 




Fig. 34. — Syxidotea 

EPIMERATA. MAX- 
ILLIPED. X 23. 



NO. 1701. X0RTHWE8T PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 113 



partly coalesced segment at the base. The abdomen tapers to the 
extremity, which has a deep rounded notch or excavation. 

Only one specimen comes from station 4987, on the way from 
Hakodate, Hokkaido, Japan, to Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, by way of 
Tsugaru Strait, at Kamoi Mizaki Light, N. 76° E., 3.2 miles (lat. 43° 
19' 20" N.; long. 140° 17' E.), at a depth of 59 fathoms in a rocky 
bottom. 

This species differs from all the other species of Synidotea in the 
presence of distinct epimera on the first thoracic segment. 

Type-specimen.— Cat. No. 39518, U.S.N.M. 

SYNIDOTEA TUBERCULATA, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, about twice as long as wide (8| mm. ; 16^ mm.). 
Head with the front excavate in the middle, on either side of which 
the frontal border is wide and forms an angle with the lateral por- 
tion. This angle is elevated in the form of an 
arched tubercle. Just back of the median exca- 
vation are two large, prominent tubercles, one on 
either side of the median line. Posterior to these 
two tubercles is a transverse row of six low 
tubercles, three on either side of the median line. 
Posterior to these six tubercles is a ridge wdiich is 
elevated to form three low tubercles, one median 
and one on either side of it. The eyes are large, 
round, composite, and situated close to the lateral 
margin on the posterior half of the head ; they are 
somewhat elevated on rounded lobes. The first 
pair of antennas have the first two articles sub- ^^^- 35.— synidotea 

^ ,.111 TUBERCULATA. X 2J. 

equal; the third and fourth are also about equal 
in length and each is a little longer than either of the first two. The 
first antennae extend to the end of the fourth article of the peduncle 
of the second antennae. The first two articles of the second pair of 
antenna^ are short and subequal ; the third is as long as the first two 
taken together ; the fourth is a little longer than the third ; the fifth 
is a little longer than the fourth ; the flagellum consists of thirteen 
articles. "WTien retracted, the second antenna? extend to the posterior 
margin of the second thoracic segment. All the epimera are firmly 
united with the segments. 

The first four segments of the thorax are longer than the last three, 
which gradually decrease a little in length. The first segment has a 
prominent median tubercle, and a prominent arched, hornlike tubercle 
on either side of the median tubercle. The second, third, and fourth 
segments have each a median tubercle, and on either side of it a group 
of five or six tubercles, two of the group being larger and more con- 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09— 8 




114 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

spicuous than the others. The fifth, sixth, and seventh have each a 
median tubercle, and on either side of it a group of two large tubercles 
surrounded by low areolations. 

The abdomen consists of a single segment, with a suture line on 
either side at the base, indicating another partly coalesced segment. 
The abdomen tapers to a narrow extremity, which posteriorly is 
notched. 

The first pair of legs are shorter than the following six pairs, and 
are prehensile. All the others are similar, and have the basis pro- 
duced on the upper side in a ridge which is bilobate. 

Eight specimens of this species come from the following localities: 
Station 5020, station 5021, station 5023, and station 5024, off the east- 
ern coast of Saghalin Island, vicinity of Cape Patience, in Okhotsk 
Sea, at lat. 48° 32' 45'' N.; long. 145° 07' 30" E.; lat. 48° 32' 30" N.; 
long. 145° 08' 45" E.; Flat Hill, X, 53° W.; Cape Patience, S. 77° 
W. (lat. 48° 43' 30" N.; long. 145° 03' E.) ; Flat Hill, N. 48° W.; 
Cape Patience, S. 74° W. (lat. 48° 43' 10" N. ; long. 144° 59' 30" E.), 
at a depth of 67-75 fathoms, in sand, pebbles, and green mud. 

This species is perhaps closer to Synidotca consoUdata (Stimpson), 
from Pacific Grove, than to any other species. 

Type-specimen.— C^t. No. 39519, U.S.N.M. 

Genus CLEANTIS Dana. 

CLEANTIS ISOPUS Miers. 

Cleantis isopus Miers, Journ. Linn. Soc. London, vol. 16, 1883, pp. 80-81, pi. 3, 
figs. 9-11.— Grube (MS. in Brit. Mus.). 

Locality. — Two specimens from Hakodate Bay, Japan ; four speci- 
mens from Mororan, Japan. Miers's specimens were from Ojica, 
Goto Island, lat. 33° 12' 30" N.; long. 129° 5' E. Grube 's speci- 
mens were from Chefoo. 

Depth. — Taken on the shore. 

The palp of the maxilliped is composed of five articles as in 
Cleaiitis planicauda Benedict. 

ASELLOIDEA or ASELLOTA. 
Family JANIRID^E. 

Genus JANIRA Leach. 

JANIRA JAPONICA, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate. Color, in alcohol, yellow. Surface smooth and 
free from spines. 

Head wider than long, with the front between the antero-lateral 
angles, triangularly produced. Antero-lateral angles narrow and but 
little produced; their extremities are rounded. Eyes large, oval, 
composite, and placed halfway between the anterior and the pos- 
terior margins, and a distance from the lateral margin equal to 
the width of one eye. The first pair of antennae have a peduncle of 



NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC I80P0DS— RICHARDSON. 



115 




Fig. 36. — Janiua ja- 
poxiCA. Head and 

FIRST FIVE S E G - 
MENTS OF THORAX. 
X 9i. 



I 



ihree articles and a flagellum of about ten articles. The second pair 
of antennse are broken at the end of the third article; there is a 
scale articulated to the third article. 

The first three segments of the thorax are about equal in length; 
the fourth and fifth are shorter; the last two are subequal and are 
the longest. The lateral margin of the first seg- 
ment has the posterior half produced in a .slight 
rounded lobe; the epimeron is situated on the an 
terior half of the lateral margin and is in the form 
of an angular lobe, projecting as far as the poste- 
rior lobe of the lateral margin. The lateral margin 
of the second segment is straight, with the ante- 
rior and posterior angles slightly produced in a 
lobe ; the epimeron is small, bilobed, and placed be- 
tween the anterior and the posterior lobes. The 
third segment has the lateral margin nearly 
straight, with the anterior and posterior angles 
also slightly produced in a lobe; the epimeron con- 
sists of two rounded lobes placed between the an- 
terior and the posterior lobes. The fourth segment 
has the antero-lateral margin produced in a rounded lobe; the 
epimeron consists of a double lobe placed below this. The fifth 
segment has the anterior angle of the lateral margin, slightly pro- 
duced in a lobe; the epimeron consists of a double lobe just poste- 
rior to the posterior lobe of the segment. The 
sixth and seventh segments have the anterior part 
of the lateral margins produced in a large lobe, 
with the epimeron double and placed on the poste- 
rior half of the lateral margin. 

The abdomen has the posterior margin broadly 
triangular, the median angle and the lateral 
angles rounded. The uropoda are about as long 
as the abdomen. The branches are almost equal in 
length, the outer one being but slightly shorter 
than the inner. They are about one and a half 
times longer than the peduncle. The first i)air of 
legs are prehensile ; the following six pairs are am- 
bulatory and furnished with biunguiculate dactyli. 
Only one specimen, a female, was collected at 
station 4015, 10 to 20 miles .southwest of Koshika Islands, Eastern 
Sea, at Tsurikake Saki Light, N. 62° E., 14.8 miles (hit. 31° 31' N.; 
long. 129° 25' 30" E.), at a depth of 427 fathoms in gray globigerina 
ooze and broken shells. 

Type-specimen.— C^. No. 39520, U.S.N.M. 




I'lG. o7. — Janiea ja- 
PONicA. Last two 

SEGMENTS OF 
THORAX AND ABDO- 
MEN. X 91. 



116 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. tol. 37. 

MICROPROTUS, new genus. 

Head with short truncated rostrum and without eyes. First pair 
of antennae with the first article of the first pair of antenna? produced 
at the outer anterior angle; flagellum multi-articulate. Second 
antennae with the flagellum multi-articulate. 

Molar expansion of mandibles well developed. Palp three 
jointed. First four segments of thorax provided each with three 
long dorsal spines, one in the median line, and one on either side, at 
the antero-lateral angle ; the last three segments provided with three 
long spines, one median and one on either side, all close together, and 
the antero-lateral angles produced in a long spine on either side. 

The epimera of the second, third, and fourth segments of the 
thorax produced in two spines, the anterior one being longer. The 
epimera of the last three segments, in the form of small rounded 
lobes, situated on the posterior half of the segment. 

Abdomen with the lateral margins produced in two sjDines on 
either side, and the posterior margin produced in two spines. 

Uropoda consisting of a peduncle and two branches. 

The first pleopoda of the male have the distal extremity of the 
peduncle produced. 

First pair of legs small, short, and feeble; the following six pairs 
robust and similar in character. The second, third, and fourth pairs 
gradually increase in length. Dactylus bi-unguiculate. 

This genus has affinities Avith the Munnopsidw. The short, trun- 
cated rostrum, the absence of eyes, the small and short first pair of 
legs as compared with the three following pairs and the form of the 
first article of the first pair of antenna? are characters similar to 
those found in that family. The absence of natatory legs, the general 
form of the body and the style of uropods, however, are characters 
referable to the Janiridce. 

The type of the genus is Microprotus ccecus, the description of 
which follows: 

MICROPROTUS C^CUS, new species. 

Head, with the anterior margin almost straight, and joroduced in 
the middle in a small, truncated rostrum. Eyes wanting. First paiv 
of antenna^, with the first article large and produced at the outer an- 
terior angle; second article about half as long as the first and only 
half as wide; third article more slender than the second and a little 
longer. Second antennae with the second article of the peduncle pro- 
vided with a long spine; the third article is provided with a long 
spine on the underside; the fourth article is provided with two long 
spines, one above and one on the unders^le ; the fiftli and sixth articles 
are long and slender and are not armed. The flagellum is elongate 
and multiarticulate. 



NO. 1701. 



NORTHWEST PACIFTC IROPOnSl—RICHARDFiON. 



117 



k 



The first segment of the thorax is provided with three spines, one 
in the middle on the 
anterior margin and 
one at the antero- 
hiteral angle on either 
side. The median 
spine is ahont twice 
as long as the lateral 
spines. The second, 
third, and fourth seg- 
ments are each pro- 
vided with three 
spines, one median 
spine on the anterior 
margin and a spine 
on either side on the 
anterior margin close 
to the lateral margin ; 
these spines are all of 
nearly equal length ; 
the epimera of these 
segments are drawn 
out in two spines, an 
anterior spine and a 
posterior spine, t h e 
anterior one being 
twice as long as the 
posterior one. The 
three following seg- 
ments are each fur- 
nished with three 
spines in a transverse 
row near the poste- 
rior margin, a median 
small spine and one 
on either side, some 
distance from the lat- 
eral margin ; the lat- 
eral spines are longer 
t h a n t h e media n 
spines and decrease 
gradually in length 
from the fifth to the 
seventh segments ; 
the antero-lateral an- 
gles of these last three segments are produced in an extremelj^ 




Via. ?.S. 



-MiCROPROTUS C^ECUS. X ■ 

V. Dandridge.) 



(Drawn by Miss 



118 



PROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



long spine, one on other side; the epimera are in the foi'ni of 
small rounded lobes at the post-lateral angles and are unarmed. 





Fig. 39. — MicnopROTDS cticus. Second thoracic 
LEG. X 141. 



Fig. 40. — MicRuruoTLS c.ecus. 
First and second pleopods 

OF MALE. X 01. 




Fig. 41. — MiCROPROTUS 
C-13CUS. First thoracic 
leg. X 141. 



The abdomen consists of a single large segment, which is produced 
on either side about the middle in a single long spine, directed out- 
ward, and at the post-lateral angle in another long spine, also di- 
rected outward. The abdomen is posteriorly 
produced in a process terminating in two long 
spines, one on either side of the median line. 
At the base of the abdomen in the median line 
is a single small tubercle. There is also a 
single small tubercle in the middle of the 
segment on the dorsal surface. The peduncle 
of the uropoda is long and slender, and 
reaches almost to the extremity of the ter- 
minal spines of the abdomen. The branches 
are about equal in length and also about as long as the peduncle. 
The first pair of legs are very small, short, and feeble. The fol- 
lowing six pairs are robust and similar in character. The second, 

third, and fourth pairs gradually in- 
crease in" length. All the articles are 
long and slender, especially the merus 
and propodus. The legs terminate in 
bi-unguiculate dactjdi. 

Only a single specimen, a male, was 
collected at station 4781, on the way 
from " Petrel Bank,"' Bering Sea, to 
McDonald Bay, Agattu Island, Aleu- 
tians, by the passage east of Semisopo- 
clinoi and Amchitka Islands at lat. 52° 
14' 30" N. ; long. 174° 13' E. at a depth 
of 300 fathoms in fine gray sand and 
pebbles. An imperfect specimen, a male, also comes from the same 
locality. 

Type-.'ipecim€n.—CRt. No. 39521, U.S.N.M. 




Fig. 4:.'. — Microproti's 
Sixth leg. x 14J. 



xo. iTOl. 



NORTHWEST PACIFIC IS0P0D8— RICHARDSON. 



110 



P^imily MUNNOPSID^. 



Genus MUNNOPSIS M. Sars. 



MUNNOPSIS LATIFRONS Beddard. 




Miinnopsis latifrons Beddard, Proc. Zool. Soc. Loudon, 1885, pt. 4, p. 917; Chal- 
lenger Report, vol. 17, 18SG, p. 50, pi. 10, figs. 1-4. 

Loealities.— Station 5082, off Omai Said Light (20 to 40 miles dis- 
tant), N. 22° E., 33 miles (lat. 34° 5' N. ; long. 137° 59' E.) ; station 
4919, about 90 miles WSW. of Kagoshima Gulf, Eastern Sea, at 
Kiisakaki Jima, N. 18° E., 17.G miles (lat. 30° 34' N.; long. 129° 19' 
30" E.). 

Beddard's specimen was from off Ino Sima 
Island, Japan. 

Depth.— Six hundred and sixty-two fathoms 
in green mud, fine sand, and globigerina ; 440 
fathoms in globigerina ooze. 

Beddard's specimen came from a depth of 345 
fathoms in green mud. 

Four specimens of this species were collected 
by the United States Bureau of Fisheries steamer 
Albatross. In his description of the form Bed- 
dard says : " The abdominal shield was, unfortu- 
nately, considerably damaged, so that its shape 
can not be described with great accuracy; it ap- 
pears to be more or less oval in form and truncated at its free ex- 
tremity; laterally and just in front of the articulation of the long 
styliform uropoda is a spiny process directed backward nearly in the 
same straight line with the longitudinal axis of the abdominal shield." 

In the specimens found by 
the Albatross the abdomen is 
posteriorly triangular between 
the two post-lateral spines, and 
not truncate, as described by 
Beddard. There are also two 
Fig. 44. — mux.nopsis latifrons. Seventh small spines on the lateral mar- 
^ gin on either side. Because 

BeddarcVs specimen was imperfect, I have made a drawing of the 
abdomen as it appears in the Albatross specimen. I have also made 
a drawing of one of the natatory legs. 



Fig. 4:1. — Muxnopsis 
latifrons. abdomen. 
X 41. 




MUNNOPSIS, new species. 



About twelve specimens of a new species of Munnopsis were col- 
lected from stations 4765, 4766, 4793, and 4800. All the specimens 
were mutilated, so that a complete description is not possible. 



120 



PR00EEDIXG8 OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



Genus EURYCOPE G. O. Sars. 




EURYCOPE LiEVIS, new species. 

Body oblong-ovate, about two and a half times longer than wide, 
4 mm. : 10 mm. 

Surface perfectly smooth ; color, in alcohol, yellow. 

Head much wider than long, with the anterior margin produced 

in the middle in a wide truncated process. Eyes absent. First pair 

• of antennae with the first article large and 

dilated; the second and third are very short 

and about equal in length. The flagellum is 

composed of numerous articles. The second 

antennae are broken at the end of the third 

article. 

The first four segments of the thorax are 
about equal in length and they are also about 
as long as the head. The first segment is as 
wide as the head; the three following are 
equal in width and a little wider than the 
first. Epimera are present on the second, 
third, and fourth segments in the form of nar- 
row plates occupying the entire lateral margin. 
The last three segments of the thorax grad- 
ually increase in length ; the fifth is about one 
and a half times longer than the fourth, 
but is of equal width ; the sixth is twice as long as the fourth ; 
the seventh is about two and a half times longer than the fourth. 
Epimera are present on the last three segments in the form of 
narrow plates occupying the posterior two-thirds of the lateral 
margin. 

The abdomen consists of a single, large segment, tapering pos- 
teriorly to a rounded extremity. The nropoda are double-branched, 
both branches being very small 
and short, the inner slightly 
longer than the outer. 

The first pair of legs aro 
shorter than the three follow- 
ing pairs, w^hich are greatly 
elongated and gradually in- 
crease in length. The last three 
pairs are natatory. 

Only three specimens, all mutilated, come from station 4907, 10-20 
miles southwest of Koshika Islands, Eastern Sea, at Tsurikake Saki 
Light, S. 83° E., 14.7 miles (lat. 31° 39' 30'' N.; long. 129° 24' E.) at 
a depth of 40G fathoms in gi'ay globigerina ooze ; from station 4774, 



FIG..45.- 



-EURYCOPE L^VIS. 

X 5J. 




Fig. 46. — EURYCOPE l^vis. One of the 

NATATORY LEGS. X 14|. 



NO. 1701. -NORTHWEST PACIFIC L^0P0D8— RICHARDSON. 121 

on " Bowers Bank," Bering Sea, at lat. 54° 33' N. ; long. 178° 45' E., at 
a depth of 557 fathoms; and station 5037, off Otchishi Saki, eastern 
end of Hokkaido, Pacific Ocean, at Urakawa Light, N. 52|° E., 
11.9 miles (lat. 42° 02' 40" N. ; long. 142° 33' 20" E., at a depth of 
349 fathoms. 

The only species of Eurycope recorded from Japan is E. fragilis 
Beddard <» from off Yokohama, which is entirely different from the 
specias described here. 

Type-specimen.— Q.^^i. No. 39522, U.S.N.M. 

BOPYROIDEA or EPICARIDEA. 

Family BOPYRID^^. 

Genus PHRYXUS Rathke. 

PHRYXUS ABDOMINALIS Kr0yer. 

Boju/nis ahdominalift Kroyer, Nat. Tidsskr., vol. 3, 1S40-1S41. pp. 102-112, 289- 

299, pis. 1, 2. 
Phryxus ahdominalis Lilljeborg. CEfvers, Kongl. Vet. Akad. Forli., vol. 9, 1S52, 

p. 11.— Harger, Report U. S. Fish Comm., 1880, pt. 6, p. 312, ( See Harger for 

further synonymy.). — Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. No. 54, 1905, pp. 

500-503. 

Localities. — Station 4814, on the way from Hakodate, Japan, to 
Ebisu, Sado Island, Sea of Japan, at north point Sado Island, S. 42° 
W., 15.7 miles (lat. 38° 32' N.; long. 138° 43' E.) on Spirontocaris, 
species (?) at a depth of 429 fathoms ; station 4782, on the way from 
Agattu Island to Chichagof Harbor, Attn Island, by the Semichi 
Islands, Aleutians, at East Cape, Attn Island, S. 22° W., 4 miles 
(lat. 52° 55' N.; long. 173° 27' E.) at a depth of 57 fathoms; station 
4992, on the way from Otaru, Hokkaido, Japan, to Korsakov, Aniwa 
Bay, Saghalin Island (by the Gulf of Tartary and La Perouse 
Strait) at Bomasiri Shima (off N. end of Eebun To), N. 52° E., 8 
miles (lat. 45° 24' N.; long. 140° 49' 10" E.), on Spirontocaris, 
species (?) at a depth of 325 fathoms; station 4853, on the way from 
Matsu Shima, Sea of Japan (off coast of Korea) , to Nagasaki, Japan, 
at C. Clonard, S. 80° W., 9.8 miles (lat. 36° 08' N.; long. 129° 49' E.) 
on Spii'ontocaris species (?) at a depth of 335 fathoms ; station 5020, 
off eastern coast Saghalin Island, vicinity of Cape Patience, in Okhotsh 
Sea, at lat. 48° 32' 45" N. ; long. 145° 07' 30" E. on Spirontocaris 
species (?) at a depth of 73 fathoms, and station 5021, at lat. 48° 32' 
30" N.; long. 145° 08' 45" E. on Spirontocaris species (?) ; station 
5045, south coast of Hokkaido, at lat. 42° 11' 10" N.; long. 142° 12' 
E. on Spirontocaris species (?) at a depth of 359 fathoms. 

Character of hottom. — Found in rocks and gravel and in brown 
mud. 



k 



° Challenger Report, vol. 17. 1886, pp. 63-6G, pi. 9, figs. 8-12. 



122 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. j 

Genus PARAPEN^^ON Richardson. '■ 

PARAPEN.ffiON CONSOLIDATA Richardson. I 

Parapencpon consolidata Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1004, pp. 1 
43-i4. 

Localities. — At Tsuruga on a Penseid; station 4942, in Kagoshima 
Gulf at Chirin Jima A, S. 12^° E., G.G miles (lat. 31° 23' 10" N.; ; 
long. 130° 39' 10" E.), from branchial cavity of a Pena?id. 

Depth. — One specimen was collected on the shore ; the other comes 
from a depth of 118 fathoms. 

The type-specimen is from Mogi, Japan. 

Genus ARGEIA Dana. 

ARGEIA PUGETTENSIS Dana. 

Argeia pugettrnsin Dana, U. S. Expl. Exp., Crust., vol. 14, 1853, p. 804, pi. 53, 
fig. 7. — Stimpson, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, 1857, p. 511. — Richardson, 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., a-o1. 21, 1890, p. 868; Ann. Mag, Nat. Hist. (7), vol 4, 
1899, p. 337 ; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, p. 308.— Bonnier, Travaux de ', 
la Station Zool. de Wimereux, vol. 8, 1900, pp. 327-328. — Richardson, Proc. ' 
U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, pp. 60-64 ; Bull. U. S. Bureau of Fisheries, vol. 
24, 1905, p. 220 ; Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 544-550. 

Argeia, species (?) Calman, Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., vol. 11, 1S98, ]). 281. 

Argeia cahnani Bonnier, Travaux de la Station Zool. de Wimereux, vol. 8, 1900, 
p. 329. 

Localities. — Hakodate, Japan ; station 5000, in the Gulf of Tartary, 
off southwestern coast of Saghalin, at lat. 47° 35' N. ; long. 141° 43' E., 
and station 5003, lat. 47° 32' 30" N. ; long. 141° 45' E.; station 4870, 
on the way from Matsu Shima, Sea of Japan (off coast of Korea) to 
Nagasaki, Japan, at lat. 36° 30' 30" N.; long. 129° 43' E. 

Depth. — Surface light; 31-94 fathoms in green mud and gray sand. 

Parasitic on Nectocra^igon, species (?) 

Genus BOPYROIDES Stimpson. 

BOPYROIDES HIPPOLYTES (Kr0yer). 

Bopynis hippolytes Kr0yer, Kongelige Danske Videnskabenes Selskabs natur- 

videnskabelige og mathematiske Afhaudlinger, vol. 7, 1838, p. 306 (78), pi. 4, 

fig. 22. 
Bopyroides acutimarginatus Stimpson, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 16, 1864, 

p. 156. 
Gyge hippolytes Harger, Report U. S. Fish Comm., 1880, pt. 6, p. 311. 
Bopyroides hippolytes Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 567- 

572. ( See Richardson for further synonymy. ) 

Localities. — Unalaska on Spirontoearis, species (?); station 4778, 
on " Petrel Bank,'' Bering Sea, at Semisopochnoi Island, r. t. S. 45° 
W., 1. 1. S. 12° W. about 12 miles (lat. 52° 12' N. ; long. 179° 52' E.) on 



I 



xo. 1701. NORTHWEfiT PACIFIC I80P0DR—RICHARDS0X. 123 

Spirontocaris^ species (?) ; station 4788, on the way from Preobra- 
jeniya Bay, Mendi Island, to Nikolski Bay, Bering Island, by the 
passage between islands at North point Copper Island, N. 70° E., 8.8 
miles (lat. 54° 50' 24'' N. ; long. 167° 13' E.) ; station 4819, on the way 
from Ebisii, Sado Island, to Nanao, Noto Peninsula, Hondo, Japan, 
at Hime Said Light, S. 1G° E., 3.8 miles (lat. 38° 09' N. ; long. 138° 
32' 12" E.). 

Dejyth. — Forty-three to two hundred and forty-five fathoms in 
green sand and fine brown mud. 

Remarks. — The specimen from station 4778 has five pairs of small, 
rounded tubercles on the fleshy ridges or modified appendages of 
the abdomen (the pleopoda). 

Family DAJID^. 
Genus HOLOPHRYXUS Richardson. 

HOLOPHRYXUS GIARDI Richardson. 

Holophryxus giardi Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 83, 1908, pp. 
690-692. 

Locality. — Station 4793, on the way from Nikolski Bay, Bering 
Island, Komandorski Islands, to Petropaulovsk, Avatcha Bay, Kam- 
chatka, at Toporkov Island, harbor of Nikolski, Bering Island, N. 
58° E., 44 miles (lat. 54° 48' N.; long. 104° 54' E.). 

Depth. — Two thousand seven hundred fathoms. 

Parasitic on Gennadas horealis Eathbun. 

HOLOPHRYXUS CALIFORNIENSIS Richardson. 

Holophryxxis caUfornicnsis Richardson, Proc. TT. S. Nnt. Mus., vol. 33, 11X)8, 
pp. 692-694. 

Locality. — On the way from Yes Bay to Seattle, at Bushby Point. 
Depth. — One hundred and lift}" to two hundred and eighty fathoms. 
Parasitic on Pasiphcea paciflca Rathbun. 

Genus ARTHROPHRYXUS Richardson. 

ARTHROPHRYXUS BERINGANUS Richardson. 

Arthrophryxns beringanus Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 3.3. 1908, 
pp. 695-696. 

Locality. — One female, with Schizopoda but not attached, from 
station 4760, on the way from Union Bay, British Columbia, to 
Dutch Harbor, Alaska, by the Goletas Channel and Unalga Pass, at 
lat. 53° 53' N.; long. 144° 53' W. 

Depth. — Two thousand two hundred fathoms. 

The type-specimen came from station 4793, on the way from 
Nikolski Bay, Bering Island, Komandorski Islands, to Petropaulovsk, 



124 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 




Fig. 47. — Prophryxus ala- 
scENSis. Dorsal view 

OF ADULT FEMALE. X 19^. 



Avatcha Bay. Kamchatka, at Toporkov Island, harbor of Nikolski, 
Bering Island, at a depth of 2,700 fathoms; it was parasitic on 
Eiicopia australis. 

PROPHRYXUS, new genus. 

Bod.y of adidt female irregular in outline. Head and first three 
segments of thorax defined. Last four thoracic segments indicated 

only in the dorsal region. Lateral parts of 
thorax swollen and extending backward in a 
small rounded lobe on either side. 

Five abdominal segments defined. Pleo- 
pods rudimentary. 

Five pairs of legs surround the oral area. 

Male unknown. 

Tiji)e of genus. — ProyJiryxus alascensis. 

PROPHRYXUS ALASCENSIS, new species 

Body of adult female oval in outline, with 
the front somewhat quadrangular, more or 
less depressed. Lateral parts of body swollen, 
but not projecting anteriorly. Head extend- 
ing straight in front, with the anterior mar- 
gin straight. Two little black s])ots on one side may represent one 
eye. Head indistinctly defined from thorax. 

The first three segments of the thorax are indistinctly indicated; 
they extend from one side of the body to the other. The following 
four segments are only indicated in the mid- 
dle of the dorsal region. The lateral parts 
of the thorax are expanded and unsegmented, 
and extend backward in a small posterior 
lobe on either side of the abdomen, reaching 
almost to its extremity. 

The abdomen consists of five indistinctly 
defined segments, indicated more on one side 
of the body than on the other. The fifth or 
terminal segment is bilobate. 

In a ventral view of the body there are 
five pairs of legs surrounding the oral area. 
There seem to be rudimentary pleopods. 

Only one specimen was obtained at sta- 
tion 4759, on the way from Union Bay, Brit- 
ish Columbia, to Dutch Harbor, Alaska, by the Goletas Channel and 
Unalga Pass, at lat. 53° 05' N.; long. 138° 31' W. It was taken at a 
depth of 2,000 fathoms wath a schizopod, but unattached. 
Type-specimen.— Cat. No. 39523, U.S.N.M. 




Fig. 48. — Prophryxus ala- 
scensis. Ventral view. 
X 195. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC WOPOD^—RICIIARDHOy. 125 

Attached to one of the legs of /^ga symmetrica Richardson was a 
parasite, the outline of which was more or less irregularly trans- 
versely oval, with no traces of segmentation on the dorsal surface. 
The body seems to be converted into a sac for carrying the eggs. 





Fig. 49.— Isopod parasite. Duu- ku;. 50.— Isopod parasite. Vbn- 

SAL VIEW. X 14i. TRAL VIEW. X 14*. 

which fill the lateral portions and can be seen through the thin, 
almost transparent integmnent. On the ventral side at the anterior 
end is the oral oj^ening, below which are the lamellse which bound 
the opening into the marsupial cavity. Below these lamellae are two 
small oval lamella;, one on either side. 

The specimen shown in figs. 49 and 50 is Cat. No, 39524, U.S.N.M. 

ONISCOIDEA. 
Family LIGYDID^E. 
Genus LIGYDA Rafinesque. 

LIGYDA PALLASII (Brandt). 

L'xoUi paUasii Brandt, Bull. Soc. Imper. des Natur. de Moscou, vol. 6, 1833, 
p. 172. 

Liffia dilatata Stimpson, Bost. Jour. Nat. Hist, vol. 6, 1857, p. 507, pi. 22, 
fig. 8. — Smith, Report Progress Geol. Survey of Canada, 1880, p. 218. — Under- 
wood, Bull. 111. State Lab. Nat. Hist, vol. 2, 1886, p. 361. 

Ligia septentrionalis Lockington, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 7, 1877, pt 1, p. 46. 

Ligia stinipsoni Miers, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1877, p. 671 (footnote). 

Ligia ixilldsii Budde-Lund, Crust Isop. Terrestria, 1885. pp. 2G1-262. — Richard- 
son, Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., vol. 21, 1899. p. 866; Ann Mag. Nat Hist (7), vol. 
4, 1899, p. 334; American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, p. 306; Harriman Alaska 
Expedition, Crust, vol. 10, 1904, p. 226; Proc. U. S. Nat Mus., vol. 27, 1904, 
p. 670. 

Ligyda pallasii Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 682-684. 

Localities. — Attn Island; Xazan Bay, Atka. 
Depth. — Shore. 

LIGYDA EXOTICA (Roux). 

Ligia exotica Roux. Crust Medit., 1828, p. P,, pi. 13. fig. 9. — Budde-Lund. Crust. 
Isop. Terrestria, 1885, pp. 266-268.— Richardson, Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 
vol. 21, 1899, p. 866; Ann. Mag. Nat Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, p. 335; American 
Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, p. 306; Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 1901, p. 575. 



126 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATIO\AL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Ligia gaudichaudii Dana, U. S. Expl. Exp., Crust., vol. 14. 18.53, p. 741, pi. 49, 

figs. Ga-h. 
Ligyda exotica Richardson, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 54, 1905, pp. 676-677. 

Localities. — Matsushima ; Same, Rikuoku, Japan. 
Depth. — Shore. 

LIGYDA CINERASCENS (Budde-Lund). 

Ligia cinerascens Budde-Lund, Crust. Isop. Terrestria, 1885, p. 265. 

Locality. — Hakodate, Japan. Budde-Lund says of the type that 
it is uncertain whether it comes from Manila or Chile, or was taken 
in Japan, but he thinks it very likely to have come from Japan. 

About six specimens, which I hesitating!}' refer to this species, 
were taken at Hakodate, Japan. They differ from Ligyda exotica 
in having shorter antenna? which do not reach beyond the last tho- 
racic segment and in the much shorter uropoda, which do not quite 
equal half the length of the body. The body is also more thickly 
granulated than that of L. exotica., and the color is uniformly dark 

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Bosc, Louis A. G. Histoire Naturelle des Crustaces, vol. 2, 1802. Paris. 

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NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC ISOPODS— RICHARDSON. 127 

Brandt, J. F. Conspectus Monographiae Crustaceorum On iscodorum Latreillii. 

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^'idensk, Selsk. Skr., 6 te Rrekke, naturvldenskabelig og matbematisk Afd., 

vol. 5, pt. 3, 1890. Kjobenbavn. 
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waters. Report of tbe U. S. Commissioner of Fisb and Fisberies, 1878, pt. 6, 

pp. 297-^62, pis. 1-13. Washington, ISSO. 

Reports on tbe results of dredging, under tbe supervision of Alexander 

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Hilgendorf, F. Euber eine neue Isopoden-Gattung Lci)tospJi(rn))n(i aus Japan. 
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Bemerlvungen iiber zwei Isopoden, die Japaniscbe Susswasser-Assel 

(Asellus bilgendorfi, Bov.) und eine neue Munna-Art. SB. Ges. naturf. 
Berlin, 1893, pp. 1-3. Berlin. 

KcELBEL, Carl. Ueber einige neue Cymotboiden. SB. Akad. Wien, vol. 78, 

pt. 1, 1878, pp. 401-415, pis. 1-2. Wien. 
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Leach, W. E. Cymotboadees. Diet, des Sci. Nat, vol. 12, 1818, pp. 338-354. 

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Cal. Acad. Sciences, vol 7, 1876, pt. 1, pp. 44-46. San Francisco, 1877. 
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Soc. Lond(»n. 1877, i)p. 653-079, pis. 66-69. London. 

Revision of the Idoteidaj, a family of Sessile-eyed Crustacea, Journ. 



Linn, Soc. London, vol. 16, 1883, pp. 1-88, pis, 1-3. Loudon. 



I 



128 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37/ 

Norman, Alfred Merle. Britisli Isopoda of the families ^gidse, Cirolanidse, 
Idoteidae, and Arcturidse. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 14, 1904, pp. 430- 
450, pis. 12-13. Loudon. 

Ortmann, a. E. a new species of the Isopod genus Bathynomus. Proc. Acad. 
Nat. Sci. Phila., 1894, pp. 191-193. Philadelphia, 1895. 

Owen, Richard. The zoology of Captain Beechey's Voyage to the Pacific Ocean 
and Bering's Straits, performed in H. M. S. Blossom in the years 1825-1828. 
London, 1839. 

Richardson, Harriet, Description of four new species of Rocinela, with a 
synoi)sis of the genus. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, vol. 37, 1898, pp. 8-17. 
Philadelphia. 

• Key to the Isopods of the Pacific Coast of North America, with descrip- 
tions of twenty-two new species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 21, 1899, pp. 815- 
869. Washington. (Reprinted in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. (7), vol. 4, 1899, 
pp. 157-187, 260-277, 321-338. London.) 

Description of a new species of Idotea from Hakodate Bay, Japan. 



Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 22, 1900, pp. 131-134. Washington. 
Synopses of North American Invertebrates. VIIL The Isopoda. 



American Naturalist, vol. 34, 1900, pp. 207-230, 295-309. Boston. 
Key to the Isopods of the Atlantic Coast of North America, with de- 



scriptions of new and little-known species. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, 
1901, pp. 493-579. Washington. 
Contributions to the Natural History of the Isopoda. II. Isopoda 



collected in Japan by Jordan and Snyder. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 27, 1904, 
pp. 46-51. Washington. 
Contributions to the Natural History of the Isopoda. I. Isopoda 



collected in Japan in the year 1900 by the U. S. Fish Commission steamer 
Albatross, and in the year 1881 by the U. S. S. Palos. Proc. U. S. Nat. :Mus., 
vol. 27, 1904, pp. 32-46. Washington. 
Isopod Crustaceans of the Northwest Coast of North America. Ilarri- 



man Alaska Expedition, Crust., vol. 10, 1904, pp. 213-230. New York. (Re- 
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Isopods of the Alaska Salmon Investigation. Bull. U. S. Bureau of 



Fisheries, vol. 24, 1904, pp. 209-221. Washington, 1905. 
A Monograph on the Isopods of North America. Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 



No. 54, 1905, pp. 1-727. Washington. 
• Description of new Isopod Crustaceans of the Family Sphjieromidaj. 



Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus., vol. 31, 1906, pp. 1-22. Washington. 
On some Isopods of the Family Dajidie from the northwest Pacific 



Ocean, with descriptions of a new genus and two new species. Proc. U. S. 

Nat. Mus., vol. 33, 1908, pp. 689-696. Washington. 
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Paris and Marseilles. 
Sars, George O. Crustacea of the Norwegian North Atlantic Expedition, 

1876-1878. Christiania, 1885. 
Oversigt af Norges Crustaceer med forel0l)ige Bemajrkuinger over de 

nye eller mindre bekjendte Arter. 1. Forhandlinger i Videnskab Selskabet i 

Christiania, Nr. IS. pp. 1-124, 1882. Christiania. 1883. 
Schioedte, J. C, and Meinert, Fr. Symbohc ad Monographiam Cymothoarum, 

Crustaceorum Isopodum Familijp. II. Anilocrida^. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift 

(3), vol. 1.3, 1881-83, pp. 1-167, i)ls. 1-10. Kj^benhavn. 
Symbohe ad Monographiam Cymothoarum, Crustaceorum Iso- 

l)()duni Familise. (Continuato.) Addimenta. Index Systematlcus. Index 

Alphabeticus. Naturhistorisk Tidsskrift (3), vol. 14, 1883-84, pp. 360-362, 

413-414, pi. 15, figs. 1-2; pi. 18, fig. 13. Kj^beuhavn, 1884. 



NO. 1701. NORTHWEST PACIFIC I80P0DS— RICHARDSON. 129 

Smith, S. I. Notes on Crustacea collected by Dr. G. M. Dawson at Vancouver 
and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Report of Progress of the Geological Sur- 
vey of Canada, 1878-79, p. 218. Montreal, 1880. 

Stebbing, T. R. R. History of Crustacea, 1893. New York. 

Stimpson, William. The Crustacea and Echinoderniata of the Pacific shores of 
North America. Boston Journ. Nat. Hist., vol. 6, 1857, pp. 503-513. Boston. 

• On an oceanic Isopod found near the southeastern shores of Massa- 
chusetts. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., vol. 14, 1863, pp. 133-134. Philadelphia. 

— Descriptions of new marine invertebrates from Pugets Sound, collected 



by naturalists of the Northwest Boundary Commission. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila., vol. 16, 1864, pp. 155-156. Philadelphia. 
Underwood, Lucien. List of the described si)ecies of fresh-water Crustacea 
from America north of Mexico. Bull. III. State Lab. Nat. Hist., vol. 2, 1S86, 
pp. 358-364. Champaign, Illinois. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 9 



\ 



FEESH-WATEE SPONGES COLLECTED IN THE PHILIP- 
PINES BY THE ALBATEOSS EXPEDITION. 



By Nelson Ann and ale, 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



During the recent expedition of the Bureau of Fisheries steamer 
Albatross to the Philippine Ishmcls a number of fresh-water sponges 
were collected, which have been referred to me by Dr. Hugh M. 
Smith, of the United States Bureau of Fisheries and are here re- 
ported on. 

Genus SPONGILLA. 

Snbgemas EXISFONGrlLLA. 

SPONGILLA MICROSCLERIFERA, new species. 

Sponge light, fragile, tomentose, of a dirt)- white color in dry 
specimens, apparently without branches and of no great thickness. 

Skeleton practically devoid of spongin, but forming a close and 
almost regular reticulation in which the radiating and transverse 
fibers are of approximately equal diameter. The free microscleres 
extraordinarily abundant in the interstices of the skeleton. 

Spicules: Skeleton spicules short, slender, smooth, sharply pointed 
at either end, feebly curved. Gemmule spicules slender, cylindrical, 
nearly straight, bluntly pointed at the ends, irregularis^ covered with 
short, sharp spines, which are more numerous at the extremities, at 
Avhich they are usually directed backward, than in the middle. Free 
microscleres straight or curved, varying greatly in length, of extreme 
tenuity, densely covered with minute spines. 

Gemmules few, free, small, spherical, without a foraminal tubule, 
with a thick granular coat, in which the spicules are arranged tangen- 
tiallv and horizontally in an irregular manner. 

Mm. 

Length of skeleton spicule .254 -.36.5 

Breadth of skeleton spicule .0083 

Length of gemmule spicule .0954 -.112 

Breadth of gemmule spicule . 0062 

Length of free microsclere . 0539 - . 1245 

Breadth of free microsclere . 00103 -. 00207 

Diameter of gemmule .35 -.49 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1702. 

131 



132 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Habitat. — Taal Lake, east side of Taal Island, Luzon, Philippines. 
H. M. Smith coll., December 26, 1907. "Abundant round shores of 
lake, and washed up in large quantities after storms." The specimens 
appear to have coated both surfaces of leaves, which have perished 
and almost disappeared. 

The most noteworthy characters of this sponge are the number 
and hair-like appearance of the free microscleres, which are some- 
times of unusual length in spite of their tenuity. Otherwise there 
is very little, except perhaps color, to distinguish it from some 
forms of Spongilla lacustris. The specimens I have examined are 
dry and appear to be someAvhat worn on the external surface, but 
there is no trace of their having borne branches; the oscula seem 
to have been fairly large. The skeleton, in spite of the closeness 
of its reticulation, contains much less spongin than is usually the 
case in S. lao/stris, but this is a character liable to a certain amount 
of variation, although perhaps less inconstant than is usually thought. 

The type-specimen will be transferred to the U. S. National 
Museum. 

SPONGILLA PHILIPPINENSIS Annandale. 

Spongilld phUippinensis Annandale, Proc. T^. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 3(), lOOD, p. G20, 
text figs. 2 and 3. 

Several specimens from the original locality. Lake Lanao, Min- 
danao, collected by Dr. Paul Bartsch, were sent to me. They have 
a gray color in alcohol. I have not been able to find gemmules in 
these specimens, which were taken in May, 1908, at Vicars Landing, 
in shallow water at the edge of the lake, and were attached to sub- 
merged drift; but they are full of embryos. The embryos lie in 
the interstices of the skeleton and have no protecting membrane as 
is the case in some oriental species." They are so numerous that in 
preparations made by boiling pieces of the sponge in nitric acid their 
minute immature skeleton spicules are present in sufficient numbers 
to appear to be a feature of the species and might easily be mistaken 
for free microscleres. True flesh spicules are, however, absent. 

Only four species of Spongillina3 appear to have been recorded 
as yet from the Plrilippines, namely, Spongilla philippinensis and 
S. dementis from Mindanao, and S. microsclerifera and Ephydatia 
fortis from Luzon. It may be expected that more will be discovered. 

" Annandale, Records of the Indian Museum, vol. 1, 1907, p. 269. 



THE POLYCH.^TOUS ANNELIDS DREDGED IN 1908 BY 
ME. OWEN BEYANT OFF THE COASTS OF LABRADOR, 
NEWFOUNDLAND, AND NOVA SCOTIA. 



By J. Percy Moore, 
Of the Zoological Department of the TJiiiversitij of Pennsijlvania, Philadelphia. 



Our knowledge of the Polychseta of Labrador is very meager, 
being based almost entirely upon two imperfect lists published by 
Prof. A. S. Packard in 1863 and 1867, respectively. The second and 
more complete list embraces 28 species of Polychasta, the determina- 
tion of several of which is doubtful, though some of the identifica- 
tions have been verified by Professor Verrill. It was, of course, not 
to be expected that the Labrador coast would furnish many novelties 
in this group, but that the fauna would be similar to that of the 
better-known waters adjacent. 

Beginning with Fabricius, in 1780, the Polychseta fauna of Green- 
land has had many able students down to our own time, and this 
group of animals is better known in few regions than in this. The 
ranges of many species, first made known from the waters of Green- 
land and northern Europe, have been found to extend to the Ameri- 
can coast at the region about the Bay of Fundy and the waters 
surrounding Nova Scotia. Stimpson, Verrill, and Webster and 
Benedict have described the rich fauna of the former, and Mcintosh, 
in a series of papers, has recorded especially the results of the dredg- 
ings of AMiiteaves in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Both regions, while 
yielding a considerable number of forms peculiar to the American 
coast, have exhibited a facies essentially Arctic. 

It was to be presumed, therefore, that the Labrador Polychseta 
would belong chiefly to Arctic species, with some additions from the 
more southern fauna. Packard's lists had already furnished a basis 
for this expectation, to which the present collection affords welcome 
confirmation. Fortunately, the bulk of the collection comes from 
Labrador, where additions to our knowledge were most to be desired. 
Of the 51 species recorded, 38 are from the coast of Labrador, and 
only 7 of these appear in Packard's lists, leaving 31 as probably new 
to that region. The remaining 13 sj^ecies were dredged mostly off 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1703. 

133 



134 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Cape Sable, Nova Scotia ; G species have not previously been reported 
from American waters. In the following list it will be understood 
that where the name of the Province is omitted the locality is in 
Labrador, 

Family SILLID^. 

AUTOLYTUS LONGISETOSUS (CErsted) Malmgren. 

A single male epitoke taken in the tow^ net off Egg Harbor, August 
10, agrees closely with the descriptions and figures of this northern 
species given by Oersted, Malmgren, and Verrill. The number of 
segments (30) in the caudal region is, however, greater, but their 
total length bears about the same proportion to the other regions. 
There are G setigerous segments in the anterior and 30 in the middle 
or swimming region. Notocirri of the anterior region bear a large 
dorsal basal gland, probably represented in Oersted's figure as a 
thickening of this region. Some confusion exists in the American 
records of this species. Verrill reports it from Massachusetts Bay. 

Family PHYLLODOCIDiE. 

PHYLLODOCE MUCOSA CErsted. 

Port Manvers, August 21, 30 fathoms, sticky mud; halfway be- 
tween Cape Mugford and Hebron, August 23, GO fathoms, mud and 
sand. This species resembles very closely P. pulchella Malmgren 
and P. catenula Verrill. From the latter, so common on the New 
England coast, it differs in the form of the notocirri and especially 
in the greater number and smaller size of the papilla? of the basal 
division of the proboscis. The nuchal papilla, so generally over- 
looked in members of this genus, is present. The only published 
American Atlantic record is that of Webster and Benedict for 
Eastport. 

PHYLLODOCE, species. 

Off Beachy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, 
August 22, 80 fathoms, soft mud. A young specimen 18 mm. long; 
resembles P. jmlchella rather more closely than P. mucosa^ except in 
the relative length of the seta appendages. 

Family POLYNOID^. 

HARMOTHOE IMBRICATA (Linnaeus) Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud; Shoal Tickle, southeast 
of Nain, August 15; 20 miles northeast of Nain, August 20; Koma- 
toroic Bay, north of Nakoak, August 28, 5 fathoms, rocky; off St. 
Lawrence Harbor, Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, September 29; St. 



NO. 1703. SOME POLYCH^TOUS ANNELIDS— MOORE. 135 

Pierre Harbor, October 1, 5 fathoms, rock and gravel ; Browns Bank, 
off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 45 fathoms; 43 miles west 
by south from Cape Sable, October 8, 110 fathoms, gravel. 

This widel}^ distributed species appears to be common throughout 
the region represented. The usual marked variations in color, mar- 
ginal ciliation, and papillation of the elytra occur. Packard reports 
this species as common along the coast of Labrador. It is probable 
that he did not fully differentiate this from other species of 
Polynoidae. 

L^NILLA GLABRA Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud. A single example among 
several of the last, from which it is distinguishable only upon careful 
examination. Apparently not previously recorded from the Ameri- 
can coast. 

EUNOE CERSTEDI Malmgren. 

Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 40-45 fath- 
oms, rock}^ and sandy; 20 miles east of Cape Sable, October 7, 70 
fathoms, fine sand; about 40 miles west by south from Cape Sable, 
October 8, 7G fathoms, black gravel. The el3^tral papillae are large 
and usually rough, generally conical, but in some cases bifid or even 
trifid. On our coast this sjjecies occurs as far south as Crab Ledge, 
off Chatham, Massachusetts, and is common in Casco Bay, Maine. 

ANTINOE SARSI Kinberg. 

Halfway from Cape Mugford to Hebron, August 23, 60 fathoms, 
mud and sand. Five tj'pical examples like those occurring on the 
coasts of northern Europe and Greenland. Known as far south as 
Casco Bay. 

GATTYANA CIRROSA (Pallas) Mcintosh. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud; Shoal Tickle, southeast 
of Nain, August 15 ; off Beachy Island, between Flint Island and 
Cape Mugford, August 22, 80 fathoms, soft mud; halfway between 
Cape Mugford and Hebron, August 23, 60 fathoms, mud and sand; 
outside of Hebron, August 25, 60 fathoms, gravel; Browns Bank, 
off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 40 fathoms, rocky and 
sandj^ 

Except under date of August 23, when four specimens were taken, 
single examples only of this species occur in the collections from 
each locality. From G. amondseni in this collection they are readily 
distinguished by the broader, more depressed form and by the elytra, 
which have larger and rougher papilla? and much longer marginal 
cilia; considerable numbers of cilia, not exhibited in Malmgren 's 
figures, are scattered over the dorsal surface also. 



136 PR0CEEDING8 OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

GATTYANA AMONDSENI (Malmgren) Mcintosh. 

HalfAva}^ from Cape Mugford to Hebron, August 23, GO fathoms, 
mud and sand ; off Fish Island, August 25, 75 fathoms, mud ; 1 mile 
north of Battle Harbor, September 14, 50 fathoms, fine sand. These 
specimens are of a nearly uniform pale gray or brownish gray color 
and in structural characters agree closely with Malmgren's figures. 
This and the preceding species are found southward to Province- 
town, Massachusetts, and Andrews has reported a specimen of G. 
cirrosa even at Beaufort, North Carolina. 

EUPOLYNOE ANTICOSTIENSIS Mcintosh. 

Egg Harbor, Huntington Island, August 8, 7 fathoms, mud; off 
Fish Island, outside of Hebron, August 25, 75 fathoms, mud ; 1 mile 
north of Battle Harbor, September 14, 50 fathoms, fine sand. 

As its name indicates, this very clearlj?^ characterized species was 
originalh'' described b}^ Mcintosh from the Gulf of St. Lawrence and 
up to the present has not been recorded elsewhere. A single example 
was taken at each station, and the label accompanying that first 
recorded bears the interesting memorandum " Worm with row of 
phosphorescent spots on each side," thus adding this species to the 
list of known luciferous Polynoida?. 

The dark spot on the elytra mentioned by Mcintosh lies at the 
anterior side of the isthmus of an oo -shaped, unpigmented spot 
bounded by the curved brown bands, which, however, may not fully 
inclose it, but leave it continuous antero-laterally with the colorless 
covered portion of the el^^tra. Each segment is marked on the dorsum 
by a narrow, transverse, greenish stripe and often by a pair of small 
broAvn spots. 

The proboscis protruded on one specimen measures 5.6 mm. long, 
3 mm. wide, and 3.5 mm. deep, with 9 dorsal and 9 ventral orificial 
papillae and 4 short, stout, pale-brown jaws of the usual form, but 
shorter than in most related species. 

LEPIDONOTUS SQUAMATUS (Linnaeus) Kinberg. 

Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 140 fathoms, 
rocky and sandy. 

Curiously enough, this species, usually so plentiful and ubiquitous 
on all northern coasts, is represented by a single example onl}^, a 
specimen about 25 mm. long with bright brick-red elytral papillse. 
Packard reports this species as common all along the Labrador 
coast from the littoral zone to 20 fathoms. It ranges at least to 
Virginia, and probably beyond. 



I 



NO. 1703. SOME P0LYCHJET0U8 ANNELIDS— MOORE. 137 

Family APHRODITID^. 

L.ffiTMONICE FILICORNIS Kinberg. 

Off Sable Island, Nova Scotia, 75 miles W.N.W., October 5, 75 
fathoms, fine sand. A single fine specimen, which, however, was not 
sufficiently closely studied to determine if it is really distinct from 
L. armata Verrill, of the New England coast and Gulf Stream 
slope, which many European students of the Polychaeta consider 
to be identical. Ehlers considers L, armata to be a synonjnii of 
L. kinbergi Baird, and records the species from the West Indian 
region. Mcintosh reports L. flicornis from the Gulf of St. Lawrence 
and Verrill L. armata from the Gulf of Maine, Georges Banks, etc. 

Family NEPHTHYDID^. 

NEPHTHYS C^CA (Fabricius) CErsted. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud ; Shoal Tickle, near Nain, 
August 15; Port Manvers, August 21, 30 fathoms, sticky mud; off 
Beachy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, August 22, 
80 fathoms, soft mud ; half way between Cape Mugford and Hebron, 
August 23, GO fathoms, mud and sand; 1 mile north of Battle Har- 
bor, September 14, 50 fathoms, fine sand. 

Typical examples of this circumboreal species occur in considerable 
numbers on both muddy and sandy bottoms. Those from the first- 
mentioned habitat are chiefly of small size and are more or less deeply 
pigmented. Those taken on sandy bottoms are colorless, like the 
representatives of the species in southern New England, which like- 
wise occur on sandy or stony bottoms exclusively. Packard records 
this species from Labrador, and it is common at Eastport, as reported 
by both Ehlers and Webster and Benedict. 

NEPHTHYS INCISA Malmgren. 

East of Cape Sable 55 miles, October 6, 85 fathoms, mud. Several 
specimens of this species, so abundant on the soft, muddy bottoms 
of Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, where it was formerly erroneously 
identified with N . ingens Stimpson. It is common in northern 
Europe also. From TV. cmca it is readily distinguished by its much 
shorter, prismatic body and deeply incised parapodia, as well as 
differences in papillation of the proboscis and characters of the 
setigerous rami and setae. 

Family NEREIDS. 

NEREIS PELAGICA Linnaeus. 

Cock Capelin, Gready Harbor, August 8, 20 miles E.S.E. of Cape 
Sable, Nova Scotia, October 7, 70 fathoms, fine sand ; 14 miles south 



138 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

of Cape Sable, October 7, 45 fathoms, rocky ; Browns Bank, off Cape 
Sable, October 8, 40-45 fathoms, rock}' and sandy. 

A single specimen from the Labrador >^tation; common off Cape 
Sable. Reported by Packard. Circumboreal and south to Beau- 
fort, North Carolina. 

Family LUMBRINERID^. 

LUMBRINERIS FRAGILIS (Muller). 

Port Manvers, August 21, 30 fathoms, sticky mud. Two fragments 
of anterior ends of a large Luinhrineris are referred, with some doubt, 
to this species. They are 4-5 mm. in diameter, with a faint, narrow 
brown band on the dorsum of each segment. The form of the head, 
parapodia, etc., agree with this species. The jaws closely resemble 
Mcintosh's figure, have five obscure teeth on the large right maxilla 
(II) and four, more distinct ones, on the left. Two hooded crochets 
appear in the parajoodia at XX and two acute limbate setse remain 
in the middle of the bundle at LXXV, but have disappeared at XCV. 
Intermediate forms of sette occur. Common and generally distrib- 
uted north of Cape Cod, as well as in European Avaters, but rare 
south of Cape Cod. 

LUMBRINERIS HEBES Verrill. 

Shoal Tickle, southeast of Nain, August 15; off Beacliy Island, 
between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, August 22, 80 fathoms, 
soft mud. 

Two incomplete examples, which agree with Verrill's description in 
every respect, except that a single acute limbate seta persists in the 
bundles as far as XL or L, while in examples of this species from 
southeastern Massachusetts limbate seta? seldom occur beyond somite 
XX to XXIV. 

This species, common throughout the length of the New England 
coast, has not before been reported north of Eastport, where it was 
taken by Webster and Benedict. 

Family ONUPHID^. 

NOTHRIA CONCHYLEGA (Sars) Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud; outside of Hebron, Au- 
gust 25, GO fathoms, gravel; same, August 26, 80 fathoms; off St. 
Lawrence Harbor, Placentia Ba}', Newfoundland, September 29; 
Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 45 fathoms; 
same, 110 fathoms, gravel. From one to four, mostly richly colored 
examples, at each station. On muddy bottoms the tubes are covered 
with fragments of shells; on gravelly bottoms with flat bits of rock. 
This species is well known throughout the northern North Atlantic 
and occurs as far south as Chatham, Massachusetts. 



NO. 1703. SOME POLYCff^TOUS ANNELIDS— MOORE. 139 

Family ARICIID^. 

SCOLOPLOS ARMIGER (Muller) Blainville. 

Off Beacliy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, 
August 22, 80 fathoms, soft mud ; 1 mile north of Battle Harbor, 
September 14, 50 fathoms, fine sand. 

Small incomplete sj^ecimens, representing the anterior end only, 
from these stations agree very closely with the published descriptions 
and figures of this species. They are much contracted and the an- 
terior branchia3 are very minute, but appear to begin on somite XIII 
in all cases. Several of the anterior segments are lightly banded on 
the dorsum with brown ; S. acutuin Verrill is very closely related, if 
not, indeed, identical, with this northern European species and occurs 
in southern New England. Webster and Benedict regard it as the 
same as S. armiger which they report from Eastport. 

Family CIRRATULID^. 

CIRRATULUS CIRRATUS (Muller) Malmgren. 

Shoal Tickle, southeast of Nain, August 15. A single much con- 
tracted specimen about 30 mm. long and filled with eggs. There are 
seven or eight conspicuous eye-spots on each side of the prostomium, 
arranged in a pair of slightly curved oblique lines, converging, but 
not meeting, in front. This is another of the species reported by 
Packard. 

CH.ffiTOZONE SETOSA Malmgren. 

Off Beachy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, 
August 22, 80 fathoms, soft mud. 

Four small imjDerfect specimens 8-15 mm. long agree with Malm- 
gren's description and figures except that they possess a pair of 
long, stout tentacular cirri (sometimes called palpi) and a larger 
number of branchial filaments (notocirri). The posterior spines are 
also more slender and elongated than in the adults. In these re- 
spects they agree exactly with examples found at Eastport by Web- 
ster and Benedict. The tentacular cirri of many Cirratulidse are 
known to be extremeh^ caducous, and this, together with the fact that 
many become epitokous (recently discovered by Caullery), has caused 
much confusion and unnecessary multiplication of genera. 

Family AMPHAEETID.^. 

SABELLIDES BOREALIS Sars. 

Halfway between Cape Mugford and Hebron, August 23, 60 
fathoms, mud and sand. 

A fine specimen, 60 mm. long and more than 3 mm. in maximum 
width ; segments 29, 14 setigerous. Notocirri begin on XIX and ex- 



140 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

tend to XXIX, inclusive. Caudal cirri 1.5 mm. long. Branchia3 
shorter than in Malmgren's figure and his figures of uncini imperfect 
in that they fail to show the double series of marginal teeth ; those 
examined have 4 teeth in each series. Tentacles ciliated. The 
tube is moderately firm with collapsable ends, formed of fine silt, and 
measures 170 nun. long by 5 mm. in diameter. Not previously re- 
i^orted from the American coast. 

SAMYTHA SEXCIRRATA Sars. 

Port Man vers, August 21, 30 fathoms, sticky mud. 

Two specimens (the largest 22 mm. long, found in a soft mucoid 
tube) appear to belong to this species, but exhibit several peculiari- 
ties. There are only 16 setigerous segments instead of the typical 
17 ; this count is reliable for one specimen, but the other is macerated 
about the middle, and it is possible that a seventeenth ma}^ bear setse. 
There are 12 post-setigerous segments, and the pygidium is 4-lobed, 
with a pair of ventral cirri. One has three pairs of branchiae ar- 
ranged typically in a transverse rank on a ridge. On the other the 
rank is crowded and irregular and on the right side an additional 
gill — making 7 in all — quite similar to the others arises behind them. 
The uncini have the marginal teeth in two alternating series of five 
or six each. Verrill reports this species from several localities on the 
northern New England coast. 

Family AMPHICTENID^. 

PECTINARIA (CISTENIDES) HYPERBOREA (Malmgren). 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud; off Beachy Island, be- 
tween Flint Island and Cape Mugford, August 22, 80 fathoms, soft 
mud ; halfway between Cape Mugford and Hebron, August 23, 60 
fathoms, mud and sand. The tubes measure from 9 to 72 mm. long, 
the largest being mm. in diameter at the mouth. The worms have 
12 or rarely 13 pairs of palea^, and the uncini sometimes have 4 in- 
stead of 3 large hooks. Though common in Greenland waters, this 
species is new to the American coast, though it seems probable that 
some of the records of the closely similar P. granvlata may refer to 
this species. P. granulata is reported by Packard as common in 
Labrador, and is recorded from all parts of the Xew England coast, 
especially northward. 

Family TEKEBELLID^. 

AMPHITRITE INTERMEDIA Malmgren. 

About 40 miles west b}^ south from Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, Octo- 
ber 8, 76 fathoms, black gravel, k. single specimen G5 mm. long. 
Verrill has recorded this species from the northern New England 
coast. 



NO. 1703. 80ME POLTCHJETOUS ANNELIDS— MOORE. 141 

LE.ffiNA ABRANCHIATA Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud. An incomplete speci- 
men in a portion of tube constructed of small shell fragments. There 
are 11 fascicles of seta} on one side, 10 on the other. The only record 
of this species on our coasts is the doubtful one in Verrill's check list. 

AXIONICE FLEXUOSA (Grube) Malmgren. 

Nain, August 18, 7 fathoms, mud ; off Beachy Island, between Flint 
Island and Cape Mugford, 80 fathoms, soft mud; southeast from 
Burin, Placentia Bay, Newfoundland, September 28, 110 fathoms, 
rocks and pebbles. 

A single specimen of the worm was taken at the station last re- 
corded. At the other stations the characteristic, hard, sandy, regu- 
larly flexuous tubes were noted. Another addition to the American 
fauna. 

NICOLEA ZOSTERICOLA (CErsted) Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud. A female, barely 18 mm. 
long, and having 40 segments, 15 of which are setigerous; contains 
numerous large eggs. A still smaller male has the sexual cirri already 
developed. The female has two pairs, the male one pair and an 
unpaired one, of small little-branched gills. It is possible that these 
may be small specimens of N. arctica, from which species they differ 
only in their smaller size and slightly developed gills. Webster and 
Benedict give the onh^ previous record for the American coast, their 
specimens having been taken at Eastport. 

THELEPUS CINCINNATUS (Fabricius) Leuckart. 

Near Egg Harbor, August 10, 20 fathoms, rocks; Shoal Tickle, 
near Nain, August 15; outside Hebron, August -26, 80 fathoms, 
gravelly; 14 miles south of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 7, 45 
fathoms, rocky ; Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, October 8, 40-45 fath- 
oms, rocky and sandy ; about 40 miles west by south from Cape Sable, 
October 8, 7G fathoms, black gravel ; about 43 miles west by south 
from Cape Sable, October 8, 110 fathoms, gravel. 

This well-known and widely distributed species, originally de- 
scribed from Greenland waters, and known on our coasts southward 
as far as the banks off Marthas Vineyard and Block Island, occurs 
generally in the region covered by these explorations. The character- 
istic tubes are frequently dredged, especially on the gravelly bottoms 
off Cape Sable. The muddy bottoms off much of the Labrador coast 
are unfavorable to its presence. 



142 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

TEREBELLIDES STRCEMI Sars. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, T fathoms, mud ; halfway between Cape 
Mugford and Hebron, August 23, GO fathoms, mud and sand ; 55 miles 
east of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 6, 85 fathoms, mud. 

A species of wide distribution and frequent occurrence, known on 
our coast as far south as Vineyard Sound, where it was discovered by 
Verrill. 

Family MALDANID^. 

LUMBRICLYMENE, species? 

Oft' Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 14 miles south, October 4, 45 fathoms, 
rocky. The anterior ten segments with a color j^attern like Arwids- 
sons figure of L. cylindricauda but with differently shaped crochets. 

PRAXILLELLA GRACILIS (Sars) Verrill. 

Egg Harbor, August 8, 7 fathoms, mud. The head and anterior 
ten setigerous segments of a large individual TO mm. long and 5 mm. 
in diameter. Except that the number of uncini in anterior setigerous 
segments (II-IV) is greater, it agrees fully with descriptions of 
specimens from northern Europe. 

PRAXILLELLA PR^TERMISSA (Malmgren) Verrill. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud. Represented by a caudal 
end 1.3 nun. in diameter. The caudal funnel bears 15 very regular, 
bluntly pointed papillae as long as one-third of the diameter of the 
funnel and an umpaired neural filament nearly twice as long. Both 
this and the preceding species have been reported by Verrill and 
others from the northern New England coast. 

PRAXILLELLA, species? 

One mile north of Battle Harbor, September 14, 50 fathoms, fine 
sand. A much contracted caudal end consisting of four short 
achsetous segments and an anal funnel exactly like Arwidssons P. 
a-fjinvs (Taf. fig. 147), but with 3G short, blunt, regular marginal 
papillae, which become somewhat shorter and more crowded dorsally ; 
the unpaired ventral one in the neural line about twice as long as the 
others. Crochets unknown. 

MALDANE SARSI Malmgren. 

Shoal Tickle, near Nain, August 15; Port Manvers, August 21, 
30 fathoms, sticky mud. From the first recorded station comes one 
and from the second twenty or more fragments of anterior ends, 
including the head, and from one to ten setigerous segments. The 



NO. 1703. SOME POLYCH.l^TOUS ANNELIDS— MOORE. 143 

diameter is from 0.8 to 3.2 mm. The only obvious feature in which 
these specimens differ from typical examples of the species is the 
elevation into a ridge of the transverse glandular bow on the dorsum 
behind the fifth fascicles of seta?. An abundant circumboreal species 
well known from the coast of northern New England. 

Family CHLORH.^MID.^. 

BRADA GRANULATA Malmgren. 

Halfway between Caj^e Mugford and Hebron, August 23, GO fath- 
oms, mud and gravel ; off Fish Island, outside of Hebron, August 25, 
75 fathoms, mud ; outside of Hebron, xVugust 26, 80 fathoms, gravel. 

These are stout grub-shaped worms measuring 40^5 mm. long 
and 9-13 mm. in diameter, with 21-23 setigerous segments. There 
is little doubt that they belong to Malmgrens species, but it seems 
probable that this is identical with B. suhlevis Stimpson described 
from the Bay of Fundy in 1853, as has been suggested already by 
Webster and Benedict. 

TROPHONIA ASPERA Stimpson. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud ; Nain, August 18, 7 fath- 
oms, mud; Port Manvers, August 21, 30 fathoms, sticky mud; off 
Beachy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, August 22, 
80 fathoms, soft mud; outside of Hebron Harbor, August 25, 60 
fathoms, gravel. One specimen from each station; a complete one 
has 32 segments and a length of 45 mm. A tuft of seven rather thick 
tentacles, having a length equal to one-half the body diameter, is 
exposed on one side. The setae of the first three segments are very 
long, and the first five tufts of notopodials are directed forward. 
This is one of the species reported by Packard. 

FLABELLIGERA AFFINUS Sars. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud ; outside Hebron, August 
26, 80 fathoms, gravelly; 55 miles east of Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 
October 6, 85 fathoms, mud. One specimen from each station, 22 to 
60 mm. long. This species and the next are European forms well 
known on our coast as far south as Casco Bay. 

Family SCALIBREGMID^. 

SCALIBREGMA INFLATUM Rathke. 

Off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 55 miles east, October 6, 85 fathoms, 
mud. One much macerated specimen. 



L 



144 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Family STERNASPID.^. 

STERNASPIS FOSSOR Stimpson. 

Off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 55 fathoms east, September (), 85 
fathoms, mud. 

These siDecimens are identical with some collected near the type 
locality by Dr. Harold S. Colton. They differ greatly from the 
southern New England species which has long gone under Stimpson's 
name, but which I am unable to distinguish from Mediterranean 
examples of S. scutata (Ranzani). S. fossor has seven segments 
between the genital pores and the anterior margin of the caudal 
shields, which have obscure ridges and a bright ferruginous color. 
The cuticle is more or less densely pilose, especially behind the genital 
pores, where most of the cutaneous papillae become aggregated in a 
regular row of low tufts on many of the segments; above the region 
of the caudal shield they become longer and almost filamentous. 
Southern specimens, in striking contrast, have eight segments between 
the genital pores and the caudal shield and the cuticle is nearly 
smooth. The ranges of these two species on our coasts can not now 
be stated. 

Family ERIOGRAPHID.E. 

MYXICOLA STEENSTRUPI Kroyer. 

Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, 40 fathoms. 
A young specimen having a total length of 22 mm. and a maximum 
width of nearh^ 2 mm. Perfectly colorless except for segmental pairs 
of conspicuous lateral, small, nearly black eye-spots, arranged in a 
somewhat irregular series on each side. Common at Eastport and 
reported by Verrill from Casco Bay, Maine. 

Family SABELLID^. 

SABELLA CRASSICORNIS Sars. 

Off Sable Island, Nova Scotia, 75 miles W. N. W., October 5, 75 
fathoms, fine sand. A single specimen 24 mm. long with 14 pairs 
of branchiae 8 mm. long marked with five or six regular pale brown 
bands, at each of which, except the first, a pair of large dark-brown 
eye-spots is borne on the back of each rachis. The rather stiff tube 
is strengthened with fine sand grains. Not previously reported from 
our coasts, though the related S. pavonica is well known in New 
England waters. 

CHONE INFUNDIBULIFORMIS Kroyer. 

Same station as last. Two specimens. 



I 



NO. 1703. SOME POLYCH.IL'TOVS ANNELIDS— 3I00RE. 145 

CHONE, species?. 

Near Egg Harbor, August 10, 20 fathoms, rocks. Portion of 
caudal end of a specimen 3 mm. in diameter. The abdominal uncini 
have much longer beaks than those of the specimens of C. infundi- 
Jjuliformis^ longer, indeed, than figured for any of the North Atlantic 
species. They resemble those of C. duneri Malmgren rather more 
closely. 

EUCHONE TUBERCULOSA (Kroyer) Malmgren. 

Off Beachy Island, between Flint Island and Cape Mugford, Au- 
gust 22, 80 fathoms, soft mud. Two fine specimens. One is 31 mm. 
long, the gills being 8.5 mm., the other slightly longer. Both are 
colorless and both have the left ventral plate of the first abdominal 
segment more than twice as large as the right and extending in front 
of it. Tubes of fine silt, terete, 103 mm. long and 2 mm. in diameter. 

EUCHONE RUBROCINCTA (Sars) Malmgren. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, T fathoms, mud. A small specimen 12 
mm. long. This is an addition to the North American fauna, but the 
two preceding species have been taken by Verrill in northern New 
England. 

POTAMILLA NEGLECTA (Sars) Malmgren. 

Off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, 14 miles south, 45 fathoms, rocky; 
76 miles WNW. from Sable Island, 75 fathoms, fine sand; Browns 
Bank, off Cape Sable, October 8, 40 fathoms, rocky and sandy. 

The four specimens are larger than is usual for the species in north- 
ern European waters, having a thoracic width of 2.0^ mm. The 
gills, of which there are 15 or 16 pairs, are either colorless or more 
or less diffusely colored with pale chestnut or orange brown. Re- 
ported by Webster and Benedict from Eastport and by Verrill from 
Georges Banks. 

Family SERPULIDiE. 

FILOGRANA FILOGRANA Berkeley. 

Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova Scotia, October 8, a small 
group of tubes of this species, which occurs southward to Marthas 
Vineyard. 

SPIRORBIS SPIRILLUM Linnaeus. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, fine mud; Shoal Tickle, 20 
miles southeast of Nain, 25 fathoms, gravel ; outside of Hebron, Au- 
gust 25, 60 fathoms, gravel; Browns Bank, off Cape Sable, Nova 
Scotia, October 8, 40 fathoms, rocky and sandy. Most of the speci- 
mens are of the ascending (lucidus) form attached to bryozoans and 
Proc.N.M.vol,37— 09 10 



146 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

hydroids, but a few of the typical discoid form occur on Laminaria, 
etc. Reported by Packard (not as spirillum, but as S. porrecta, teste 
Verrill). 

SPIKORBIS CANCELLATUS (Fabricius) Morch. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, T fathoms, mud. One thick-walled, dex- 
tral tube showing carinse, three teeth at the aperture, and series of 
basal pits exactly like Levinsen's figure 18. xVlso in Packard's list. 

SPIRORBIS VALIDUS Verrill. 

Egg Harbor, August 10, 7 fathoms, mud ; Shoal Tickle, August 15, 
25 fathoms, gravel; Komactoroic Bay, north of Nakoak, 5 fathoms, 
rocky. Several tubes attached to pebbles, a broken shell of Sipho 
islandica, and to bryozoans. Both discoid and ascending forms occur, 
and a few small ones may possibly be S, tubcEformis. Previously 
known from Greenland, Grand Banks, etc. 



REPORT ON A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU, WITH 
A SUABIARY OF THE LITTORAL MARINE MOLLUSCA OF 
THE PERLWIAN ZOOLOGICAL PROVINCE. 



By William Healey Dall, 

Curator, Division of MoUusks, U. S. National Museum,. 



INTRODUCTION. 

LTnder the auspices of the Ministerio cle Fomento of Peru, Mr. R. E. 
Coker was engaged in making studies and collections of animals of 
the Peruvian coast with the intention of contributing to the knowl- 
edge of the aquatic resources of the country. In the course of this 
work numerous economic notes were made in relation to the animals 
obtained. 

On the portion of the collection consisting of Mollusca, the authori- 
ties of Peru, through the intervention of Mr. Coker, have requested 
the writer to prepare a report. 

It was found on looking into the matter that no systematic list 
of the shore mollusks of the Peruvian province had been published 
for more than half a century. It was thought that the value of this 
report to the naturalists of Peru and elsewhere would be consider- 
ably enhanced, after discussing the collection in question, if to it was 
added a list of the species reported as occurring on the shores of the 
Peruvian zoological province. The present report therefore contains 
both, together with illustrations of the chief economic mollusks of the 
Peruvian coast and islands contained in the collection. 

It should be said that specimens of this collection have been 
returned with identifications, to the Peruvian authorities, and another 
series retained in the U. S. National Museum for reference. The 
notes in small type were prepared by Mr. Coker, who also collected 
the local names by which the more conspicuous species are known 
to the fishermen and local salesmen. It will be observed that these 
"common" names are no more precise or descriptive than those of 
our own fishermen, the same name being often applied to extremely 
distinct animals. 



I 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1704. 

147 



148 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. S7. 

ANNOTATED LIST OF THE MOLLUSCA COLLECTED. 

ANOMIA PERUVIANA Orbigny. 

Plate 28, fig. 4. 

Anomia peruviana Orbigny, Voy. Amer. Mer., vol. 5, 1846, p. 673. — Philippi, 

Abb. und Beschr. Neue Conch., vol. 3, 1850, p. 211, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
Anomia lampe Gray, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1849, p. 117. — Reeve, Conch. 
Icon., vol. 11, Anomia, 1859, pi. 4, fig. 16. 
Concha perla. Not "Concha de la Perla Viuda," which is applied to Pteria, the 
pearl oyster. Common, sessile on oysters, etc., near Capon and Matapalo. 

Distribution. — From San Pedro, California, to Paita, Peru. 

Shell very thin, pearly; white or coppery brown on the upper 
valve, bluish green internally and on the central part of the lower 
valve; sessile on other shells or smooth objects adhering by a promi- 
nent byssus which passes through a large hole in the lower valve. 
The scars of the nmscles in an area on the inside of the upper valve 
form a nearly even straight row radiating from the direction of the 
hinge. The species can be distinguished from the other local species, 
Anomia adamas Gray, by the fact that the latter has the two distal 
scars on the area side by side and about equidistant from the hinge. 

These shells have no economic relation unless it is that, when pres- 
ent in large numbers, they are injurious to the oysters upon which 
they perch, by consuming food the latter might otherwise get, or by 
overloading the oysters with their weight. 

The A. adamas Gray, has been collected in Sechura Bay, at Mata- 
caballa, but seems to be less common than A. peruviana. 

OSTREA MEGODON Hanley. 

Ostrea megodon Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1845, p. 106. — Sowerby, 
in the Conchologia Iconica, vol. 18, Ostrea, 1871, pi. 12, fig. 24. 
Taken in dredge, Bay of Sechura, about halfway between Bayovar and Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — From Scammon Lagoon, Lower California, and the 
Gulf of California, south to Peru. Fossil in the Antilles. 

This species is very thin, narrow, and ribbon like ; the margin fluted 
by four or five broad rounded waves, the color pale brownish when 
fresh, bleaching to white when beach worn. It has no economic 
value. 

OSTREA CHILENSIS Philippi. 

Plate 26, fig. 1. 
Ostrea chilensis Philippi, Martini-Chemnitz Conch. Cab., 2d ed., Ostrea, 1845, p. 
74, pi. 13, figs. 7-8. 
Ostra of the fishermen. From the roots of mangroves, near the mouth of the Tumbes 
River. 

Distribution. — From the island of Chiloe northward to the coast of 
Ecuador. 

Shell ovate trigonal, irregular, moderately hea\^'; externally 
grayish white, internally white, sometimes faintly tinged with green; 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 149 

the muscular scars white; the lower valve deep, rugose-scaly, the 
upper valve nearly flat. 

This species is reported by Hupe to have as good a flavor as the 
edible oyster of Europe, yet the natives of South America will eat it 
only when cooked. It seems from an economic standpoint to be the 
most important species of the genus in the region where it occurs. 
It is easily distinguished from the following species in any of its 
mutations by the white or pale green margin of the valves. 

OSTREA COLUMBIENSIS Hanley. 

Plate 2G, fig. 2. 

Ostrea columbiensis PIanley, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, for 1845, p. 107. — Sow- 
ERBY, in the Conchologia Iconica, Ostrea, 1871, pi. 7, fig. lOa-b. 
From the roots of the mangroves near the mouth of the Rio Tumbes; on the beach 
near the Estero Bendito; and bought in Callao, where they had been brought from 
the Tumbes region. Ostra of the fishermen. 

Distribution. — From the Gulf of C^alifornia south to Coquimbo, 
Chile. 

Shell smaller than that of the preceding species, streaked with 
purple externally, the margins of the valves and the muscular scars 
purple or tinged with purple; ligamentary area broad, the beak of 
the lower valve strongly laterally recurved ; form irregularly roimded 
trigonal, externally more or less lamellose and somewdiat obscurely 
radiately ridged. 

This species, distinguished by its purple scars and margins, is 
gathered for sale in the markets, but never attains the size of 0. 
cMlensis. 

PECTEN PURPURATUS Lamarck. 

Plate 2G, figs. 5, 6. 

Pecten purpuratus Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, 1819, p. 166. — Sowerby, 
Thesaurus Conch., vol. 1, 1843, p. 53, pi. 15, fig. 113; pi. 16, figs. 123-125. 
Concha abanico or conchitas. Taken near San Lorenzo Island, in Callao Bay, in 
about 15 feet of water, and in Sechura Bay, half-way between Bayovar and Mata- 
caballa. 

Distribution. — From Coquimbo, Chile, northw^ard to Ecuador. 

Shell orbicular, moderately convex, subequivalve, rather thin, with 
about 26 flat-topped ribs, laterally fringed, and separated by chan- 
neled interspaces; colors w^hite, rose color, and different shades of 
purple distributed in an irregular manner; the interior zoned with 
blackish purple. 

The large adductor muscle of this species is a delicious morsel 
when delicately cooked. The Chilean name for the species is Ostion. 



150 PROCEEDiyrjS of the A.IT/O-AML museum. vol. r!7. 

PTERIA PERUVIANA Reeve. 
Plate 28, fig. 1. 

Avicula peruviana Reeve, Conchologia Iconica, vol. 10, Aricula, 1857, pi. 14, 9 
fig. 53. 
Concha perla viuda, i^urcliased in Paita. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California to Peru. 

Shell large, inequivalve, very inequilateral, thin, purple or reddish 
with radiating yellowish rays externally, internally pearly with a 
dull margin, hinge line produced into auricles or "wings," the pos- 
terior usually longer and more broad, the anterior smaller and sepa- 
rated from the body of the valve by a conspicuous sinus in the flat 
valve, surface smooth or slightly laminated, the body of the shell 
plump, the extremities compressed. Byssiferous and potentially 
migratory. 

This is the species originally abundant on this coast which supplied 
the pearl fisheries of Paita and Sechura bays, and at present the 
pearl industry of the Gulf of California. For the most part these 
fisheries have been destroyed by overfishing, and the mollusks no 
longer occur in sufficient profusion to afi'ord a commerce of real 
importance. 

THE PEARL FISHERY IN PERU IN MODERN TIMES. 

It seems that on the finding of pearls two companies were formed, one of which 
held a concession from the Government to take pearls from Tallara on the north to 
the Rio Piura on the south, while the latter fished from this river south to the Punta 
Aguja. The southern company employed divers in Panama, and made a promising 
start. Something like 200 pearls were taken at the outset, yielding about $2,000 and 
repaying expenses. After this practically nothing was obtained. They then began 
exploring with dredges, the two companies finally working in conjunction in this inves- 
tigation. They worked in water of from 2 to 12 fathoms and up to a distance of 7 
miles from the shore, but failed to locate any bank of ])earl oysters. It is believed, 
however, that there is somewhere in the bay a considerable bank of these shellfish, 
since when the wind blows stiffly from the north the beach is often strewn with the 
concha perlas. The conchas so found contain few pearls, and these of little value. 
The rastras which were used for exploring the bay were much like those used in 
Callao for concha abanicos, but with sharper teeth. No attempts have been made 
since 1901. The most valuable pearl was black and small, and worth $400. For 
most of the above information I am indebted to Sr. Manuel Perez, who was the repre- 
sentative of the company which held the southern concession. 

Getting such directions as were practicable regarding the location where the conchas 
were formerly encountered, I made several efforts with rastras to find them, but 
without success in this direction. Other forms of especial interest were taken, how- 
ever. Later, at Paita, having obtained a dredge foriherly used for the concha perlas, 
and a guide who had worked with one of the companies, we made other attempts a 
little south of Paita, but again with no success beyond the finding of a few dead shells. 
It is evident from this and from'the repeated failures of the pearl companies that the 
locating of these banks would be accomplished only by long and thorough survey. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 151 

MYTILUS CHORUS Molina. 

Plate 25, fig. 1. 

Mytilus chorus Molina, Hist, de Chile, 1782, p. 202, ed. 1787, p. 177; Conchologia 
Iconica, Mytilus, pi. 2, fig. 4. 
Choro. From Windy Bay, in the southeast part of Independencia Bay. 

Distribution. — From Coqiiimbo, Chile, northward to Peru. Known 
in Chile as Almeja, or Choro de Concepcion, after Conception Bay, 
where it abounds. 

Shell large, ovate oblong, bluish with a thick black periostracuni, 
smooth or concentrically subrugose; anterior end pointed, recurved; 
distal end rounded, produced; a single denticle at the hinge; the 
interior white with a bluish margin; byssus strong. 

This is the largest of the mussels on the coast, and is regarded as 
the best of the edible shellfish. It is collected for the market where 
plentiful and transported to the principal towns as a standard 
article of sea food. 

MYTILUS MAGELLANICUS Lamarck. 

Plate 25, fig. 4. 

Mytilus magellanicus Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, 1819, p. 119; Ency- 
clop. Meth., pi. 217, fig. 2. 
Choro. Ancon and Callao Bays. 

Distribution. — From Magellan Straits northward to Chile and 
Peru; the northern specimens smaller and less rugose than the more 
southern variety. 

Shell of moderate size, straight, ovate-elongate, ventricose, ante- 
riorly attenuated, subpyriform, blackish broA\Ti, varying to chestnut, 
with a thick periostracuni; inside with a bluish nacre somewhat dis- 
tributed in zones; the exterior feebly concentrically sculptured, the 
anterior half of the shell w^tli more or less distinct radiating grooves 
and ridges. 

Distinguishable from the young of M. chorus by the anterior radial 
sculpture. 

MYTILUS ATER Molina. 

Mylilus (Iter Molina, Hist, de Chile, 1782, p. 203. 

Mytilus orbignyanus Hupe, in Gay, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, 1854, p. 211, pi. 5, fig. 5. 
Choro. From rocks along the shore on the northeast side of San Lorenzo Island, 
Callao Bay. Also taken from the bottom of a small vessel "after a voyage from Callao 
to the island Lobos de Afuera. 

Distribution. — From Talcahuano, Chile, northward to Ecuador and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

This species differs from the preceding in being quite smooth, 
without radiating sculpture, and when full grown does not exceed 
3 inches in length. It takes the place of Mytilus edulis in the northern 



152 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. tol. 37. 

hemisphere, and is chiefly found near tide limits on rocky shores. 
The specimens collected by ]\Ir. Coker were very young, but seem to 
be referable to this species. 

MYTILUS GRANULATUS Hanley. 

Mytilus granulatus Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, for 1844, p. 17. — Gay, 
Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, 1854, p. 312, pi. 5, fig. 7. 
Abundant on the rocky shores of the island Lobos de Afuera. 

Distribution. — From Chiloe Island north to the Peruvian coast and 
islands. 

Shell small, trigonal, inflated, thick, yellowish-brown, radiately 
conspicuously and closely costate, the costie (hvaricating and bifur- 
cating; anterior end high, obtuse; posterior end dilated, obliquely 
truncated; interior whitish, with a crenulate margin; the costse are 
more or less distinctly granulate, and the form of the shell variable. 

This species has no economic importance. 

MODIOLUS GUYANENSIS Lamarck. 
^ Plate 27, fig. 2. 

Modiola guyanensis Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1819, p. 112. — Reeve, Conch. 
Iconica, vol. 10, Modiola, 1857, pi. 4, fig. 17. 
Mejillones. From the flats at Capon and at the mouth of the Tumbes River, 
embedded in soft mud. They are usually quite biu-ied or covered with mud, but 
their presence can be recognized by slits in the mud, such as would be made by 
thrusting in a broad knife blade. They occur in the mud floor of mangrove swamps 
and are commonly used for food. 

Distrihution. — Peru to the Gulf of California on the west, Guiana 
on the north, and south to Kio on the east coast of South America. 

This is one of the few species which occur on both the eastern, 
northern, and western shores of South America. It was described 
by Lamarck from Guiana; there is a specimen from Rio Janeiro, 
obtained by Anthony, in the National Collection, and we now have 
it from Guayaquil and Peru. 

Shell oblong, wedge shaped, externally green behind and above; 
the green area concentrically minutely wrinkled and separated from 
the rufous brown anterior part by a narrow lighter ray; ventral edge 
nearly straight, the interior pearly white, purple behind; the anterior 
end attenuated and the beaks adjacent. 

This is one of tlie most attractive species of the genus wdien in good 
condition. 

MODIOLUS ARCIFORMIS, new species. 

Plate 28, fig. 2. 
Huaquilla on the Ecuador border; apparently from a shellheap. 

Two fragments of a slender arcuate Modiolus were gathered with 
the other dead shells from the shore at this locality and appear to 
belong to an undescribed species. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 153 

Shell slender, arcuate, of a pale brownish-white color (more or less 
bleached?) with some purple undertones dorsally; moderately tumid, 
with nearly terminal, very inconspicuous adjacent beaks; dorsal 
margin arcuate, very slightly subangulate at the end of the hinge line; 
posterior end rounded; anterior attenuated and rounded; base 
flattish and excavated or subconcave; bounded above by an obscure 
ridge; interior very pearly, of a lurid brown color, especially near 
the hinder edge, paler in the anterior region; shell margins simple; 
anterior adductor scar triangular, small, and deep; posterior scar 
larger, less impressed and near the posterior end of the shell. The 
type (Cat. No. 207756, U.S.N.M.) measured: Length of shell, 65; 
height at middle, 21; diameter at middle, 18 mm. 

The nearest species to this is Carpenter's Modiolus mutahilis, 
which, however, is not arcuate to any conspicuous extent and has 
a different basal profile. It is also in all probability when adult a 
much larger shell. 

MODIOLUS PURPURATUS Lamarck. 

Modiola purpurata Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, 1819, ji. 113. 
Modiola ovalis Clessin, Martini Chemnitz, Couch. Cab., 2d ed., 1889, Mytilacea, 
p. 125, pi. 33, figs. 4, 5. 
Choro. Callao Bay, island of San Lorenzo, on rocks; also at Estero Zarumilla on the 
Ecuador border, near Capon. 

Distribution. — From Punta Arenas, Chile, nortli to Ecuador, on 
the rocky shores of the whole Peruvian province. 

Shell small, oval, coarsely radiately grooved, black or blackish 
purple with a thick periostracum, solid, angular anteriorly; interior 
purple, the margin crenate, not denticulate near the hinge; the con- 
centric incremental lines sometimes crenulate the radial ridses. 

This small shell has no economic value, but is abundant on the 
rocky beaches. The beaks are often badly eroded. 

LITHOPHAGA (MYOFORCEPS) ARISTATA Dillwyn. 

Mytilus aristatus Dillwyn, Descr. Cat. Rec. Shells, vol. 1, 1817, p. 303. — ^W^ood, 
Ind. Test., 1828, pi. 12, fig. 8. 
Taken in dredge about halfway between Bayovar and Matacaballa, Sechura Bay. 

Distribution. — Red Sea, West Africa, West Indies, the west coast 
of America from the Gulf of California south to Chile, boring in coral, 
lime rock, and nullipores. 

Shell small, slender, thin, nearly cylindrical, rounded and blunt in 
front, pointed behind; the surface is covered with a thin brown 
periostracum beneath which the shell is white; it deposits the cal- 
careous matter from its boring on the exterior of the posterior end 
of the shell, forming a smooth coating which is extended on each 
valve bej^ond the end of the valve into a point; these points pass 
by each other like the blades of a pair of scissors. 



154 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

This shell is of no economic importance, but is interesting on ac- 
count of its boring habit and the singular form of the incrustation 
from which its subgeneric name was derived. The allied L. attenuata 
Deshayes, which also occurs on this coast, is distinguished by having 
the prolongations of its incrustation proximally flat and opposite 
like a duck's bill, instead of alternate. 

ARCA (ANADARA) GRANDIS Broderip and Sowerby. 

Plate 25, figs. 9, 10. 

Area grandis Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 4, 1829, p. 365. — Reeve, 
Conch. Iconica, Area, 1844, pi. 1, fig. 4. 
Pata de Burro. From the oyster banks of Matapalo, near Capon, and at Huaquilla, 
on the northern border of Peru. A large coarse form eaten by fishermen. 

Distribution. — From Magdalena Bay, Lower California, south to 
Peru. Common in the mud about mangrove roots. 

Shell large, heavy, white, covered with a strong smooth dark oliva- 
ceous periostracum ; obliquely subquadrangular, with strong radiat- 
ing rounded ribs crenulated only near the anterior end of the shell. 

The name applied by the Tumbes fishermen to this heavy coarse 
bivalve is the same which in the south they give to the univalve 
ConcTiolepas. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) TUBERCULOSA Sowerby. 
Plate 27, fig. 4. 

Area tubereulosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1833, p. 19. — Reeve, 
Conch. Iconica, Area, 1844, pi. 3, fig. 18. 
Concha prieta. Mouth of the river Tumbes, and near Capon, from the muddy 
floor of mangrove swamps. Among the first phenomena to catch one's attention on 
entering the mangrove swamps is a sound, heard repeatedly on every side, as of 
nuts falling into the water or the soft mud. Tracing the sound with some care, it is 
found to come from the watery hollows in the mud occupied by the concha prieta, 
and is presumably made by the sudden closing of its valves under water by the mol- 
lusk. This species, though inferior to some other shellfish of the region, is the one 
most commonly eaten. 

Distribution. — From Cedros Island, west coast of Lower California, 
in mangrove swamps and muddy places, south to Peru. 

wShell oval, turgid, oblique, the hinge line subauriculate, with numer- 
ous radiating ribs, armed, especially in front, with scattered tuber- 
cles; surface covered with a dense, pilose periostracum in life, the 
shell beneath white and porcellanous ; ligamental area narrow, 
umbones adjacent. 

This very common shell somewhat resembles A. secticostata Reeve, 
of the Florida coast. 



NO. 1704. .1 COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— HALL. 155 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) LABIATA Sowerby. 

Area labiata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1833, p. 21. — Reeve, Conch. 
Iconica, Area, 1844, pi. 1, fig. 7. 
From the flats at Capon. 

Distribution. — From San Diego, California, south to Peru. 

Shell very small, but having the aspect of Area grandis in minia- 
ture. Without close inspection it would be taken for the young of 
that species. It has no economic importance. 

GLYCYMERIS IN^QUALIS Sowerby. 

Peetunculus inxqualis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1832, p. 196 
(not of Zool. of Beechey's Voy., 1839, pi. 32, fig. 3). — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Peetuneulus, pi. 4, fig. 16. 
Dredged in 5 fathoms, Sechura Bay, west of Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California to Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Shell subcordate, solid, heavy, with obtuse radial ridges; lilac 
gray or white with four or five broad rusty or blackish transverse 
bands, irregularly disposed; interspaces of the ribs striated; liga- 
ment short and a very small part of it behind the umbones. 

This species is rare and too small to have any economic value. 

GLYCYMERIS OVATA Broderip. 

Peetunculus ovatus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1832, p. 126. — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Peetunculus, 1843, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
Dredged in Callao Bay, near San Lorenzo Island. 

Distribution. — Coquimbo, Chile, northw^ard to the Lobos Islands, 
Peru, in 17 fathoms. 

Shell obovate, convex, smooth, white, with fine transverse lines; 
the umbones pale chestnut, the interior white with a crenate margin. 
Periostracum thin, velvety, olive brown. 

This species has no economic value and is rather uncommon. 

ALIGENA COKERI, new species. 

Plate 28, figs. 5, 6. 

Attached to worm tubes thrown upon the beach of the lagoon at Capon, Peru. The 
worms live in the beach. The tubes resembled those of Chsetopierus. 

Shell small, white, thin, very fragile, tumid, more or less medially 
constricted; beaks full, high, closely adjacent, slightly anteriorly 
twisted and somewhat in advance of the middle of the shell; valves 
rounded quadrate, with a wide shallow furrow or constriction extend- 
ing from the vicinity of the beaks to the middle of the base; ends 
rounded, base mesially excavated; sculpture consisting of concen- 
tric incremental lines and sparser, little-elevated, concentric threads; 



156 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. r,7 

the surface seems very liable to injury with resulting irregularities 
and depressions not normal to the shell; ligament strong, internal, 
its surface with a slight limy coat not consolidated into a lithodesma; 
hinge line edentulous, with a small callosity immediately in front of 
the ligament; pallial line entire, faint; interior of the valves white 
and smooth. 

The type (Cat. No. 207759, U.S.N.M.) measures: Length, 7.5; height, 
6.5; diameter, 6.5 mm. 

Si)ecies of this genus exist on the east coast of the United States, 
and in the southern Tertiaries from the Eocene up; but this is the 
first time it has been recognized from the Pacific coast of the Ameri- 
cas. The present species is very similar to the A. sequata Conrad, 
of the Virginia Miocene. It is named for Mr. R. E. Coker. 

DIPLODONTA (FELANIELLA) ARTEMIDIS. new species. 

Plate 28, fig. 8. 
On the "inside" or lagoon beach at Capon, in the sand. 

Shell small, rather compressed, suborbicular, slightly inequivalve, 
the posterior side shorter; white with a polished yellowish perios- 
tracum and concentric sculpture, recalling in miniature that of 
Dosinia dunkeri; beaks small, pointed, slightly prosocoelous, adja- 
cent; anterior end evenly rounded; posterior end slightly subtrun- 
cate, straighter, a little produced near the base, wdiich is evenly 
arcuate; ligament strong, somewhat sunken; liingeplate excavated; 
teeth two in each valve, the anterior in the left and the posterior in 
the right valve larger and bifid; pallial line entire, margin simple, 
muscular scars small. Length, 12.0; height, n.5; diameter, 6.0 mm. 

This form has a rather unusual sculpture and polish for a Biplo- 
donta, the yellowish periostracum is slightly zoned with pale gray. 
It has, like othei' shells of its size, no economic relations. 

Type-specimen.— QAii. No. 207758, U.S.N.M. 

CHAMA PELLUCIDA Broderip. 

Chama pelludda Broderip, Trans. Zool. Soc. of London, vol. 1, 1835, p. 302, 
pi: 38, fig. 3. 
On the shore rocks at the island of Lobos de Afuera, and at Matacaballa, Sechura 
Bay, Peru. 

Distribution. — From California south to Chile and Juan Fernandez 
Island. 

Shell coarse, irregular, variable in form, adherent b}^ the whole of 
one valve to rocks or other objects; rounded, the valves more or less 
subspiral; white with occasional reddish streaks on a subtranslucent 
ground; white within, with a crenulated margin; the exterior rude 
or rough, often much eroded, sometimes lamellose under favorable 
conditions of growth, reaching 2 inches in diameter, but having no 
economic value. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 157 

CARDIUM PROCERUM Sowerby. 

Cardium procerum Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1833, p. 83; Conch. 
111., vol. 1, 1840, pi. 50, fig. 23. 
A fragment was collected at the island Lobos de Afuera. 

Distribution. — Cedros Island, Lower California, south to Paita, 
Peru. 

Only a fragment was collected, and it is ])robably rare on the 
Peruvian coast. 

DOSINIA DUNKERI Philippi. 

Cytherea dunkeri Philippi, Abb. und Beschr. neue Conch., vol. 1, 1844, p. 4, 
pi. 2, fig. 9. — Sowerby, Thes. Conch., Artemis, jil. 140, fig. 5. 
From a tidal lagoon at La Boca Grande, Tumbes. 

Distribution. — Head of the Gulf of California and southward to 
Tumbes, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell suborbicular, rather tumid, strong, and glossy, of a yellow- 
ish-white color, with moderately distant concentric sulci, the inter- 
spaces almost lamellar at the extremities of the shell; a few radiating 
very feeble strife near the ends of the shell; lunule sunken, cordate; 
beaks not prominent; the greatest length is on a vertical line from 
the beaks. 

The soft parts are small for the size of the shell and, though eaten 
by the natives of the Gulf of California, the shell is not sufficiently 
common to have an economic value. 

TIVELA PLANULATA Broderip and Sowerby. 
Plate 28, fig. 9. 

Cytherea planulata Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 5, 1829, p. 48. — 
Sowerby, Thes. Conch. Cytherea, 1851, pi. 127, fig. 13. 
Matacaballa, Sechura Bay. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California and southward to Coquimbo, 
Chile. 

MACROCALLISTA (PARADIONE) PANNOSA Sowerby. 

Cytherea pannosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1835, p. 47; Thes. 
Conch., 1851, pi. 133, figs. 140-142; pi. 163, figs. 202-203. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay, west of Matacaballa, in about 5 fathoms. 

Distribution. ^-Qq.\)Q St. Lucas, Lower California, southward to 
Valparaiso, Chile. 

Shell small, polished, compressed, obovate, solid, smooth, yellow- 
ish, variously painted with brown lines, spots, or streaks; beaks 
rather prominent; the interior of the shell white, the margins entire. 

This little shell in some localities is quite common; in the Gulf of 
California the dead valves occur in heaps on the beaches, but it is 
too small to have any economic value, averaging only about an inch 
in length. It is attractive on account of its pretty and varied colors. 



158 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

CHIONE ASPERRIMA Sowerby. 

Venus aspemma Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1835, p. 42; Thes. 
Conch. Venus, 1853, pi. 155, figs. 57-58. 
From the shell heaps at Huaquilla and Matapalo. Common in some localities, 
especially shelly beaches. "Concha tabaco" of the fishermen, who do not like it, 
saying it has the flavor of tobacco. 

Found associated with the Anomalocardia. 

Distribution. — Gulf of Cahfornia southward to the Lobos Islands, 
Peru. 

Shell rounded triangular, moderately tumid, whitish or grayish, 
with fine, rough, reticulate sculpture; in favorable localities with 
brown or livid varied painting on a lighter ground; lunule ovate, 
depressed, whitish. 

This shell is recognizable by its rasp-like surface and long anterior 
cardinal tooth. 

CHIONE COMPTA Broderip. 

Venus compta Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, for 1835, p. 43. — Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch. Venus, 1853, pi. 154, figs. 32-34. 
Beach of Sechura Bay, near Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California and southward to the Galapagos 
Islands and Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Shell closely resembHng GJiione canceUata of the Atlantic coast, 
but flatter, more spread at the sides where the radiating threads are 
divergent, and the concentric sculpture is more laminar and less 
reflected; the latter is apt to be crowded, ventrally, in senile exam- 
ples. The shell is white, rounded trigonal, solid, and heavy, with 
radiating rounded threads and concentric more or less distant 
lamellge. The internal margins are crenulate, and the shell rarely 
exceeds 30 mm. in length. It is too small and not sufficiently abun- 
dant to have an economic value. 

ANOMALOCARDIA SUBRUGOSA Sowerby. 
Plate 26, fig. 3. 
Venus subrugosa Sowerby, Genera of Shells, 1834, fig. 2. 
Conchas de los bajos. Near Capon, at the oyster beds of Matapalo, there is along 
the border of the mangrove swamp a shelly bank about 25 meters wide. P>om this 
thousands of these shells may be taken in a short time. They are esteemed as food 
by the fishermen. They were also taken at Lancha de Fierro, at the mouth of the 
Tumbes River, and in the tidal lagoon La Boca Grande, at Tumbes; and the dead 
shells occur in the shell heaps at Huaquilla, on the Ecuador border. 

Distribution. — From the Gulf of Cahfornia to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Shell ovate, subcordate, very tumid, tliick and solid, the ventral 
edge much arcuated; color pale, with three or four dark rays; a few 
large, coarse, smooth, rounded and concentric ribs which become 
obsolete on the anterior slope and toward the ventral edge; lunule 
cordate, hmited by an impressed fine; inner margins crenated; 
length about 35 mm. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 159 

CYRENA ISOCARDIOIDES Deshayes. 

Plate 26, fig. 4. 

Cyrena isocardioides Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1854, p. 22. — 
Prime, Smiths. Misc. Coll. No. 145, 1865, p. 25. 
Llurona. Tumbes region, from the Estero Bendito. West Colombia, Deshayes. 
These shells were found in some numbers barely covered by the muddy sand and 
rather high above low- water mark. The animal contains such a quantity of salt 
water as to be very unpalatable, even if the flesh be repeatedly punctured while 
roasting. 

Shell much inflated, rounded trigonal, cordate, thin; anterior end 
evenly rounded; posterior side obliquely decHning, subtruncate at 
the extremity; surface smooth except for incremental lines; perio- 
stracum thin, velvety, of an ohvaceous brown; beaks large, swollen, 
incurved ; shell white with faint violet streaks ; hinge plate very narrow, 
teeth small, nearly equidistant from the cardinals; valves white 
inside, "wdth sometimes a little violet near the margins, which are 
entire. Pallial line entire, without the sinus found in other American 
Cyrenas. 

DONAX ASPERA Hanley. 

Plate 28, fig. 7. 

Donax asper Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1845, p. 14. — Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., vol. 3, 1862, p. 307, pi. 1, fig. 24. 
Almejas. Found at the sand beach of Santa Lucia, mouth of the Tumbes River. 
A small but esteemed comestible, abundant on many beaches. 

Distribution. — Central America and southward to Tumbes, Peru. 

Shell triangular, wedge shaped, small, solid, wliite or purple; 
radiately striate in front ; on the short posterior side granulated near 
the angle of the truncation; behind the angle striated; posterior ven- 
tral margin denticulate; posterior area convex below, concave above; 
beaks elevated, the anterior dorsal slope steep. 

The color, as in most donaces, is very variable. On the Lower 
Californian coast shells of this genus, even smaller than D. aspera, 
are washed, thrown, shells and all, into hot water, boiled until the 
juice is extracted and then strained out, leaving a clear broth of 
which the flavor is liighly praised. 

IPHIGENIA ALTIOR Sowerby. 

Plate 25, fig*. 8. 

Capsa altior Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1832, p. 96. — Roemer, 
Mon. Donax, 1869, p. 114, pi. 21, figs. 1-4. 
Playeras. From the flats at Capon, 4 to 6 inches deep in the sand, and from a tidal 
lagoon at La Boca Grande, Tumbes. 

Distrihution. — Gulf of CaHfornia and southward to Tumbes, Peru. 

Shell subtriangular, oblong, arcuate, pale green or rosy under an 

oUve periostracum, internally violet ; posterior dorsal margin sloping, 



160 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

rounded at the end; in front subtruncate; ventral edge rounded 
behind, in front somewhat fiexuous; umbones bhickish; the internal 
margins not crenate. 

There is no record as to the edibility of this species. 

TELLINA (ANGULUS) EBURNEA Hanley. 

Plate 28, fig. 3. 

Tellina eburnea Hanley , Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1844, p. 61; Mon. Tellina 
in Thes. Conch., 1846, p. 241, pi. 58, fig. 91. 
From the flats at Capon. 

Distribution. — Gulf of CaHfornia and southward to Paita, Peru. 

Shell small, oblong, compressed, opaque white, glossy, inequilateral, 
with strong concentric sulci which usually are more feeble in one of 
the valves ; and wliich become closer and the interspaces sublamellose 
on passing the flattened area at the upper edge of the more convex 
valve; posterior end shorter, subcuneiform, anterior edge straight, 
then rounded down to the base; ligament short and prominent; fold 
almost obsolete; inside pure white. 

An inconspicuous species, not known to have an}^ economic value. 

TAGELUS (MESOPLEURA) DOMBEYI Lamarck. 

Plate 27, fig. 3. 

Solen dombeii Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., voL 5, 1818, p. 454; Encycl. M6th., 
pi. 224, fig. 1. 
Navaja. Taken in sand, under 3 or 4 feet of water, at Chilca Bay, Peru. Used as 
food, but apparently does not occur abundantly. 

Distribution. — From the island of Chiloe northward to Tumbes, 
Peru. 

Shell elongate, parallel-sided, the ends rounded; covered with a 
dull olivaceous periostracum, wliite or purplish with an obsolete 
wliiteray; beaks subcentral, the ends of the shell gaping slightly; the 
base with its margin in the middle somewhat concave. Hinge with 
two inconspicuous cardinal teeth. 

SEMELE SOLIDA Gray. 

Plate 28, fig. 10. 

Amphidesma solidum Gray, Spicilegia Zoologica, 1828, pi. 6, fig. 6. — Hupe, in 
Gay, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, 1854, p. 359, pi. 7, fig. 1. 
Concha blanca. Bay of Chilca, 30 miles south of CuUao. 

Distribution. — Chonos Archipelago and northward to Callao, Peru. 

Shell thick, solid, suborbicular, compressed, with concentric 
grooves and delicate radiating striae; somewhat wrinkled distally; a 
touch of purple on the hinge margin; ligament internal; lunule 
minute, lanceolate; cardinal teeth very slender. Not of economic 
importance. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLl^ FROM PERU— BALL. 161 

MESODESMA DONACIUM Lamarck. 

Plate 27, fig. 1. 

Mactra donacia Lamarck, Anini. s. Vert., vt)l. 5, 1818, p. 479. — Chenu, Man. 
de Conchyl., vol. 2, 1862, p. 79, fig. 341. 
Almejas. Ancon. Used for food and bait. Seen not infrequently but irregularly 
in the market. Also obtained at Mollendo and Sechura Bay. 

Distribution. — Whole Peruvian province, from Valparaiso north to 
Sechura Bay. 

Shell white, solid, covered with a straw-colored periostracum ; 
smooth or concentrically obscurely striated; wedge shaped, very 
inequilateral; shorter end subtruncate, longer end compressed, 
rounded, much produced. 

This is the type of the genus Mesodesma. 

SAXICAVA SOLIDA Sowerby. 

Saxicava solida Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1834, p. 88; Thes. Conch., 
vol. 4, 1884, p. 133, pi. 471, fig. 12. 
Taken from the rocks at north end of the water front at Callao, and from nuUipores 
dredged in 5 fathoms, in Sechura Bay, west of Matacaballa. 

Distribution . — From Guayaquil to the Straits of Magellan, boring 
in soft material. 

Shell small, irregular, mostly subcylindrical, distally blunt or sub- 
truncate, chalky, covered with a straw-colored periostracum. 

MARTESIA CURTA Sowerby. 

Pholas curta Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1834, p. 71; Thes. Conch., 
vol. 1, 1849, p. 494, pi. 104, figs. 33, 34; pi. 108, fig. 105. 

Boring in driftwood on the mud flats of La Pampa, mouth of the Tumbes River, 
Peru. 

Distribution. — Almost world-wide in the tropics; boring in floating 
timber; West Indies, Panama, Ecuador, and Peru. 

wShell oval, pointed behind, rounded in front; valves divided by a 
transversely grooved band; the anterior area obliquely divided in 
the adult, the dorsal portion with radiating wTinkles and transverse 
striae, the ventral thinner and inflated, only filling the anterior wide 
gape when the shell is mature; posterior part of the valves concen- 
trically striated; an accessory piece over the beaks on the back of the 
shell, pointed distally and contracted in the middle; posterior gape 
covered with a horny cuticle. 

These small borers, except as helping to disintegrate sunken drift- 
wood or wrecks, seem to have no economic importance. 

Proc.X.M.vol.ST— 09 11 



162 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

XYLOTRYA DRYAS, new species. 
Plate 25, figs. 2, 3, 5, 6, 7. 
From the stem of a living mangrove at Estero del Palo Santo, Tumbes, Peru. 

As a rule, animals belonging to this family excavate their burrows 
in dead wood, not living trees, though the African mangrove of Sene- 
gal is bored in the living state by a true Teredo, which received the 
name of T. senegalensis from Blainville. The present species so far 
as noted is the first to be reported from living trees in America, and 
the first of the genus Xylotrya known to have this habit. 

The external surface of the valves, beginning in front, is dividetl 
into five areas, of which the first might perhaps be regarded as internal 
rather than external, though when the muscles are removed it faces 
outward. It is in reality a myophoric surface, free from periostracum 
and in life supports very powerful muscles, which hold the two valves 
together; the surface of this area is rather irregular, the dorsal ex- 
tremes of the area in the two valves project in blunt points; this area 
is separated from what is generally called the anterior area of the 
valves by a deep sulcus, the posterior slope of which terminates in a 
rounded bounding ridge; the anterior area proper is concentrically 
sculptured by regular, low, sharp, equally spaced, fine lamellae with 
slightly wider interspaces; these are crossed by extremely sharp, fine, 
close, microscopic, radial striaj; the vertical width of this area is a 
little more than the witlth of the premedian area; the sculpture 
changes abruptly at the junction of the two areas and the angle at 
the junction of their ventral margins, as of the sculpture, is about 97°. 
The premedian area is similarly sculptured, but the lamellse are rather 
smaller and more close set than in the anterior area, while the radial 
striae are coarser and deeper, showing distinctly on the tops of the 
lamellae. The postmedian area is feebly concentrically striated, cov- 
ered with a thin glossy periostracum and more or less brown stained 
by the mangrove sap; it is separated from the posterior lobe by an 
angle; the posterior lobe or area is similar in surface and forms some- 
what less than a semicircle, low and evenly rounded. The two valves 
are held together by strong muscles, chiefly attached to three myo- 
phoric areas. The first of these, anterior and looking outward and 
forward, has been described ; the second forms an irregular concavely 
excavated rough surface extending from the anterior sulcus to the 
angle between the postmedian and posterior lobes of the shell. This 
surface includes much of the dorsal edges of the original valves, and 
when the muscles are removed the appearance is as if the valves have 
been badly eroded, but the condition is the same in the youngest 
valves I have been able to examine, and if, as seems evident, a con- 
siderable portion of the umbonal surface is missing, it has unques- 
tionably been removed by absorption, and not by external erosion. 
The styloid processes are broad and long, extending nearly to the 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLH FROM PERU—DALL. 163 



nodules on the inside of the ventral points of the valves. They 
spring from a thick reinforcement of the hinge line, simulating a 
hinge plate, and they have nothing to do with the muscular system, 
but, as in the Pholads, are buried within the mass of the body and 
are probably of use in supporting the internal organs against the 
violent shocks resulting from its boring operations. From the pos- 
terior end of the ''hinge plate" to a point on the margin of the valves 
corresponding to the angle between the postmedian and posterior 
areas, extends in the adult a broad septum in each valve, continuous 
on its inner edge with the margin of the valves and on the opposite 
edge free, with a recess behind it equal in depth to about half the whole 
width of the septum. The surfaces of these two plates form the 
third myophoric area above referred to and carry a relatively im- 
mense mass of muscular fibers uniting and holding closed the two 
valves and counteracting the action of the muscles massed on the 
exterior myophores. In other words, these muscles correspond to 
adductors of ordinary bivalves as regards their function, while the 
external muscles operate like a ligament. The nodules on the inside 
I of the distal or ventral ends of the valves are of a rather unusual 
shape, subcylindrical and blunt at the opposed ends, rapidly cuneate 
at the proximal ends. The type, an adult shell, (Cat. No. 207695 
U.S.N.M.), measures dorsoventrally 20, in length 19, and transverse 
diameter 19 mm. The soft parts, in alcohol, of this specimen were 
about 8 inches (20 cm.) in length. The pallets, set rather far back 
from the siphonal ends, measured about 45 mm. in length, of which 
25 mm. is smooth cylindrical stalk, the remainder being vane, of 
which the mass is set on the stalk inequilaterally, the segments being 
closely crowded with a serrate profile, and pretty well covered by a 
thin brownish periostracum which passes over the segments on the 
back without interruption for the interspaces. The width of the 
vane is about 5 mm. near the base, gradually narrowing to a point at 
the tip. 

It is somewhat odd that, in comparing the shell of this species 

with that of other Teredinidse, the most similar shell found was not 

that of any Xylotrya, but a shell belonging to another genus, the 

Teredo norvegica of vSpengler. From this the valves of X. dryas 

I differ in having the posterior area axially longer, the postmedian 

! shorter, the premedian wider, and the anterior about the same pro- 

! portion. The styloid processes are longer; between the root of the 

i process and the anterior end of the thickening I have for convenience 

I called a ''hinge plate," there is a small but prominent denticle which 

I have not found in any other species. 

It is not improbable that this species may be confined to the man- 
groves and not attack dry wood; if so this would account for the 
form not being reported before. 



164 PROCEEDIXGH OF THE \ATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

BULLARIA PUNCTULATA A. Adams. 

Bulla pundidata A. Adams, Thes. Conch., vol. 2, 1850, p. 604, pi. 123, fig. 77. 
Lobos de Afuera Island. One dead specimen. 

Distribution. — From Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, and the 
Gulf of California, southward to Pacasmayo, Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

Shell oval, involute, solid, with a marbling and punctate painting 
of reddish brown; surface smooth, length about 25 mm. 

SIPHONARIA (LIRIOLA) LESSONI Blainville. 

Siphonaria lessoai Blainville, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 32, 1824, p. 267, pi. 44, fig. 2. 
From rocks at north of water front, Callao. One specimen. 

Distribution. — Straits of Magellan northward to Callao, Peru. 

Shell patelliform, erect, the apex rather sharp, recurved; surface 
feebly radially striate; of a brownish-olive color. Margin entire. 
Interior brown, polished, the muscular scar interrupted for the passage 
of the siphon. 

This is a very common species, of no economic value, frequently 
found among true marine limpets on rocks between tide marks. It 
has been frequently confoundetl with the S. tristensis of Sowerby 
from Tristan d'Acunha Island in the Atlantic Ocean. 

BULIMULUS HENNAHI Gray. 

Bulimuliis hennahi Gray, Spicilegia Zool., vol. 1, 1828, p. 5, pi. 5, fig. 5. 
Snails from the hills of San Gallan Island, near Pisco, Peru; 1,200 to 1,368 feet 
above the sea. The lower parts of the island are arid, but the higher parts derive 
sufficient moisture from the clouds to support a good deal of vegetation and these 
snails. 

Distribution.— Aric a, Tacna, and San Gallan Island, Peru. 

Shell oval, subacuminate, solid, rather rude, with irregular feeble 
axial rugosities; color pinkish white, with pink apex, and about 
seven whorls, the last about eciual to the spire, moderately rounded. 
Aperture ovate, , purplish inside, pillar straight; peristome simple, 
acute; a small umbilical perforation behind the expanded posterior 
part of the pillar. Length about 27 mm. 

These snails have no economic value. 

BULIMULUS COKERIANUS, new species. 

Plate 23, fig. 3. 

Snails from the peaks of Vieja Island, Independencia Bay, at about 1,200 feet 
elevation. 

Shell small, thin, conical, with about eight whorls separated by a 
distinct but not channeled suture; nucleus smooth, brownish, with 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTIOX OF f^RELLSi FROM PERV—DALL. 165 

an apical dimple and about a whorl and a half; spire above the last 
whorl about one-third of the total length or even less; color lilac- 
gray, with retractive axial streaks, more or less irregular, of purplish 
brown; aperture ovate, with a sharp simple peristome, a wash of 
enamel on the body, and a straight, thin, hardly reflected ])illar; 
interior with the coloration shining through the shell and a faint 
grayish enamel; umbilicus small, deep; sculpture of incremental 
lines and feeble irregular rugosities. The type (Cat. No. 207700, 
U.S.N.M.) measures: Height of shell 27; of last whorl 19; of aperture 
13.5; maximum diameter of last whorl 15 mm. 

This species is most nearly approached by B. apodematus Orbigny, 
but differs constantly in its depressed spire with deep sutures, the 
very slight masking of the umbilicus by the expansion of the pillar, 
the aperture slightly more angular at the base, and the deeper and 
more intense coloration. It is named for the collector of the 
specimens. 

CONUS XIMENES Gray. 

Conus ximenes Gray, Zool. Beechey's Voy. p. 119, (pi. 33, fig. 2, 1839, as C. 
interruptus Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 379, 1829; not C. 

interruptus Maw E, Conch., 1828). 

Dredged in wSechura Bay, halfway between Bayovar and Mataca- 
balla. One dead specimen. 

This is the original interruptus of Broderip and Sowerby, as figured 
in Beechey's voyage. The normal C. Ximenes, as described, has 
additional brown flammules, this variety only the spiral rows of 
brown dots on a greenish-white ground. The spire has a veiy shal- 
low channel behind the suture, but is not spii'ally striated like C. 
purpurascens, or granulated anteriorly as in that species. The shell 
is covered with a velvety periostracum, while that of C. purpurascens 
is smooth and almost polished. 

OLIVA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

Plate 23, fig. 4. 

Oliva peruviana Lamarck, Ann. du Museum, vol. 16, 1810, p. 317; Encycl. Meth. 
pi. 364, fig. 3. 
Dredged, living, in Sechura Bay, between Bayovar and Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — From Valparaiso, Chile, northward to Guayaquil 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell ovate, solid, polished, whitish with irregular brown stripes, 
sometimes angular, sometimes axially directed. The epipodia 
behind, from the preserved specimens, seem to form a sort of pocket, 
which in life should fit over the spire of the shell. 



166 PROCEEDIXGfi OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.27. 

OLIVELLA COLUMELLARIS Sowerby. 

OHva columellaris Sowerby, Tankerville Cat., App. 1825, p. xxxiv. — Reeve, 
Conch. Icon. Olira, 1850, fig. 62. 
Beach of Sechura Bay, near Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — Central American coast, Panama and southward to 
Paita and Sechura Bay. 

vShell small, polished, spire acute, short, last whorl expanded in 
front, feebly axially striated; pale grayish or lead color, with a 
heavy whitish body callus, and usuall}^ a yellowish spiral band at the 
middle of the whorl and behind the suture. There is a single strong 
plait on the anterior edge of the pillar; interior of the aperture pur- 
ple, showing one paler band. The animal, unlike that of OHva, 
possesses a small horny operculum. These shells in prehistoric times 
were used as beads. 

OLIVELLA SEMISTRIATA Gray. 

Olioa semislriata Gray, Zool. Beechey's Voy., 1839, p. 130, pi. 36, fig. 10. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay, in about 5 fathoms, west of Matacaballa. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California and southward to Sechura Bay. 

This species is very similar to the last, but has a proportionately 
longer spire and is less compressed in front. Neither of the species 
has any present economic value. 

MARGINELLA CURTA Sowerby. 

Marginella curta Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. ui London for 1832, p. 105; Thes. 
Conch., vol. 1, p. 397, pi. 76, figs. 88, 89. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay, between Bayovar and Matacaballa; found also at the 
Chincha Islands and Lobos de Afuera Island. 

Distribution. — From Panama southward to Iquique, Cliile. 

Shell small, polished, of a purplish brown, the spire very short, the 
aperture narrow, nearly as long as the spire, the pillar with four 
well-marked plaits; the surface without sculpture except faint incre- 
mental lines. 

This species has no present economic value, but the prehistoric 
tribes ground off the apex of the spire, strung the shells on a cord, 
and used them for beads. 

MITRA ORIENTALIS Gray. 

Mitra orientalis Gray, in Griffith's Cuvier, 1834, pi. 40, fig. 5. 
Taken on rocks of beach at Ancon; one dilapidated specimen. 

Distribution. — ^Valparaiso, north to Ancon. 

Shell elongate, turrited, covered with a thick black periostracum 
which in drying peels off, coarsely feebly spirall}" striated; the last 
whorl longer than the spire ; aperture about half as long as the shell, 



NO. 1704. .1 rOLLECTIOX OP (SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 167 

interior livid purple brown or whitish; pillar with three prominent 
plaits; no operculum. Species of no economic importance. 

This species is one of a group of black Mitras characteristic of the 
west coast of the two Americas from California to Valparaiso. These 
shells have been generally confounded together on account of their 
general similarity, and the fact that specimens obtained are usually 
in poor condition, the periostracum at least being almost invariably 
defective. 

SOLENOSTEIRA FUSIFORMIS Blainville. 

Plate 22, fig. 3. 

Purpura fusiformis Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Museum, Paris, vol. 1, 1832, 
p. 31, pi. 11, fig. 7. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay, west of Matacaballa, in about 5 fathoms. Also found at 
the Chincha Islands on the shores. 

Distribution. — From Panama southward to the Chincha Islands. 

Shell ovate, turrited, ventricose, white, covered wdth a thick 
lamellose dark olive periostracum; whorls convex, carinated, tuber- 
culous above; the tubercles elevated and compressed; aperture 
ovate, white; columella smooth; base narrowly umbilicated; canal 
short, flaring. Operculum elongate mth an apical nucleus. 

Tliis shell has much similarity to the Thais Jciosquiforrnis , with 
which it has very generally been associated. It can be distinguished 
by the absence of the lamellose sutural band of the Thais and the 
entirely distinct operculum. 

COLUMBELLA PAYTENSIS Lesson. 

Columbella paytensis Lesson, Voy. Coquille, vol. 2, 1830, pt. 1, p. 402. — Sowerby, 
Thes. Conch., Columbella, p. 116, pi. 36, figs. 36-37. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay west of Matacaballa, in about 5 fathoms. Also obtained 
at Lobos de Afuera Island. 

Distribution. — Central American coast southward to Sechura Bay, 
and at the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell small, stout, with a short spire and narrow aperture; whorls 
broadly channeled below the sutures; chestnut brown, more or less 
dotted with wliite; outer lip internally denticulated, a few tubercles 
on the pillar; aperture within whitish or purple; length about 25 mm. 

ANACHIS RUGOSA Sowerby. 

Columbella rugosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London, for 1832, p. 115. — 
KiENER, Icon., Columbella, 1839, p. 46, pi. 16, fig. 4, 1839 (as C. bicolor 
Kiener). 
On oysters, at Matapalo, near Capon. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California southward to Paita, Peru. 
Shell small, ovate, tuberculate, plicate or rudely ribbed axially, 
the ribs only developed on the upper half of the body whorl; whole 



168 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIOXAL MVSiEVM. vol.. 37. 

surface with revolving striae; spire acute, shorter than the body 
whorl; color white, gray, or ohvaceous, with chocolate clouding 
especially on the back of the body whorl, which is sometimes nearly 
all chocolate colored; length 18 mm. 

These small shells have no economic value in themselves; but they 
drill the very young 03"sters when about 10 mm. in diameter, pierce 
the thin shell, and suck the juices of the animal. If very numerous 
they might be a serious detriment to the maintenance of growing 
oysters. 

ASTYRIS UNICOLOR Sowerby. 

Columbella unicolor Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1832, p. 119. — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Columbella, pi. 19, fig. 105. 
Dredged in Callao harbor, in 2J fathoms, near San Lorenzo Island. 

Distribution. — From Chiloe Island northward through Chile, Peru, 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell very small, ovate, smooth with revolving strife near the 
canal; color chocolate or chestnut brown, with or without a lighter 
band revolving on the periphery; aperture brownish within; outer lip 
and pillar with a few obscure denticles in the adult; length about 
12 mm. 

This small shell, remarkable for its wide geographic range, has no 
economic relations. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) DENTIFERUS Powys. 

Nassa dentifera Powy.s, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1835, p. 95.— Orbiony, 
Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1841, p. 432, p'. CI, figs. 22-23. 
Dredged in about 9 fathoms, muddy bottom, in Ancon Bay. 

Distrihution. — Coasts of Chile and Peru, from Valparaiso north- 
ward to Panama. 

Shell small, turrited, rather thin, obscurely reticulately sculptured, 
chocolate brown, inside and out, with occasionally a paler peripheral 
spiral band; outer lip sharp, thin, in the adult having an obscure 
varix behind it; the sculpture variable in strength; length 20 mm. 

This small and unattractive species has no economic importance. 

CONCHOLEPAS CONCHOLEPAS Bruguiere. 

Plate 22, fig. 1. 

Buccinum concholepas Bruouiere, Encycl. Meth., 1789, p. 252. — Dillwyn, Rec. 

Sh., vol. 2, 1817, p. 611. 
Concholepas peruvianus Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, p. 252. — Tryon, Man. 
Conch., vol. 2, 1880, p. 199, pi. 1G2, figs. 314-316. 
Pata de burro, of the southern region. Common on some of the rocks some yards 
from sliore and at or below low-water line. 

Distribution. — Chincha Islands. Mollendo, and south to the Magel- 
lanic region. Also northward, according to E. von Martens, to the 
west coast of Mexico. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF fiHELLf^ FROM PERU— BALL. 169 

Shell large, rude, with spiral imbricated sculpture, the spire so 
reduced that the last whorl appears like a lari:;e rounded limpet; the 
color brownish. Inside white, polished, the margin more or less crenu- 
lated, and produced toward the anterior edge into two or more pro- 
jecting denticulations. There is an operculum, but too small to close 
the aperture, into which the animal can barely withdraw. The shell 
may reach a length of 80 mm. or even more. It lives seated on rocks 
like a limpet, though closely related to the genus Thais. 

Mr. Coker in his notes mentions that this species is sometimes eaten, 
but not esteemed. 

THAIS CHOCOLATA Duclos. 

Plate 22, fig. 2. 

Purpura chocolata Duclos, Ann. Sri. Nat., vol. 26, 1832, p. 108, pi. 2, fig. 7. 
Caracoles. Callao Bay, shore to 2h fathoms, and on the shore of San Lorenzo Island. 
This form is commonly sold in the markets, after being removed from the shell. 

Distribution. — From Valparaiso, Chile, northward to Paita, Peru. 

Shell large, solid, with a short spire and very large body whorl often 
carinated and more or less tuberculate at the shoulder of the whorl; 
exterior chocolate color, the aperture within bluish or yellowish, the 
pillar orange colored; the shell when weathered, as many specimens 
are, becomes of a grayish color and is frequently more or less eroded. 
Operculum large with a lateral nucleus; the length of the shell some- 
times reaching 3^ inches. 

The word "caracoles" seems to be applied by the fishermen to any 
species of Thais or Solenosteira, and the general remarks as to edibil- 
ity, etc., are probably referable to all the Peruvian species of these 
groups. 

THAIS CRASSA Blainville. 

Purpura crassa Blainville, Nouv. Ann. dn Museum, vol. 1, March, 1832, p. 241, 

pi. 12, fig. 4. 
Purpura melones Duclos, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 26, May, 1832, p. 105, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
Purpura melo Reeve, Conch. Icon., Purpura, 1846, pi. 4, fig. 17. 
Callao, taken in fish-net near San Lorenzo Island. 

Distribution. — Panama south to Callao and the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell resembling that of the last species, but destitute of tubercles 
and only half as large; chestnut variegated with white, especially 
anteriorly; the pillar tinged with pink, the inner edge of the outer 
lip frequently marginated with black. 

THAIS CALLAOENSIS Gray. 

Purpura callaomsis Gray, Spicilegia Zool., vol. 1, 1828, p. 4, pi. G, fig. 11. — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Purpura, 1846, fig. 79. 
Lobos de Afuera Island, among stones at low water. 

Distribution. — Panama and southward to Callao, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 



170 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MVSEVM. vol. 37. 

Shell small, white or pale brownish inside and out, of the same gen- 
eral form as the last species; smooth, or faintly striated; length 
about 25 mm. 

This is not the P. callaoensis of Blainville, 1832. It is too small a 
shell to have much economic importance and does not seem to be 
abundant. Tryon referred it wrongl}" to the genus CoralliopMla , 
probably from figures or worn specimens; but it is quite destitute of 
the peculiar scidpture of C'orolliopJiila. 

THAIS DELESSERTIANA Orbigny. 

Purpura delessertiana Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1841, pp. ix, 439, pi. 77, 
fig. 7. 
Caracolitos. Callao Bay, on the shores of San Lorenzo Island; on the Callao water 
front; and common on the shore rocks at the Chincha Islands. 

Distribution. — Cedros Island, west coast of Lower California, and 
southward to the Chincha Islands. 

Shell of the same general shape as T. chocolata Duclos, but smaller, 
thinner, with a smoother and more polished surface, the shoulder of 
the whorls more sloping and less prominently tuberculose, or without 
tubercles; general color brownish, usually with one or two paler, 
narrow, spiral bands on the last whorl; length about 50 mm. 

This is Purpura callaoensis Blainville, 1832, not of Gray, 1828. 

THAIS KIOSQUIFORMIS Duclos. 

Plate 22, fig. 4. 

Purpura hiosquiformis Duclos, Ann. d'llist. Nat., May, 1832, pi. 1, fig. 5.— 
KiENER, Icon., Purpura, p. 59, pi. 15, fig. 40. 

Caracoles. Mouth of the Tumbes River. Also from the oysters of Matapalo, grow- 
ing on the mangrove shoots. Near Capon, from the Estero Zarumilla, opposite Estero 
Cascajal. 

These oyster drills are of importance economically as being a serious enemy to the 
young oysters. Also as of use in making a purple dye which is considered permanent. 
It is said that this forms a small industry in Ecuador. The purpuriferous gland is' 
extracted and mixed with lemon juice to prepare the dye. The flesh of the animal is 
also preserved for food. 

It is said to be customary to take thread from the region of Sechura and Piura to 
Guayaquil, to be dyed and returned, when it is used in fancy alforjas and other hand- 
woven articles. The dyed thread is called "hilo de caracoles" by the natives. 

I saw a neat alforja hand-woven chiefly from hand-spun thread. It was in four 
colors: Natural white cotton and natural brown cotton, the purple hilo de caracoles, 
and an imported thread. 

These drills were commonly found (Jan. 23) in pairs, breeding. Their destructive 
work on the young oysters is erroneously attributed by the local fishermen to an isopod, 
which is found boring into the mangrove roots. 

Distribution. — From Magdalena Bay, Lower California, south to 
Tumbes, Peru. 

Shell turrited, whorls more or less tabulate above the shoulder, in 
front of which there are one or two strong, more or less tuberculose 



NO. 1704. A (COLLECTION OF f^TTELLS FROM PEkU—DALL. lYl 

or angiilate keels; the whole shell spirally threaded, with an axially 
lamellose band appressed at the suture; shell white with an oliva- 
ceous periostracum, the threads sometimes brownish, and the interior 
of the aperture sometimes spirally brown threaded; pillar without 
plaits, the operculum with a lateral nucleus. Ijength about 36 mm. 

Specimens preparetl for market by breaking ofl' the greater part 
of the last whorl were also sent in by Mr. Coker. This species has 
been widely confused with Cymia (or Ouma) and Solenosteira. From 
the first it may be known by the absence of the strong plait or keel 
in the middle of the pillar, and from the second by its laterally 
nucleated operculum and the lamellose sutural band. 

Several other species of Thais have been used since prehistoric 
times by the natives of Central America as a source of purple dye. 
The most commonly used species there is TJiais iPatellipurpura) 
'patula Linnseus. Many years ago the writer, at San Juan del Sur, 
Nicaragua, stained a handkerchief with the unmixed purple from 
one of these shells. Perhaps because lemon juice or other mordant 
was lacking the color faded considerably during three years that the 
handkerchief was kept, and the color was not at any time brilliant, 
resembling the water color known as "neutral tint." Senora Zelia 
Nuttall, of Mexico City, well known for her profound ethnological 
researches, has recently read a paper before the American Association 
for the Advancement of Science on the prehistoric use of these 
Molluscan purples in Mexico and Central America. 

BURSA VENTRICOSA Broderip. 

Ranella ventricjsa Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for 1832, p. 178. — 

SowERBY, Conch. III., Ranella, 1839, pi. 92, fig. 116. 
Ranella tenuis Potiez and I^Iichaud, Galerie de Douai, Moll., vol. 1, 1837, 
p. 426, pi. 34, figs. 1, 2. 
Dredged in Callao Bay, in about 2^ fathoms, near the northeast side of San Lorenzo 
Island. Also sold in Callao market, among other gastropods, under the name of 
Caracoles. 

Distribution. — Nicaraguan coast and south to Callao, Peru. 

Shell thin, whitish, obscurely rugosely sculptured or smooth, with 
lateral varices, a large aperture, with thickened and varicose outer 
lip, with a wide and deep canal near the junction of the lip and the 
body whorl. 

CYMATIUM VESTITUM Hinds. 

Triton vestitus Hinds, Zool. Sulphur's Voy., Moll., p. 11, pi. 4, fig. 1, 1844. 
Chincha Islands, among the rocks. 

Distribution. — West coast of Central America and southward to 
the Chincha Islands, Peru. 

Shell rather large, thin, with a moderately elevated spire and 
strong spiral ribs; surface covered with a dense lamellose periostracum 



172 PROOEEDrXOf^ OF THE XATTOXAL MUfiErM. vol. a?. 

more or less produced in thread-like filaments; aperture large, Urate 
on the body callus and denticulate on the varicose outer lip, the 
denticles more or less painted with black streaks and associated in 
separate pairs. 

This species is rare and without economic importance. 

CYPRiEA ANNETTE Dall. 

Cyprsea annettse Dall, Nautilus, April, 1909, p. 125. 

Cyprsea sowerhyi Kiener, Icon., Cypraea, 1845, p. 38, pi. 7, fij?. 3. Not C.soimrbyi 
of Gray, 1832; or Anton, 1839. 
Beach of Sechura Bay, near Matacaballa, one badly worn specimen. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California and southward to Paita and 
Sechura Bay, Peru. 

This species has no economic relations. 

CERITHIUM STERCUSMUSCARUM Valenciennes. 

Cerithium stercusmuscarum. Valenciennes, Humboldt Voy., vol. 2, 1833, p. 278. — 
SowERBY, Thes. Conch., 1855 (as C. ocellatum), p. 865, pi. 179, figs. 59, 73. 
li'rom the shell bank at Matapalo near Capon. Occurs in great abundance on shelly 
ground, but is of no economic importance. 

Distribution. — From Cedros Island, Lower California, and the 
Gulf of California, southward to Panama, Tumbes, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

TURRITELLA GONIOSTOMA Valenciennes. 

TurritMa goniostoma Valenciennes, Humboldt Voy., vol. 2, 1833, p. 275. — 
Reeve, Conch. Icon., Turritella, 1849, fig. 10, a-b. 
Island of Loboa de Tierra, one young shell. 

Distribution.— Gu\i of California and southward to Paita, Peru, 
and the Lobos Islands. 

Shell slender, elongated, with many flat-sided, spirally threaded, 
purple and brownish whorls. Aperture subcircular. Length of a 
full-grown specimen about 75 mm. 

This shell, though common, has no economic importance. 

LITTORINA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 
Plate 23, fig. 7. 

Phasianella peruviana Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, p. 53. — Wood, 
Index Test, suppl., 1828, pi. 6, fig. 33 (as Turbo zebra). 
From rocks on the shores of Callao Bay and San Lorenzo Island. Also on the 
Chincha Islands in similar places, and along shore at Mollendo. Here some of these 
snails were taken far above the water line. 

Distribution. — From Panama and the Galapagos Islands south to 
Valparaiso. 

Shell small, conical, turbinate, with a corneous operculum of few 
whorls; the color black with large oblique blotches or streaks of 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 173 

pure white; aperture simple, semilunate without denticulation, and 
the base without umbiUcus. 

These pretty little black and white snails are phytophagous, and 
too small to be of use for food, yet they form one of the most widely 
and commonly distributed and characteristic species of the Peruvian 
province. 

LITTORINA VARIA Sowerby. 

Littorina varia Sowerby, Genera of Shells, fascic. 37, 1832, fig. 3. — Philippi, 
Abb. und Beschr., vol. 2, Littorina, pi. 1, figs. 2, 3. 
Near Capon, oyster beds of Matapalo; found crawling high on the branches of the 
mangroves, where they are extremely common in the mangrove swamps. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California and southward to Peru. 

Shell larger and proportionately thinner than the ])receding species, 
spirally threaded, of a pale purple, grayish, or brownish color more 
or less articulated, streaked, or dotted with darker shades. 

This species is large enough to be eaten like the English "peri- 
winkle," but no data to the effect that it is actually so used have come 
to hand. 

CRUCIBULUM IMBRICATUM Sowerby. 

Calyptrsea imhricata Sowerby, Gen. Shells, fascic. 23, 1824, Calyptrxa, fig. 5. 
Dredged in about 5 fathoms, west of Matacaballa, in Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Distribution. — Gulf of California, and southward to the Galapagos 
Islands and Valparaiso, Chile. 

Shell conical, irregularly marginate, according to the object upon 
which it is seated, of a brownish color, with emphatic radial appressed 
imbrications and deep interstices, the interior purplish brown or yel- 
low, with a thin internal cup-like process attached on one side to the 
dome of the shell. It sometimes reaches a diameter of 70 mm. 

A singular and characteristic limpet, of no economic importance. 

CRUCIBULUM SPINOSUM Sowerby. 

Calyptrsea spinosa Sowerby, Gen. Shells, fascic. 23, 1824, Calyptrsea, figs. 4, 7. 
From the flats at Capon, and near Matacaballa, Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Distribution. — California, and southward to Valparaiso, Chile, and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell resembling the preceding species in a general way, but less 
heavy, lighter in color, and with the upper surface faintly concen- 
trically striated, and with more or less developed subtubular spines 
varying in different specimens from mere low tubercles to long ele- 
vated spines. It reaches only about 30 mm. in diameter, as a rule, 
and is of no economic importance. 



174 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEIUI. vol.37. 

CREPIDULA DILATATA Lamarck. 

Crepidula dilatata Lamarck, Anirn. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1822, pt. 2, p. 25. — Broderip, 

Trans. Zool. Soc. London, voL 1, 1834, p. 203, pi. 28, fig. 11. 

On oysters and other objects in about 5 fathoms, near Matacaballa, Sechura Bay; 

also on the beaches. Also from rocks at the north end of Callao water front, and on 

the north shore of San Lorenzo Island; called by the fishermen " piques." Found 

breeding in February. 

Distribution. — From the Straits of Magellan northward to Mazatlan, 
Mexico, and at the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell slipper shaped, rounded, brownish with a white septum inter- 
nally; upper surface convex, varying from nearly smooth to lamellose, 
the general form irregular, conforming to the individual situs. 
Length about 30 nim. 

CREPIDULA CREPIDULA Linnaeus. 

Patella crepidula Linn.eus, Mus. Lud. Ulricte, 1764, j). 689. — Favanne, Conch., 

pi. 4, fig. D. 
Crepidula ungui/ormis Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1822, pt. 2, p. 25. — 
GuALTERi, Test., pi. 69, fig. H. 
In dead shells on the flats at Capon. 

Distribution. — The whole Peruvian province, in dead shells, and 
northward to the Gulf of California. 

Shell oval, flattened or tlorsally concave, white, corresponding to 
the curve of the shell in which it is found; of irregular outline, con- 
forming to its situs; length about 35 mm. It has no economic value. 

CREPIDULA ONYX Sowerby. 

Plate 23, figs. 2, 5. 

Crepidula onyx Sowerby, Gen. Shells, fascic. 23, 1824, Crepidula, fig. 2. 
In various parts of Sechura Bay, adhering to oyster shells and other objects; and 
dredged off Matacaballa in about 5 fathoms. 

Distribution. — From San Pedro, California, southward to Chile. 

Shell slipper shaped, oval, with a smooth convex ujjper surface, a 
short, hardly prominent apex, and the internal septum white, with a 
nearly straight margin, and covering nearly half of the cavity of the 
shell; the exterior is more or less painted with brown spots, streaks 
or markings on a lighter ground; the interior usually dark brown, the 
septum white. It reaches a length of 45 mm. 

The flesh of the analogous C. fornicata Lamarck, of the Atlantic 
coast of North America is regarded as a dainty in the raw state by 
epicures, but there is no information as to the economic use of the 
present species. The other species of the genus found in Peru are too 
small to be of much importance. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 175 

TROCHITA TROCHIFORMIS Gmelin. 

Plate 23, fig. 1. 

Patella trochiformis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, 1791, p. 3693. 
Calyptraea dilatata SowERBY,'Gen. Shells, fascic. 23, 1824, fig. 9. 
Picachos. From the beach at Pisco. 

Distribution. — From Panama southward to Chile. 

Shell conical, flattened on the slopes, with a spiral suture giving 
the effect of a spire; the surface radiately ribbed with rounded riblets, 
the color ^^ellowish; below rounded with a more or less spiral septum 
of a white color; the dome of the shell brownish or whitish, the margin 
suborbicular when not disturbed by its situs. The elevation of the 
shell is very variable, and the diameter will average about 30 mm. 

This is a very characteristic species of the Peruvian province, but 
of no particular economic significance. 

SINUM CONCAVUM Lamarck. 

Sigaretus concavus Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1822, pt. 2, p. 208. — Sowerby, 
Gen. Shells, fascic. 19, 1823, Sigaretus, fig. 1. 
From muddy sand on the inside beach at Capon (one young specimen). Caracol 
tapadera of the fishermen. 

Distrihitio7i. — Between the equator and lat. 25° 30' S., and at the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Shell flattened, paucispiral, the last whorl much the largest; spi- 
rally closely sulcate, with a wide aperture and gyrate pillar; color 
livid flesh color to pale brownish. 

The shell in the adult is nearly covered by the fleshy parts. The 
animal plows its way under the sand, drills holes in the shells it 
encounters and sucks the juices of its prey. It is economically inju- 
rious through its destruction, especially in their younger stages, of 
edible bivalves. 

TURBO MAGNIFICUS Jonas. 

Turbo magnijicus Jonas, Zcit^chr. fur Malak., vol. 1, 1844, p. 167. — Philippi, 
Abb. u. Beschr. neue Conch., vol. 2, 1847, p. 25, pi. 6, fig. 1. 
Dead shells and an operculum on the beach at Lobos de Afuera Island. 

Distribution. — From Manta, Ecuador, south to Callao, Perii, and 
the Lobos Islands. 

Shell turbinate, ovate conic, turgid, imperforate, spotted or mar- 
bled with violet and white on an olivaceous or dark-greenish ground; 
whorls rounded, delicately axially striated; obscurely angulated 
above, on the spire; suture distinct, not channeled; aperture large, 
circular, internally pearly with an opaque margin; columella simple, 
callous above; operculum nearly smooth externally. A rare shell, 
probably without economic importance. 



176 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

TURBO (PRISOGASTER) NIGER Wood. 

Turbo niger Wood, Index Test., suppl., 1828, pi. 6, No. 1. — Sowerby, Gen. 

Shells, fascic. 37, 1832, Tur^o, fig. 7.— Gray, in Beechey's Voy., Zool., 1839, 

p. 143, pi. 36, fig. 1. 

From rocks at west end of Callao water front; from tidal pool on shingle beach at 

La Punta, Callao; dredged in 2 J fathoms on the northeast side of San Lorenzo Island; 

and common on the rocks along shore at the Chincha Islands. 

Distribution. — From the Straits of Magellan northward to Pacas- 
mayo, Peru. 

Shell small, turbinate, smooth or spirally striated (especially in 
southern specimens), black, with a white aperture and smooth nearly 
hemispherical w^hite shelly operculum; base imperforate, interior of 
aperture pearly; diameter about 20 mm. 

TEGULA ATRA Lesson. 
Plate 24, fig. 4. 
Trochus (iter Lesson, Voy. Coq., 1830, p. 344, pi. 16, fig. 2. 
With the last species. 

Distribution. — From the Straits of Magellan northward to Pacas- 
mayo, Peru. 

Shell imperforate, conical, more or less depressed; heavy, solid, 
lusterless black; with about six moderately convex, nearly smooth 
whorls ; suture impressefl ; last whorl obtusely rounded at the periph- 
ery, base flattish, concave in the center, eroded and light purple in 
front of the aperture ; outer lip with a black' margin, pearly w ithin ; 
a white callus, bearing a spiral rib and somewhat excavated, in the 
umbilical region; an obscure tubercle at the end of the pillar. Oper- 
culum horny, multispiral; diameter of shell about 40 mm. 

This is the largest of the black trochoid species for which the coast 
is noted. 

TEGULA PATAGONICA Orbigny. 

Trochus patagonicus Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1840, p. ^08, pi. 55, figs. 
1-4. — Philippi, Conch. Cabinet, 2d ed., Trochus, p. 225, pi. 34, fig. 12. 
Taken on the shore rocks at Lobos de Afuera Island. 

Distribution. — San Bias, Patagonia, northward to the Lobos 
Islands, Peru. 

Shell orbiculate conic, thick, umbilicate, axially granulose-sulcate, 
uniform brownish or purplish, spire obtuse ; wdiorls five, subcarinate ; 
sutures excavated, aperture rounded, columella bidentate; diameter 
about 14 mm. 

TEGULA TRIDENTATA Potiez and Michaud. 

Trochus tridentatus Potiez and Michaud, Gal. de Douai, vol. 1, 1838, p. 321, 
pi. 29, figs. 16-17.— KiENER, Icon., Trochus, pi. 57, fig. 2. 
Dredged in Sechura Bay, in 5 fathoms, also taken on the rocks in various places 
about the harbor of Callao. 

Distribution. — From Talcahuano, Chile, northward to Sechura 
Bay, Peru. 



» 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 177 

Shell conoidal, heavy, solid, elevated, niinutely perforate, black 
or purplish; whorls five or six, slightly convex, smooth; last whorl 
rounded at the periphery; base flattish, deeply eroded in front of 
the aperture; outer lip thick, lirate within, aperture small, oblique; 
umbilicus circular, minute; the pillar small, oblique, distinctly tri- 
dentate at the anterior end; diameter about 16 mm. 

FISSURELLA CRASSA Lamarck. 

Plate 24, figs. .5, 6. 

Fissurella crassa Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 6, 1822, pt. 2, p. 11. — Sowerby, 

Conch. 111., 1834, fig. 11 (not fig. 2, nor F. crassa Sowerby, Gen. Shells, 

1828). 

Lapa. Sometimes called "pata de burro," though this name is more generally 

applied to another form. Taken on rocky shores of the Pescadores Islands near 

Ancon; also at the Chincha Islands in similar places abundantly; also at Mollendo. 

Used for food and bait. 

Distribution. — Coast of Chile and Peru, and the Galapagos Islands, 
and southward to the Straits of Magellan. 

Shell oblong, depressed, with a subcentral foramen, sculptured only 
with faint concentric and radiate undulations, especially in front; 
color brownish; inside within the muscular scar pinkish, outside of 
it yellowish white with a narrow brown margin. Length about 85 
mm. 

FISSURELLA COSTATA Lesson. 

Fissurella costata Lesson, Voy. Coq., vol. 2, 1830, p. 410. 
Fissurella chilensis Sowerby, Conch. 111., 1836, Fissurella, fig. 36. 
Lapa. Taken at Mollendo, July 23. These are probably utilized like the pre- 
ceding species. 

Distribution. — From the island of Chiloe northward to Mollendo, 
Peru. 

Shell rounded oval, depressed, with the apex a little in front of 
the center; with radiating riblets. Perforation small, contracted in 
the middle by two small i^rojections from each side; color grayish, 
rayed with brownish olive. Length about 40 mm. 

FISSURELLA NIGRA Lesson. 

Fissurella nigra Lesson, Voy. Coq., vol. 2, 1830, p. 412. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 
Fissurella, 18.50, fig. 11. 
Lapa. One young specimen from the rocks at the north end of the Callao water 
front. 

Distribution. — Straits of Magellan anil northwartl to Peru and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Shell large, oval, conical, the summit in front of the middle; color 
black or purplish black, not rayed; surface, except for faint radial 
striation, smooth; foramen oblong, in young specimens tridentate; 
inside the shell is white with a black margin. Length up to 100 mm. 

Proc,X.M,vol.37— <)9 12 



L 



178 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

FISSURELLA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

Fissurella peruviana Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, pt. 2, p. 15 (not oi 
Delessert, Rec, pi. 24, fig. 7). — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1849, Fissurella, 
fig. 26. 
Lapa. Dredged in Callao Harbor on the northeast side of San Lorenzo Island, 
in 2 J fathoms. 

Distribution. — The whole Peruvian province. 

Shell rounded oval, elevated, conical, the foramen small, a little 
in advance of the middle; radiately finely striated; inside white, the 
margin alternately red and gray; outside red toward the summit, 
becoming more purple and darker toward the base; the margin is 
smooth, with a dark border inside, the exterior rayed with dark 
purple. Length about 30 mm. 

This is the F. occidens of Gould. 

MEGATEBENNUS COKERI, new species. 
Plate 24, figs. 3, 7. 
Lobos de Afuera Island, on beach. 

Shell ovate, narrower in front, solid, heavy, steep sided, anterior 
slope shorter, sharply radially sulcate, the interspaces flattish, feebly 
rounded, not uniform in width; lines of growth looped toward the 
apex over the interspaces; color greenish white toward the base, 
reddish purple toward the apex, with sparse rays of the latter color; 
foramen large, keyhole shaped, with a greenish margin; length of 
foramen at the outer margin nearly one-third of the total length of 
the shell; interior greenish white, with a polished, greenish, radiately 
striate margin to the foramen; margin of the base smooth, entire, 
extended for a narrow space over the exterior edge. The type 
(Cat. No. 207744, U.S.N.M.) measures: Length of shell 27.5; of outer 
edge of foramen 9.0; of inner edge of same 6.0; of foraminal inside 
margin 11.0; maximum width of shell at the posterior edge of the 
above margin 16.5; at the anterior edge of the above margin 14.0; 
height of the shell 10.0 mm. 

This species unquestionably belongs to Pilsbry's section Amhly- 
chilepas, which was supposed to be wholly old world in its distribu- 
tion. It much resembles M. scutellum (Gmelin) Pilsbry, but is 
darker toward the summit and lighter toward the base, while in the 
Cape of Good Hope species the reverse coloration obtains. 

Named for Mr. R. E. Coker. 

ACM.ffiA VIRIDULA Lamarck. 
Plate 24, figs. 1, 2. 
Patella riridula Lamarck, Anim. s. Vert., vol. 7, 1822, p. 539. — Delessert, 

Rec. Coq., pi. 23, fig. 2. 
Acmsea pretrei Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1841, p. 481, \)\. 78, figs. 15-16. 
Patela. From rocky shore on the northeast side of San Lorenzo Island, Callao 
Bay; similar stations on Lobos de Afuera Island; the Pescadores Islands; Sechura 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELL8 FROM PERU—DALL. 179 

Bay, and MoUendo. These shells, like other limpets, are also called "senoritas, " or 
ladies (probably from a fancied resemblance to one of the flounced petticoats favored 
by Spanish senoras), and are used for food and bait. 

Distribution. — Wliole Peruvian province from Valparaiso to Paita. 

Shell conical, with entire apex, solid, strong; rounded ovate, vari- 
able in height, the apex slightly in front of the middle of the shell; 
sculpture of low, rather wide radial ribs and obscure concentric and 
radial feeble striation; color whitish, with reticulated green markings, 
the interspaces of the ribs with larger greenish blotches; old shells 
may appear wholly gray outside and white inside, with a greenish 
inner border to the shell; young ones have a brownish or greenish 
blotch in the center. 

These shells sometimes exceed 2 inches in length. 

ACM.ffiA ORBIGNYI Dall, new name. 

Acmsea scutum Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1841, p. 479, pi. 64, figs. 8, 9. 

Not of EscHscHOLTZ, Zool. Atlas, vol. 5, 1833, p. 19, pi. 23, figs. 1, 2, 3. 
Lottia punctata Gray, 1835, according to Orbigny; not P. punctata Lamarck 
{Acmxa), 1822. 
Patela. On rocky shores of the northeast part of San Lorenzo Island, Callao Bay. 
Confused by the fishermen with the other species. 

Distribution. — Whole Peruvian province from Chonos archipelago 
to Callao, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. All these limpets seem 
to be called Patelas or Senoritas by the fishermen. 

Shell rounded oval, conical, the apex a little anterior and directed 
forward; surface finely radiately striate; the striae sometimes obso- 
lete; color blackish, more or less flecked or dotted with white, with a 
broad dark margin and dark-brown central tract which, in old shells, 
may be obscured by a white shelly deposit. Length about 35 mm. 

SCURRIA PARASITICA Orbigny. 

Patella parasitica Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1841, p. 481, pi. 81, figs. 1, 
2, 3. Not of Reeve, 1855. 
Among other limpets collected at Mollendo. Of no economic importance. 

Distribution. — From Valparaiso, Chile, north to Mollendo, Peru. 

Shell rounded, conical, dome shaped, solid, the apex at the anterior 
third, with the anterior slope straight, the posterior arched; surface 
finely radially striated ; whitish or gray, with radiating blackish rays 
of varying width; insitle white, brown in the central area, border 
yellowish white, mottled by the external rays. Length about 20 mm. 

CHITON CUMINGSII Frembly. 

Chiton cumingsii Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, 1827, p. 198, suppl. pi. 16, fig. 3. — 

SowERBY, Conch. 111., 1841, Chiton, fig. 32. 
Amaurochiton cumingsii Thiele, Gebiss d. Schneck., vol. 2, 1893, p. 362. 
Barquillo. From rocks on the north side of the Callao water front and from tidal 
pool at La Punta, Callao; also from rocks on the shore at the Chincha Islands. Of no 
economic importance. 

Distribution. — From Chiloe Island north to Tumbes, Peru, 



180 PROCEEDINGii OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Shell ovate oblong, with eight overlapping valves within a narrow 
border covered with flat pavement-like scales; whitish or olive, very 
closely and regularly striped with brown or lavender-colored con- 
centric lines, which converge forward on the middle of the valves. 
Interior pale blue. Length about 50 mm., when full grown. 

This is one of the most elegant and characteristic of the numerous 
chitons for which this province is noted. 

CHITON GRANOSUS Frembly. 

Chiton granosus Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, 1829, p. 200, suppl. pi. 17, fig. 
1. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., 1848, Chiton, pi. 5, fig. 27. 
Barquillo. Collected at MoUendo. 

Distribution. — From Magellan Straits north to Tumbes, Peru. 

Shell black, having a white stripe on each side of the central line, 
between the stripes clouded with whitish; surface sculptured with 
radiating lines of bead-like pustules; inside whitish, more or less 
clouded with olive gray. Length about .40 mm. 

This species like the other chitons is of no economic importance. 

CH.ffiTOPLEURA HENNAHI Gray. 

Chiton hennahi Gray, Spicilegia Zool., 1828, p. 6, fig. 11. — Sowerby, Conch. 
111., 1841, Chiton, figs. 1, 33. 
Barquillo. Callao, 5 to 7 fathoms, and from rocks at the north end of Callao water 
front. 

Distribution. — Callao, Peru. 

Shell brownish, smooth, sometimes marked with red or greenish 
white; girdle or border leathery, with short hairs easily rubbed off; 
inside white, brown under the beaks of the valves. Length about 40 mm. 

ACANTHOPLEURA {COREPHIUM) ECHINATA Barnes. 

Plate 23, fig. 6. 
Chiton echviatus Barnes, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 7, 1823, p. 71, pi. 3, figs. 4, 4a. 
Chiton spini/erus Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, 1827. — Sowerby, Conch. 111., 1833, 
Chiton, fig. 47. 
Barquillo. From rocks along shore on the northeast side of San Lorenzo Island, 
Callao Bay. 

Distribution. — From Valparaiso, Chile, northward to Paita, Peru, 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

Shell elongate, solid, carinated along the dorsal ridge, the sides of 
the central areas engraved with fine flexuous grooves; color dark 
brown; lateral areas with several radiating lines of pustules; girdle 
broad, leathery, with strong projecting spines. Length 100 mm. or 
less, according to age. 

This and the following species are particularly characteristic of this 
zoological province. 

The name "barquillo," used for these animals by the fishermen, is 
probably derived from the resemblance, when the animal is placed 
on its back, to a little boat. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FRO^f PERU— BALL. 181 

ENOPLOCHITON NIGER Barnes. 

Plate 23, fig. 8. 

Chiton niger Barnes, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 7, 1823, p. 71, pi. 3, fig. 3. 
Chiton coquimbensis Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, 1829, p. 197, suppl. pi. 16, 
fig. 2. 
Barquillo. Collected at MoUendo. 

Distribution. — Valparaiso, Chile, and northward to Mollendo, Peru. 

Shell oblong, with rather elongate, strongly beaked, polished valves 
of a dark brown inside and out, which are usually badly eroded; 
girdle broad, fleshy, bearing numerous elongated, more or less widely 
separated narrow scales, the interspaces having a velvety surface. 
Length about 75 mm. 

This species is said to live on the rocks between tides, exposed to 
the full force of the surf. The peculiar separated scales on the girdle 
will always enable it to be identified. 

POLYPUS FONTAINEANUS Orbigny. 
Plate 20, fig. 1. 

Octopus fontaineanus Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1835, p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 5. 
Pulpo. Taken on the shore rocks, Lobos de Afuera Island, in March; and taken in a 
trammel net at the Chincha Islands. Common and used as food. 

Distribution. — Coasts of Chile and Peru. 

Animal with eight arms, of a rich purple color, but the tint variable, 
the surface obscurely granulose. Extreme length of specimens 
examined about 25 centimeters. 

The details of its appearance will be very clearly recognized from 
the figure above referred to. It has no internal shell or endostyle. 

LOLIGO GAHI Orbigny. 

Plate 21, figs. 1, 2. 
Loligo gdhi Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, 1835, Moll., p. 60, pi. 3, figs. 1, 2. 

This species was not collected by Mr. Coker, who is, however, 
familiar with it, and since it forms one of the economic species of 
Peru, I have copied Orbigny's figure to make the report more com- 
plete. Mr. Coker notes in regard to the names for the cuttlefish 
(Octopus, Polypus) that it is called pulpo, or jibia. A large pulpo is 
called chancharro. 

The squid (Loligo) is called calamar, a word doubtless derived from 
the Latin calamarius, a pen bearer, in allusion to the internal endo- 
style of the ten-armed cephalopods. To the larger specimens, those 
2 feet or more in length, the name pota is given. Calamar, pulpo, 
and jibia are proper Spanish names, pota and chancharro probably 
of local origin. 



182 PROCEEDINGf^ OF THE NATTONAL MUSEUM. vol.87. 

Distribution.— In the Patagonian and Peruvian zoological provinces 
and the West Indian region. 

The animal is normally of a pinkish white dotted with dark red, 
especially on the dorsal region. It has ten arms and an internal "pen" 
or endostyle, which is plume-shaped with symmetrical vanes, as 
represented in figure 2. This endostyle is of a cartilaginous material 
and not shelly, as in some other genera, such as Sepia, etc. The 
details of form are well represented by the figure. 

Beside the mollusks enumerated in the above report, Mr. Coker 
collected the following species belonging to the Brachio])oda. 

DISCINISCA LAMELLOSA Broderip. 

Orhicula lamellosa Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc. of London for lS:i3, p. 124; Trans. 
Zool. Soc. London, voL 1, 1884, p. 142, pi. 23, fig. 2. 
On Mytilus (Choro) at Ancon Bay. Of no economic importance. 

Distribution. — From the Island of Chiloe northward to the Gulf 
of Panama, adhering like limpets to mussels, the timbers of old 
wrecks, and even to the bottoms of vessels which remain at anchor 
for some months. They occur from low-water mark to a depth of 
9 or 10 fathoms. 

The shell is horny, rounded, and nearly flat, with a more or less 
profusely lamellose surface; the upper valve is slightly convex, the 
apex a little eccentric, the lower valve is flat, radially striate, very 
thin, and pierced by a narrow foramen through which a fleshy 
pedicel extends by which the animal adheres to solid objects. The 
color is yellowish brown, and the diameter of these shells when nor- 
mally develo])ed rarely much exceeds 25 mm. 

LIST OF THE PRINCIPAL WORKS RELATING TO THE MOLLUSOAN 
FAUNA OF THE PERUVIAN ZOOLOGICAL PROVINCE. 

The following works are those most necessary for a study of this 
fauna, though many others have been consulted for incidental 
references. The abbreviations used in the faunal list to designate 
some of the more frequently cited works follows the title in paren- 
theses. 

Bayern, Therese, Princessin von. Im Jahre 1898, auf einer Reise in Siid-amerika 
gesammelte Mollusken. Nachr. Deutsche Malak. Ges., J900, pp. 49-58, pi. 1. 

Bergh, Rudolph. Die Opisthobranchier der Sammlung Plate. Zool. Jahrb. suppl. 
This is supplemental Bd. 4, pt. 1, 1898, pp. 481-582, 8°, pi. 6. (Fauna Chilensis). 

Bertin, Victor. Revision des Tellinides du Museum d'histoire naturelle. Nou- 
velles Archives du Museum, ser. 2, vol. 1, 1878, i)p. 203-361, pis. 8-9. 

Revision des Donacidees du Museum d'histoire naturelle. Nouvelles Archives 

du Museum, ser. 2, vol. 4, 1879, pp. 57-121, pis. 3, 4. 

Revision des Garidees du Museum d'histoire naturelle. Nouvelles Archives 



du Museum, ser. 2, vol. 3, 1880, pp. 57-129, pis. 4, 5. 
Boas, J. E. V. Spolia Atlantica, 1886, 248 pp. 4°, 8 pis. (see pp. 160-161). 
Broderip, W. J. Descriptions of some new species of Calyptrseidae. Trans. Zool. 

Soc. London, vol. 1, 1834, pp. 195-206, pis. 27-29. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 183 

Dall, William Healey. Preliminary Report on the Collection of Mollusks and 
Brachiopoda obtained (by the U. S. S. Albatross) in 1887-88. Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 12, 1889, No. 773, pp. 219-362. 

Synopsis of the Family Veneridte and of the North American recent species. 

Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 26, 1902, No. 1312, pp. 335^12, pis. 13-16. 

Synopsis of the Carditacea and of the American species. Proc. Acad. Nat. 



Sci. Phila., for 1902, pp. 696-716, Jan. 1903. 
The Mollusca and Brachiopoda (of the Albatross in the Eastern Pacific during 

1891, 1904, and 1905). Bull. Mus. Oomp. Zool., vol. 43, 1908, pp. 205-531, 

pis. 1-22. 
Dautzenberg, Philippe. Liste des Mollusques du Chili. Actes de la Societe Scien- 

tifique du Chili, vol. 6, 1896, pp. Ixiv-lxvii, 1896. 
Fischer, Paul. Manuel de Conchyliologie, 1880-1887. Paris, F. Savy. 8°, pp. 

xxiv, 1569; pis. 1-23 (Man. Con.) (see pp. 169-171). 
Gray, John Edward, and Sowerby, George Brettingham. Zoology of Captain 

Beechey's Voyage, 1839, pp. xii, 155, 4'', pis. 33-44. (Beech. Voy.) 
The Mollusca were treated by Gray, pages 103-142, and continued by Sowerby, 
pages 143-155. 
Gould, Augustus Addison. United States Exploring Expedition, 1838-1842, by 

Charles Wilkes, U. S. N., vol. 12, Mollusca and Shells, 4°, pp. xv, 510, 1852; 

atlas folio, 1856. (Wilkes Exp.) 
The figures in the Atlas are numbered continuously without reference to the plates. 
The collections, field notes, and many of the descriptions were prepared by Joseph 
Pitty Couthouy, naturalist of the expedition. Many of the preliminary diagnoses 
were published in the Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History, 1846-47, 
and afterwards collected with other reprints, in 1862, by Doctor Gould, in a small 
volume entitled "Otia Conchologica," (Boston, 1862, Gould and Lincoln, 8°, 256 pp.) 
Hidalgo, Joaquin Gonzalez. Moluscos del Viaje al Pacifico verificado de 1862 a 

1865, por una comision de naturalistas enviada por el Gobierno Espaiiol., vol. 3, 

Univalves marinas, Madrid, 1879. 4°, pp. 1-44 (all issued). 
Descripcion de los moluscos recogidos por la Comision cientifica enviada por 

el Gobierno Espaiiol a la America Meridional, Madrid, 1893, 4°, pt. 3, pp. 

332-432 (1893), 433-608, 1898. 
HoYLE, William E. A Catalogue of the Recent Cephalopoda. Edinburgh, Proc. 

Roy. Phys. Soc, vol. 9, 1886, 8°, pp. (1-63) 205-267. 
A Catalogue of the Recent Cephalopoda, Supplement 1887-1896. Idem., 1897, 

pp. (1-13) 363-375. 

Report on the Cephalopoda (of the Expedition to the tropical Pacific, of the 



U. S. S. Albatross 1899-1900). Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, 1904, Cambridge, 

Mass., 8°, pp. i-93, pis. 1-12. 
HuPE, Louis Hippolyte. Fauna Chilena. Moluscos. (In) Historia fisica y politica 

de Chile, por Claudio Gay; Zoologia, vol. 8, Paris, 1854. 8°, pp. 1-500; Atlas II, 

fol. pis. 1-14, 1854. (Hist. Chile.) 
Lesson, Rene Prim ev ere. Voyage autour du monde, sur la Corvette la Coquille, 

pendant les annees 1822-1825. Zoologie, vol. 2, 4°, pt. 1, 1830; pt. 2, 1831-32. 

(Voy. Coq.) 
Usually catalogued under the name of Duperrey, commander of the vessel. 
Mabille, Jules. Etude monographique du genre Concholepas. Annalesde Malac, 

vol. 2, 1886, pp. 261-282, pi. 3-5. 
Martens, Eduard von. LTeber einige Conchylien aus Chile. Malak. Blatt., vol. 16, 

1869, pp. 215-222. 
Molina, Giovanni Ignacio. Saggio suUa storia naturale del Chili. Bologna, 1782, 

8°, 7 pis., 1 chart. 



184 PROCEEDIXG^ OP THE XATlOXAL MVf^EVM. vol.37. 

Orbigny, Alcide d'. Voyage dans I'Amerique Meridionale, vol. 5, Mollusques. 

Paris, Bertrand, 1835-1846. 4°, pp. 1-48, 1835; 49-184, 1836; 185-376, 1837; 

377-408, 1840; 409-488, 1841; 489-758, 1846; and atlas, 4°, pp. 4, pis. 1-84, 1846. 

(Voy. Am. Mer.) 
Pfefper, Georg. Die Cephalopoden des Hamburger Naturhist. Museum. Abh. 

Ver. Hamb., vol. 8, 1885, pp. 1-30, pi. 1-3. 
Philippi, Rudolphus Amandus. Abbildungen und Beschreibungen neuer oder 

wenig gekanntes Conchylien. Cassel, 4°, vol. 1, 1842-1845; vol. 2, 1847; vol. 3, 

1847-1851. (Abb.) 
Breves descriptiones Molluscorum quorundam torrestrium et marinorum 

Chilensium. Abhand d. Naturf. Ges. zu Halle, vol. 4, pts. 2 und 3, 1858; 

Sitzungb. d. Jahr. 1857, pp. 21-24. 
— Beschreibung einige neuer Conchylien aus Chile. Zeitsehr. f. d. ges. naturw. 

Halle, vol. 12, 1858, pp. 123-125. 
Reise durch die Wiiste Atacama auf befehl der Chilenischen regierung in 



sommer 1853-54. Halle, Eduard Anton, 1800. 4°, pp. 192+62, pi. 27, 1 karte. 

(Atac.) 
Plate, Ludwig H. Die Anatomie und Phylogenie der Chitonen. Zool. Jahrb., 

suppl. Bd. 4, pt. 1, 1898, pp. 1-243; pt. 2, 1899, pp. 15-216. 
PoiRiER, Jules. Revision des Murex du Museum. Nouvelles Archives du Museum 

d'histoire naturelle. Ser. 2, vol. 5, 1881, pp. 13-128, pi. 4-6. (Rev. Murex.) 
Reeve, Lovell Augustus. Conchologia Iconica or Hhhstrations of the shells of 

Molluscous animals. 20 vols., 4", 1843-1878. 
These monographs contain a large number of figures of West South American 
species from the collection of Hugh Cuming, now in the British Museum. The 
work is cited by monographs, each of which is supposed to be complete in itself, 
the numbers assigned to figures running continuously from the beginning to the end 
of each monograph without reference to the separate plates. After the death of 
Mr. Reeve, in 1865, the remaining volumes were edited by Mr. G. B. Sowerby. 
Sowerby, George Brettingham. Genera of recent and fossil shells. 8°, 42 parts, 

264 colored plates, not numbered or paginated. 1820-1834. (Gen. Sh.) 
The figures are cited by genera. For dates of the several fasciculi consult Sher- 
born in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 6, vol. 13, April, 1894; and Sykes, Proc. Mai. 
See, vol. 7, 1906, pp. 193-194. 

The Conchological Illustrations. London, 1832-1841. 8°, 2 vols. (C. HI.) 

Contains monographic lists of 19 genera and figures many of the species first col- 
lected by Hugh Cuming. 

— ■ Thesaurus Conchyliorum, or figures and descriptions of shells. 5 vols., 4°, 

1842-1884. (Thes. Con.) 
Stearns, Robert Edwards Carter. List of shells collected on the west coast of 

South America, principally between latitudes 7° 30^ S. and 8° 49^ N., by Dr. 

W. H. Jones, surgeon, U. S. Navy. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 14, No. 854, 

pp. 307-335, Washington, 1891. 
Stempell, Walter. Beitrage zu Kenntniss der Nuculiden. Zool. Jahrbuch, suppl. 

Bd. 4, pt. 1, 1898, pp. 339-430. 

Die Muscheln der Sammlung Plate. Zool. Jahrb., suppl. Bd. 4, heft 2, pt. 1, 

1899, pp. 217-250, pi. 12. (Fauna Chilensis.) 

Tapparone-Canepri, Cesare. Zoologia del viaggio intorno al globo della R. Fre- 
gata Magenta, durante gli anni 1865-1868, Malacologia. Mem. della R. Acca- 
demia d. Scienze di Torino, ser. 2a, vol. 28, 1866, pp. 109-265, 4°, pis. 1-4. 

Troschel, F. H. Verzeichniss der durch Herrn Dr. v. Tschudi in Peru, gesammel- 
ten Conchylien. Arch, fiir Naturg., vol. 18, pt. 1, 1852, pp. 151-208, pis. 5-7 
(Arch. Nat.) 



NO. 1704. A rOLLECTIOX OF fiHELLl^ FROM PERV—DALL. 185 

Tryon, George Washington (and Pilsbry, Henry Augustus). Manual of 
Conchology, structural and systematic. 17 vols., 8", 1879-1898. (Man. Con.) 

After the death of Mr. Tryon, in 1888, this work was continued by Doctor Pilsbry. 
The above title refers to the series containing the Marine Gastropods only. In par- 
ticular monographs the authors were assisted by W. B. Marshall, Benjamin Sharp, 
and S. Raymond Roberts. 
WissEL, Kurt von. Beitrage zur Anatomic der Gattung Oncidielhi. Zool. Jahr- 

buch, suppl. Bd. 4, pt. 1, 1898, pp. 583-640. 
Zoological Society of London. Proceedings, 1832-1854. 8°. 

Includes descriptions of species collected on the west coast of South America by 
Hugh Cuming, and diagnosed by Broderip, Sowerby, Powys, Swainson, and others. 
These descriptions as a rule have no titles assigned to them. (Proc. Zool. Soc.) 

THE PERUVIAN PROVINCE. 

The littoral marine molluscan faunas of the west coast of the two 
Americas, excliidino; the Arctic and Antarctic faunas properly so 
called, were recognized more than half a centurj" ago in their main 
outlines by Woodward.^ 

They comprise, beginning at the north: 

1. The Oregonian Province, extending from the limit of floating ice 

in Bering Sea south to Point Conception, California; 

2. The Californian Province, ranging from Point Conception south 

to Lower California ; 

3. The Panamic Province, from Lower California, including the Gulf 

of California, south to the Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador; 

4. The Peruvian Province, extending from Guayaquil south to the 

vicinity of the island of Chiloe in southern Chile ; and 

5. The Magellanic Province, from Chiloe to the Fuegian Archipelago, 

and for a short but undetermined distance north on the Argen- 
tine coast, on the Atlantic side. 

These provinces will eventually be recognized as containing minor 
divisions, with which, on this occasion, we are not concerned. 

The distribution recognized in the term "Province" appears to 
be directly dependent on the temperature of the surface stratum of 
the sea which, in its turn, is distributed by ocean currents. In the 
case of the Peruvian Province a branch of the eastward-flowing 
south Pacific current diverges from the main stream and impinges 
upon the coast of South America in the vicinity of Chiloe Island. 
Thence it follows the coast northward, until by the northwesterly 
trend of the Peruvian shores it is diverted, in the vicinity of Point 
Aguja and Cape Blanco, to the westward, where it continues in the 
direction of the Galapagos group of islands. This current, known as 
the "Peruvian" or "Humboldt" current, throughout its entire extent 
maintains a temperature varying with the season of from 65° to 70° 
F. The temperature of the surface off Aguja Point, Peru, in Novem- 
ber was 65° F. The temperature of the water in the Magellanic 

a Manual of the MoUusca, 1856, pp. 373-377. 



186 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Province iii midsummer varies from 50° F. in the straits themselves 
to 55° on the Chilean coast in the vicinity of Valdivia. 

The surface temperatures of the Peruvian current, as related to 
those of the Magellanic water, are therefore warmer; and, as com- 
pared with the Panamic waters, measurably colder. 

Precisely such a relation to the coast of North America is held by 
the southerly branch of the North Pacific current, which reaches the 
coast near Sitka with a summer temperature of 65° to 68°. This has 
diminished in the latitude of San Francisco Bay to 54° F., but the 
current continues imtil, in the vicinity of Point Conception, California, 
it is diverted off shore in a manner entirely analogous to the fate of 
the Peruvian current at Point Aguja. 

The water of the Panamic Province is less disturbed by currents, 
receives the full heat of the tropical sun, and, as shown by Dr. Alex- 
ander Agassiz, emerges from the Gulf of Panama, follows the coast 
toward Cape San Lorenzo, and is there diverted offshore toward the 
Galapagos Islands. Trees from the mainland with leaves still adher- 
ing to them are occasionally cast upon the shores of the Galapagos, as 
observed by Dr. Agassiz, showing clearly that the current is not only 
present, but has no inconsiderable motion. The temperature of this 
water near the coast of Ecuador and only a few miles from the limit 
of the Peruvian current, in November, varied from 70° to 83° F., and, 
in March and April from 78° to 85° F. Among the Galapagos Islands 
the range in April was 81 ° to 83° F. 

It will be noticed therefore that the currents fully account for the 
peculiarities of the Galapagos mollusk fauna, which exhibits large 
contributions from the Panamic and Peruvian faunas with only a very 
unimportant tincture of the Indo-Pacific in its make up. 

A series of surface temperatures measured in November at right 
angles to the Peruvian current off Point Aguja, by the United States 
Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross, began with a temperature of 
65° F. close in shore, rose quickly to 69° and later to 70° in the 
middle of the current, and declined again to 69° F. on its western edge. 

The first exploration of the molluscan fauna of the Peruvian Prov- 
ince which was systematically carried on was that of Hugh Cuming. 
He was resident for some years at Valparaiso, later dredged and col- 
lected vigorously at various points of the Bay of Guayaquil. Tra- 
dition has handed down the account that a severe earthquake (referred 
to by Darwin in the Voyage of the Beagle) laid bare a long stretch of 
coast where the shore mollusks, elevated above their natural situs, 
were accessible to the collector by the thousand. ]\Ir. Cuming col- 
lected largely, and on his return to England these collections gave an 
opportunity to the systematic naturalists to describe many new Peru- 
vian and Chilean shells. This lasted for a good many years. Broderip, 
Sowerby, Swainson, Gaskoin, Powys, Deshayes, and Reeve worked on 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 187 



these collections during the first half of the nineteenth century, and, 
according to Woodward, ** Mr. Cuming's collection embraced 222 species 
from the coast of Peru south of Paita, and 172 species from the coast 
then politically included in Chile. Of these probably half were com- 
mon to the northern and southern portions of the province. A little 
later the explorations of Humboldt and Bonpland added a few 
species; the majority of their collection it would seem were not 
worked up. 

M. Alcide D'Orbigny's wSoutli American investigations seem to have 
been, so far as this province is concerned, largel}^ restricted to the 
Chilean portion of it. He collected 160 species, one-half of which 
were common to Chile and Peru, while only one species was common 
to Callao and Paita. The inference naturally drawn from this last 
fact by Woodward and others was that the northern border of the 
province lay between those two ports. But this conclusion was due 
to imperfect knowledge, and is completely refuted by later information. 
At present more than 200 species are known to be common to Paita 
and Callao. 

Orbigny's report with its atlas of fine illustrations is a classic 
source for information, relating, however, to South America as a whole, 
rather than to the Peruvian Province.'' 

Collections made by Gay and others, worked up in his monographic 
Historia de Chile, by Hupe, form the third large and well-illustrated 
contribution to the malacology of the province, chiefly restricted of 
course to the southern, or Chilean, portion. 

The last important contributor to a knowledge of this fauna, in 
these earlier days, was the German naturalist Philippi, who added 
numerous species and useful illustrations in the Zeitschrift fiir Mala- 
kozoologie, his Abbildungen, and his Atacama Reise. 

Of course many minor contributors to the work, such as Lesson, 
Jonas, etc., might be mentioned, but I propose in this hasty sketch to 
touch only on the most important. The list of Tschudi's collection, 
ostensibly from Peru, as described by Troschel, unfortunately contains 
numerous exotic Indo-Pacific and Panamic species, so that its au- 
thority is seriously impaired. 

More recently the researches of Ludwig Plate, the Princess of 
Bavaria, and others mentioned in the bibliography have added 
essentially to our knowledge. 

In considering the distribution of species along the coast of the 
province it should not be forgotten that the collections have not 
been made in an equal manner on different parts of the coast. The 

"Manual, p. 376. 

b In my references to this work, for simplicity and convenience, I have omitted the 
article, since there seems to be no particular reason why we should reserve for D'Or- 
bigny what custom has denied to De la Marck and De la Cepede. 



188 PROCEEDINa^ OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. voi,. :^7. 

ports of Guayaquil, Paita, Callao, and Valparaiso have naturally 
been much more thoroughly explored than others. The careful col- 
lecting wliich would obtain the smaller species is not recorded to 
have been done anywhere at all. 

Dredging also is practicable with difficulty, except in the shel- 
tered harbors, which occur so rarely on this coast, or by the aid of a 
large steamer, which could be had only under government auspices 
on account of the great expense involved. 

The small lots of material derived from the mud which came up 
on the anchor of the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross at 
one or two points, show that proper exploration will certainly reveal 
the presence of many small species, new or extra limital, which are 
at present unknown. 

In the preparation of this list I have endeavored to give a refer- 
ence to the original description and to the best available figure or 
figures. In determining what species should be included I have 
depended somewhat upon the known characteristics, as regards 
distribution, of the groups to which the species belong. For instance, 
if I found a species reported from Guayaquil and belonging to a 
widely distributed group, such as the Phohdidse, though not actually 
reported from a Peruvian locality, I have not hesitated to include 
it, knowing that in all probability it will be found on more thorough 
search in Peruvian territory. There can be little doubt that a large 
number of the more mobile of the Panamic species reaching the Bay 
of Guayaquil will be found to have extended their range more or 
less within the northern border of the Peruvian Province, just as a 
certain number of the characteristic Magellanic species have traveled 
beyond their strict limits and mingle with the southern members of 
the Peruvian fauna. Species properly belonging to the Panamic 
Province and not reported as far south as Guayaquil or the Gala- 
pagos Islands have been omitted from the list. 

It will be observed that the list contains only a few minute species. 
Doubtless many of these exist, and will be found when carefully 
sought for, but, as previously indicated, the majority of collectors 
seem to have confined their attention to the more conspicuous 
species. 

I have included a certain number of pelagic forms, Cephalopods, 
Pteropods, and Nudibranchs, which are not strictly littoral, but are 
found occasionally thrown on the beaches or are captured within a 
short distance of the shore. And since collectors are certain to obtain 
them in their search for mollusks, I have added at the end of the 
list of Mollusca a list of the littoral Brachiopoda, some of which are 
so common on these shores. 

In any first census of this kind some species will be included which 
later investigation will exclude. I have rejected a number of Tschuch's 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERV—DALL. 189 

species as obviously exotic, but a small number remain which are 
doubtful and which are indicated by the name (Tschudi) as needing 
confirmation. I have also omitted a few names which seemed to be 
almost certainly due to misidentification or to a confusion between 
such localities as Arica and Africa. ''Lumping" closely related 
species, such as some of the Siphonarias, has led certain authors to 
include purely Atlantic forms with their Pacific analogues under one 
name. So far as time and the access to specimens permitted, I have 
tried to disentangle such cases and use only the name belonging to 
the Pacific form. In making her dredgings the U. S. Bureau of 
Fisheries steamer Albatross seems to have avoided shallow water; 
and in the case of Dentalium, which has a wide range in depth, I have 
included a few species actually dredged beyond the 100-fathom line, 
but which will in all probability be found within it when sought for. 
No other deep-water species, however, have been admitted. An 
account of them will be found in my Albatross report of 1908. In 
scanning the list those unfamiliar with the repetition of names so 
prevalent in Spanish geographical nomenclature will need to remem- 
ber that there is a Tumbes in Chile as well as in Peru, and be on the 
lookout for analogous cases. Species of Auriculidse which are 
exclusively littoral although pulmonate have been included, also the 
salt-water Cyrenas, my aim being to include all species which are 
to be found along the shores of the province, on the beaches, and in 
the adjacent waters of the sea. Whatever deductions from the list 
may be necessary hereafter, I am convinced that they will be more 
than made up for by future additions from the ranks of the minute 
species. 

It is probable, though not by any means certain, that when we 
eliminate the overflow from the Panamic and Magellanic provinces 
the remaining fauna on this long stretch of coast may be susceptible 
of division into subfaunas, but it is too early to speculate about this 
possible feature of the distribution. 

I have indicated in the preceding remarks the nature of the reser- 
vations which must be made in discussing the statistics of our present 
census of the Peruvian fauna, and subject to those reservations we 
may now proceed to consider the figures. 

The total number of species appears to be 869, of which 64 are 
pelagic and may be omitted from consideration in the matter of 
distribution, leaving 805. Taking the present political limits of the 
two countries as a starting point, we find 71 species reported from 
Peru exclusively, and 103 restricted to Chile. But as pohtical and 
biological boundaries rarely have anything in common, these data 
are not especially significant. We have 174 species restricted to 
Peru or Chile, and 141 common to Peru and Chile, making 315 
species proper to the province itself. In addition to these we have 



190 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

253 species common to the Panamic Province and to Peru, and 239 
species of the Panamic Province which are known to reach the 
northern border of the Peruvian Province at or near Cape Blanco, 
many of which will doubtless be found to have a more extended 
southerly range. In addition to these there are 25 species whose 
range extends from Upper California south to Peru or even to 
A^alparaiso. 

At the southern extreme of the Peruvian Province it receives 41 
recruits from the Magellanic Province, few of which range north of 
Valparaiso. Of the whole 805 species enumerated, which are not 
pelagic, only 24 are known from the West Indies or Atlantic Ocean, 
most of which are Pholads, borers, or limpets, forms peculiarly liable 
to transportation long distances on ships or floating timber. The 
only species which can be regarded as also Indo-Pacific are even 
fewer in number and to be included in the same category. 

Eliminating all the pelagic species and all the Panamic species not 
shown to be now actually domiciled within the limits of the Peruvian 
Province, we have a population for the province of 566 species of 
littoral marine mollusks. 

In Bulletin S4 of the V. S. Geological Survey, pages 25-2(S, 1892, 
I have shown that the average population for a warm-temperate 
area (where the temperature ranges from 60° to 70° F.) is about 
500 species of shell-bearing mollusks. Adding the species of Nudi- 
branchs, naked Tectibranchs, and littoral cephalopods enumerated 
in our list, it would seem that the average is pretty well maintained 
in the case of the Peruvian Province. 

Dismissing the minuter species from consideration as insufficiently 
known, the more striking characteristics of the Peruvian fauna may 
be summed up as follows: 

1. There is an uiuisual j)ro})()rtion of the s])ecies which are black 
or blackish or of a lurid tint. This feature of the fauna has attracted 
attention from all who have studied it and has been discussed by 
von Martens. It is particulaily marked among the ])hytophagous 
groups. 

2. The fauna is notable for its Fissurellidae and Acmseidfe, its 
Trochids of the genus Tegula, its numerous and peculiar chitons, its 
numerous Can(;ellarias, the development of Calyptrteidje, of species 
of Arcidffi, and of the genus Thais, Cliione, Semele, Petricola, Ilvlinia, 
all represented by numerous species. 

3. The deficiencies in the fauna are as marked as tlie redundancies. 
There are notably few Pectens or Lucinas, antl the Tellinidse are 
poorly represented. Acteon, the smaller Tectibranchs, Conus, the 
Turritidae especially, the Marginellidse, Fusinus and its allies, Epi- 
tonium {Scala) and the Pyramidellidse are all very poorly repre- 
sented. Calliostoma and Margarita, Haliotis and Pleurotomaria are 
absent or barely represented. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 191 

The notion that the niournful colors of so many of the species 
might be correlated with the huge beds of kelp characteristic of 
these shores seems to be negatived by the fact that in California 
similar kelp beds afford a shelter to some of the most brightly colored 
Trochidse, etc., and that, as I am informed by Mr. Coker, red and 
green seaweeds are abundant on the rocks below low-water mark, on 
a. large part of the coast of Peru, and presumably also of Chile. 
This and a number of other problems await the investigations of the 
future. 

Lastly, a survey of the characteristic groups of which the fauna 
is largely matle up leads to the conclusion that the fauna is cliiefly 
of southern origin. In spite of the fact that many species are com- 
mon to the Panamic fauna and a relatively small number to the 
Magellanic fauna, the more conspicuous types, like the blackish 
species of Tegula, have a Magellanic rather than a tropical character. 
This particular group has extended its range to Alaska on the north 
and Japan on the northwest, but its metropolis is in southern Chile. 
The type represented by the various species of Thais and Acanthina 
has traveled the same road, and so has the Protothaca group of 
Venerid^. 

If we may accept as the original metropolis of a special type of 
mollusks that region where it is developed in the greatest number 
and variety of species, and perhaps also with the most extreme 
limits of size and ornamentation, we shall have for example Buccinum 
and Clirysodomus focused in the boreal Pacific region, certain types 
of Thais and Acanthina in the region of southern Chile. 

Cook has called attention to the relation between Thais lapillus 
and the Oregonian T. lamellosa, and other species in the Tropics of 
the Panamic and Antillean region; but, viewed from an Eastern 
Pacific standpoint, the relatively few Atlantic forms may easily have 
originated in the Pacific, where their existing representatives show 
a much more luxuriant development. 

There is only one Thais of the Nucella type in the North Atlantic, 
but the North Pacific has five or six. It is very remarkable that in 
the Peruvian Province we have not a single distinctively old world 
type of mollusk. Those which seem to be such are really cosmo- 
politan types, more familiar to us from old world localities, perhaps, 
but not necessarily of okl world origin. 



192 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

APPROXIMATE LATITUDES OF PLACES MENTIONED IN THIS 

CATALOGUE. 

San Diego, California 33 12 N. 

Cerros (('edros) Island, Lower California 28 00 N. 

Mazatlan, Gulf of California 23 20 N, 

Acapulco, Mexico 16 00 N. 

Gulf of Nicoya, Central America 9 40 N. 

Panama 8 29 N. 

Chiriqui, Central America 8 00 N. 

Montijo Bay, Central America 7 40 N . 

Bahia (Panguapi) Ecuador 3 00 N. 

Atacames, Ecuador 50 N . 

Bahia de Caraques (Caracas) 35 S. 

Chatham Island, Galapagos Islands 1 00 S. 

Manta, Ecuador 1 00 S. 

Monte Cristi, Ecuador 1 00 S. 

Jipijapa (Xipixapi), Ecuador 1 15 S. 

Isla la Plata, Ecuador 1 20 S. 

Salango, Ecuador 1 30 S. 

Bahia Santa Elena, Ecuador 2 10 S. 

Guayaquil, Ecuador 2 US. 

Puna Island, Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador 3 00 S. 

Capon, Huaquilla, and Matapalo 3 10 S. 

Tumbes (Tumbez), Peru 3 30 S. 

Paita (Payta), Peru 5 00 S. 

Lobos Islands (northern), Peru (Lobos de Tierra) 5 20 S. 

I;obos Islands (southern), Peru (Lobos de Afuera) 6 27 S. 

Sechura Bay, Peru (and Matacaballa) 5 40 S. 

Lambayeque, Peru 6 30 S. 

Pacasmayo, Peru 7 25 S. 

Salaverri, Peru ." 8 10 S. 

Guanape Islands, Peru 8 30 S. 

Isla Blanca, Chimbote Bay, Peru 9 08 S. 

Casma, Peru , 9 30 S. 

Ancon, Peru (and Pescadores Islands) 11 47 S. 

Callao, Peru (with La Punta, S. Lorenzo Island, etc.) 12 00 S. 

Chilca, Peru _. . . . 12 30 S. 

Asia Islands, Peru 12 50 S. 

Pisco (Chincha and Ballestas Islands, San Gallan Island) 13 45 S. 

Paracas Bay, Peru 13 50 S. 

Bay of Independencia, Peru (and Windy Bay) 14 15 S. 

lea, Peru 14 30 S. 

Islay, Peru 17 00 S. 

Mollendo, Peru 17 00 S. 

Aiica, Chile 18 30 S. 

Mejillones del Norte, Chile 19 50 S. 

Iquique, Chile 20 15 S. 

Cobija, Chile • 22 30 S. 

Antofagasta, Chile 22 40 S. 

Mejillones (Mexillones) del Sur, Chile 23 00 S. 

Isla Blanca (del Chimba) of Philippi, Chile 23 37 S. 

Paposo, Chile 25 07 S. 

Caldera, Chile - 27 00 S. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 193 

Copiapo, Chile 27 10 S. 

Coquimbo, Chile 30 00 S. 

Quintero, Chile 32 45 S. 

Valparaiso, Chile 33 00 S. 

Juan Fernandez Island, Chile 33 40 S. 

Talcahuano, Quiriquina, and Tumbes, Chile 36 40 S. 

Lota and Concepcion, Chile 37 10 S. 

Valdivia, Chile 39 50 S. 

Puerto Montt, Chile 41 30 S. 

Island of Chiloe, Chile 42 30 S. 

Chono.? Archipelago, Chile 45 00 S. 

Magellan Straits, western entrance 52 35 S. 

LIST OF SPECIES COMPOSING THE FAUNA. 
SUBKINGDOM MOLLUSCA. 

Class CEPHALOPODA. 

Order DIBRANCHIATA. 

Suborder OCTOPODA. 

Family ARGONAUTID^. 
Genus ARGONAUTA Linnasus. 

ARGONAUTA CORNUTA Conrad. 

1854. Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., ser. 2, voL 2, p. 332, pL 
34, tig. 2. Gulf of Panama to Cape St. Lucas. 

ARGONAUTA NOURYI Lorois. 

1852. Rev. et Mag. de ZooL, ser. 2, vol. 4, p. 9, pi. 1, tig-. 5. 
Marquesas Islands; coast from Peru to Mexico. 

ARGONAUTA PACIFICA Dall. 

1869. Amer. Nat., vol. 3, p. 237. From the Galapagos Islands 
north to Monterey' , California. 

ARGONAUTA NODOSA Solander. 

1786. Portland Catalogue, p. 96, No. 2120.— Shaw, Nat. Mis-. 
1811, vol. 23, pi. 995. Off Chiloe Island. 

ARGONAUTA HIANS Solander. 

1786. Portland Catalogue p. 44, No. 1055. — Adams and Reeve, 
Voj. Samarang, Moll., 1850, p. 4, pi. 3, figs. 2 a-c. Indo- 
Pacific Ocean; Chilean coast. 

Family PHILONEXID.E. 

Genus TREMOCTOPUS Delia Chiaje. 

TREMOCTOPUS MINIMUS Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Me'r., vol. 5, p. 23, pi. 1, tigs. 4, 5. S. Lat 30^. 
off Coquimbo. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 13 



194 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Family ALLOPOSID^. 

Genus BOLIT^ENA Steenstrup. 

BOLITiENA MICROTYLA Steenstrup. 

185'J. Vid. med. Nat. Foren. Kjobenh. for 1858, p. 183.— Hoyle, 
Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo!., vol. 43, p. 1), pi. 3, %s. 6-11; pi. 4, 
fig". 1. Galapagos Islands; also Atlantic Ocean. 

Family POLYPODID^. 

Genus POLYPUS Schneider, 1784. (Octo75?/.s Lamarck, 1799.) 

POLYPUS GRANULATUS Lamarck. 

1799. Mem. Soc. Hist. Nat. Paris, vol. 1, p. 20.— Orbigny, 
Ceph. Acet., 183S, p. 45, pis. 6, 23, fig. 2. Atlantic and 
Pacific Oceans; coast of Peru. 

POLYPUS FONTAINEANUS Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, p. 28, pi. 2, fig. 5. Coast of Chile 
and Peru. 

POLYPUS OCCIDENTALIS Hoyle. 

1886. Challenger Ceph., p. 77. — Orbigny, Moll. Cuba, p. 14, 
pi. 1, 1845. Atlantic and Pacific Oceans; Galapagos Islands. 

POLYPUS CHIERCHIiEJatta. 

1889. Boll. soc. nat. Napoli, vol. 3, p. 65. Peru. 

POLYPUS OCULIFER Hoyle. 

1904. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, p. 14, pi. 4, figs. 3-1. 
Galapagos Islands. 

POLYPUS PUSILLUS Gould. 

1852. U. S. Expl. Exped. (Wilkes) Moll., p. 478, fig. 591. 
Cocos Island north to Acapulco, Mexico. 

POLYPUS JANUARII Hoyle. 

1886. Challenger Ceph., p. 97, pi. 7, figs. 1-4. Cocos Island. 

POLYPUS SAPHENIA Gray. 

1849. Brit. Mus. Cat. Ceph., p. 11. Peru. 

POLYPUS MIMUS Gould. 

1852. U. S. Expl. Exped. (Wilkes) Moll., p. 473, fig. 587. 
Peruvian region. 

Genus MOSCHITES Schneider, 1784. (Eledone Leach, 1817.) 

MOSCHITES ROTUNDA Hoyle. 

1886. Challenger Ceph., p. 104, pi. 8, figs. 4-6. Gulf of Panama. 

MOSCHITES VERRUCOSA Verrill. 

1881. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 8, p. 105, pis. 5, 6. Gulf of 
Panama. 

Genus ELEDONELLA Verrill. 

ELEDONELLA D7APHANA Hoyle. 

1885. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. 15, p. 232; Challenger 
Ceph., p. 107, pi. 9, figs. 3-6, 1886. Galapagos Islands. 



I 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 195 

Genus JAPETELLA Hoyle. 

JAPETELLA PRISMATICA Hoyle. 

1885. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 5, vol. 15, p. 231; Challenger 
Ceph., p. 109, pi. 9, figs. 1-2, 1886. 

Suborder DECAPODA. 

Superfamily MYOPSIDA. 

Family LOLIGINID.^. 
Genus LOLIGO Lamarck. 

LOLIGO GAHI Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, Moll., p. 60, pi. 3, figs. 1-2. Val- 
paraiso; Patagonian, l*eruvian, and West Indian regions. 

Superfamily CEGOPSIDA. 

Family OMMATOSTREPHID JC. 

Genus OMMASTREPHES Orbigny. 

OMMASTREPHES GIGAS Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, Moll., p. 60, pi. 4. Peruvian 
region; Valparaiso to Arica. 

Genus SYMPLECTOTEUTHIS Pfeffer. 

SYMPLECTOTEUTHIS OUALANIENSIS Lesson. 

1829. Voy. Coquille, JMoll., vol. 2, p. 210, pi. 1, fig. 1. Indo- 
Pacific region; Cocos Island; Gulf of Panama. 

Genus STEENSTRUPIOLA Pfeffer. 

STEENSTRUPIOLA CHILENSIS Pfeffer. 

1881. Ceph. Hamburg Mus., p. 16, fig. 20. Peruvian region. 
Genus CUCIOTEUTHIS Steenstrup. 

CUCIOTEUTHIS UNGUICULATUS Molina. 

1782. Saggio Stor. Nat. Chile, p. 199.— Owen, Trans. Zool. 8oc. 
Lond., vol. 11, pt. 5, p. 150, pis. 30-32. Chile. 

Family BATHYTEUTHID.E. 

Genus BATHYTEUTHIS Hoyle. 

BATHYTEUTHIS ABYSSICOLA Hoyle. 

1885. Challenger, Sci. Results, p. 272, fig. 108. Chall. Ceph. 
p. 168. Eastern Pacific. 

Family MASTIGOTEUTHID^. 

Genus MASTIGOTEUTHIS Verrill. 

MASTIGOTEUTHIS DENTATA Hoyle. 

1904. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., vol. 43, p. 34, pi. 6, figs. 8-11. 
Galapagos Islands. Gulf of Panama. 



I 



196 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37 



Family ONYCHOTEUTHID^E. 

Genus ONYCHOTEUTHIS Lichtenstein. 

ONYCHOTEUTHIS BRACHYPTERA Pfeffer. 

1884. Ceph. Hamburg Mus., p. 20, fig. 26. Peruvian region. 
Genus TELEOTEUTHIS Verrill. {Onychia Leaneur.) 

TELEOTEUTHIS PLATYPTERA Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, Moll., p. 41, pi. 3, figs. 8-11. 
Indo-Pacific region. Chilean coast, off Valdivia. 

TELEOTEUTHIS PERATOPTERA Orbigny. 

1835. Voy. Am. Mer., vol. 5, Moll., p. 39, pi. 3, figs. 5-T. 
Indo-Pacific region. Juan Fernandez Island. Chilean coast. 

Family ENOPLOTEUTHID^. 

Genus ABRALIOPSIS Joubin. 

APRALIOPSIS HOYLEI Pfeffer. 

1884. Ceph. Hamburg Mus., p. 17, fig. 22. Gulf of Panama to 
Acapulco, Mexico. 

Genus PTERYGIOTEUTHIS H. Fischer. 

PTERYGIOTEUTHIS GIARDI Fischer. 

1896. Journ. de Conchyl., vol. 48, pp. 205-211, pi. 9. Gulf of 
Panama. Galapagos Islands north to Guaymas, Mexico. 
Also North Atlantic. 

Family HISTIOTEUTHID^. 

Genus CALLITEUTHIS Verrill. 
CALLITEUTHIS REVERSA Verrill. 

1880. Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 20, p. 393; Trans. Conn. Acad. Sci., 
vol. 5, p. 295, pi. 46, figs. 1, Ih., 1880. North Atlantic. 
Gulf of Panama. 

Family CRANCHIID^. 

Genus TAONIUS Steenstrup. 

TAONIUS SCHNEEHAGENI Pfeffer. 

1884. Ceph. Hamburg Mus., p. 23, fig. 31. Peruvian region. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 197 

Class GASTROPODA. 

Subclass ANISOPLEURA. 

Superorder OPISTHOBRANCHIATA. 

Order F»TKROF»ODA. 

Suborder GYMNOSOMATA. 

Family PNEUMODERMATID^. 

Genus PNEUMODERMON Cuvier. 

PNEUMODERMON BOASI Pelseneer. 

1888. Challenger Pterop., p. 30, pi. 2, fig. 3. Off Caldera, Chile, 
8. lat. 27'^. 

Genus DEXIOBRANCH^^A Boas. 

DEXIOBRANCHiEA POLYCOTYLA Boas. 

1886. Spolia Atlantica, vol. 1, p. 161. Challenger Pterop., p. 17, 
pi. 1, figs. 1, 5, 1888. Oft' Chile, S. lat. 27° to 37'^ 30'. 

DEXIOBRANCH.ffi;A SIMPLEX Boas. 

1886. Spolia Atlantica, vol. 4, p. 160. Challenger Pterop. , p. 16, 
pi. 1, fig. 3, 1888. Off Caldera, Chile, in S. lat. 27' 



70 



Suborder THECOSOMATA. 

Family CAVOLINIID^. 

Genus CAVOLINA Abildgaard. 

CAVOLINA GIBBOSA Rang. 

1836. Ilyalxa gihhosa Rang, in Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 95, 
pi. 5, figs. 16-25. Southeast Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian 
.seas. 

CAVOLINA INFLEXA Lesueur. 

1813. Hyalsea infiexa Lesueur, Nouv. Bull. Soc. Philom., vol. 
3, p. 285, pi. 5, fig. 3. Eastern Pacific from N. lat. 13° to 
S. lat. 42°. Also Atlantic. 

CAVOLINA LONGIROSTRIS Lesueur. 

1822. llyala^a lonxjirodris Lesueur, Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 22, 
p. 81. — Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 101, pi.- 6, figs. 11 to 
15, 1836. 8. lat. 12° to N. lat. 23°. Also Atlantic. 

CAVOLINA TELEMUS Linnaeus, var. OCCIDENTALIS Dall. 

1758. Monoculus telemus Linn^us, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 1059. 
Hyaldda tridentata (Forskal) Boas, Spolia Atlantica, p. 115, 
pi. 1, figs. 8, 9; pi. 2, fig. 19; pi. 4, fig. m-, pi. 6, fig. 100, 
1886. Off the west coast of South America and the Galapagos 
Islands. Also North Pacific. 



198 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. :i7. 

CAVOLINA UNCINATA Rang. 

1836. Ilyalxa uncinata Rang in Orb. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 93, 
pi. 5, figs. 11-13. Cape St. Lucas, Lower California, south 
to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. Also Atlantic. 

Genus CLIO Linnaeus. 



I 



CLIO ANTARCTICA Dall. 

1908. Smithsonian Misc. Coll., vol. 50, p. 501. Ilyalsea austra 
Us Orbigny Voy. Am. Mer., p. 117, pi. 8, figs. 9-11, 1836; ■ 
not of Peron, 1816. Southeastern Pacific, also near Cape of 
Good Hope. 

CLIO PYRAMIDATA Linnaeus. 

1767. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1091. Cleodora lanceolata Soul- 
EYET, Zool. Bonite, vol. 2, p. 179, pi. 6, figs. 17-25, 1852. 
Southeastern Pacific, in S. lat. 27° 11'. Also Atlantic. 

CLIO SULCATA Pfeffer. 

1879. Cleodora sulcata Pfeffer, Monatsb. k. Preuss. Akad. 
Wiss., p. 240, figs. 11, 12. Off Manta, Ecuador, and south- 
ward to the Antarctic. 

CLIO (HYALOCYLIX) STRIATA Rang. 

1828. Creseis striata Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 1, vol. 13, p. 

315, pi. 16, fig. 7. Off coast of Chile. Also Atlantic. 

Genus CRESEIS (Rang) Sowerby. 

CRESEIS SUBULA Quoy and Gaimard. 

1827. Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 1, vol. 10, p. 233, pi. 8i>, figs. 1, 2, 3^ 
(as Cleodora). Eastern Pacific. Also Atlantic, etc. 

Genus STYLIOLA (Lesueur) Gray. 

STYLIOLA ACICULA Rang. 

1828. Creseis acicula Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 1, vol. 13, p. 
318, pi. 17, fig. 6. Eastern Pacific. Also Atlantic. 

STYLIOLA CONICA Eschscholtz. 

1829. Creseis conica Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, p. 17, pi. 15, fig. 
3. Eastern Pacific. Also Atlantic. 

STYLIOLA VIRGULA Rang. 

1828. Creseis virgula Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 1, vol. 13, p. 

316, fig. 2. Southeastern Pacific, oft' Juan Fernandez Island. 
Also Atlantic. 

STYLIOLA (BOASIA) CHIERCHI^ Boas. 

1886. Cleodora chierchix Boas, Spolia Atlantica, p. 62, pi. 3, fig. 
ZMer. Tropical eastern Pacific. Also Atlantic. 

Genus CUVIERINA Boas. 

CUVIERINA COLUMELLA Rang. 

1828. Cuvieria columella Rang, Ann. Sci. Nat., ser. 1, vol. 13, 
p. 323, pi. 45, figs. 1-8. Eastern Pacific from N. lat. 23° to 
S. lat. 42°. Also Atlantic. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 199 

Family LIMACINID^E. 

Genus LIMACINA Lamarck. 

LIMACINA BULIMOIDES Orbigny. 

1836. Atlanta haJinioldes Orbigny, Vo3\ Am. Mer., p. 179, pi. 
13, figs. 36-38. Temperate and tropical eastern Pacific. 
Also Atlantic. 

LIMACINA LESUEURI Orbigny. 

1836. Atlanta lesaeuri Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 177, pi. 20, 
figs. 12-15. Eastern Pacific to S. lat. 42°. Also Atlantic. 

LIMACINA TROCHIFORMIS Orbigny. 

1836. Atlanta troc/ufor/nisORBiGi^Y, Vo3^ Am. Mer., p. 177, pi. 
12, figs. 29-31. Eastern Pacific to S. lat. 30°. Also Atlantic. 

Genus EMBOLUS Jeffreys. 

EMBOLUS INFLATUS Orbigny. 

. 1836. Atlanta inflata Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 174, pi. 12, 
figs. 16-19. Eastern Pacific from N. lat. 42° to S. lat. 40°. 
Also Atlantic. 

Genus PERACLE Forbes. 

PERACLE RETICULATA Orbigny. 

1836. Atlanta reticulata Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 178, pi. 12, 
figs. 32-35, 39. Eastern Pacific in S. lat. 20°. Also Atlantic 
and Mediterranean. 

Order TECTIBRANCK[I>^T.A.. 

{CEPHALASPIDEA.) 

Family ACTEONID^. 

Genus ACTEON Montfort. 

ACTEON VENUSTUS Orbigny. 

1840. Tornatella venusta Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer. , p. 399, pi. 56, 
figs. 4, 5, 6. Paita, Peru. 

Family BULLAE IID^^. 

Genus BULLARIA Rafinesque. 

BULLARIA ASPERSA A. Adams. 

1850. Bulla aspersa Adams, Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. 578, pi. 123, 
fig. 78. Panama to Paita, Peru. 

BULLARIA GOULDIANA Pilsbry. 

1898. Bulla (jouldlana Pilsbry, Man. Con., vol. 15, p. 340, pi. 
36, figs. 22-24. San Pedro, Cal., southward to the Gulf of 
California, Mazatlan, and Guayaquil. 

BULLARIA PUNCTULATA A. Adams. 

1850. Bulla punctuhita At>a.is\s, Thes. Con., p. 604, pi. 123, fig. 
77. Gulf of California to the Lobos Islands, Peru. 



200 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Family AKERATID.E. 

Genus HAMINEA Leach. 

HAMINEA PERUVIANA Orbigny. 

1837. Bulla iJeruviaiia Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 211, pi. 19, 
figs. 4, 5 {B. kydatis on plate). Callao, Peru. 

{ANASPIDEA.) 

Family AGLAJIDJE. 

Genus AGLAJA Renier. 

AGLAJA MACULATA Orbigny. 

1887. Posterobranchea maenlnta Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer. , p. 203, 
pi. 17, figs. 6-9. Valparaiso and Juan Fernandez Island. 

Family APLYSIID.F. 
Genus TETHYS Linnseus. 

TETHYS CHIERCHIANA Mazzarelli and Zuccard. 

1889. Aplysia chterehiana Mazzarelli and Zuccard, Bol. Soc. 
Nat. Napoli, vol. 3, p. 52. San Lorenzo Island. Callao, 
Peru. 

TETHYS INCA Orbigny. 

1837. Aplysia inca Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 207, pi. 1-1, fig. 
13. Callao, Peru. 

TETHYS LESSONI Rang. 

1828. Aplysia lessoyii Rang, Mon. Aplysia, p. 60, pi. 14. Paita, 
Peru. 

TETHYS NIGRA Orbigny. 

1837. Aplysia nigra Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 209, pi. 18, 
figs. 1-2. Callao, Peru. 

TETHYS RANGIANA Orbigny. 

1837. Aplysia rangiana Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 210, pi. 17, 
figs. 11-13. Paita, Peru. 

Genus APLYSIOPSIS Bergh. 

APLYSIOPSIS JUANINA Bergh. 

1898. Bergh, in Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 483, pi. 28, 
figs. 1-25, pi. 29, fig. 1. Juan Fernandez Island. 

Genus DOLABELLA Lamarck. 

DOLABELLA GUAYAQUILENSIS Petit. 

1868. SowERBY, Con. Icon. , vol. 16, pi. 2, figs. 6 a-h. Guayaquil. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 201 



ft 



{NOTASPIDEA.) 

Family FLEUROBRANCHID.^. 

Genus PLEUROBRANCHUS Cuvier. 

PLEUROBRANCHUS PLATEI Bergh. 

1898. Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p, 494. Calbuco, Chile. 

PLEUROBRANCHUS PATAGONICUS Orbigny. 

1837. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 204, pi. 17, %s. 4, 5. Talcahuano, 
Chile. Also south of the Rio Negro on the Atlantic coast of 
Patagonia. 

Genus PLEUROBRANCH^^A Leue. 

PLEUROBRANCHiEA MACULATA Quoy and Gaimard. 

1832. Voy. Astrolabe, Zool., vol. 5, pt. 2, p. 301, pi. 22, figs. 
11-14. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 492, pi. 29, figs. 2- 
9, 1898. Juan Fernandez Island. 

Order NUDIBRANCHIATA. 

iCLADOHEPATICA) 

Family AEOLIDIID^. 

Genus AEOLIDIA Quvier. 

AEOLIDIA LOTTINI Lesson. 

1830. AeoUs lottinl Lesson, Voy. Coq., p. 290, pi. 14, figs. 6 
g-n. Southern Chile. 

AEOLIDIA PAPILLOSA (Linnaeus) Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 540. Chile. 

AEOLIDIA SEROTINA (Linnaeus) Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 541, pi. 31, figs. 26-31. 
Talcahuano and Tumbes, Chile. 

Genus CRATENA Bergh. 

CRATENA CAVANCA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 545, pi. 31, figs. 32-34. 
Cavancha, Chile. 

CRATENA PUSILLA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 547, pi. 31, figs. 35-37. 
Juan Fernandez Island. 

Genus PHIDIANA Gray. 

PHIDIANA EXIGUA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 559, pi. 32, figs. 16-18. 
Coquimbo, Chile. 

PHIDIANA INCA Orbigny. 

1837. Aeolls inca Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 195, pi. 13, figs. 
1-7. Callao to Talcahuano, Chile. 



202 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

PHIDIANA NATANS Orbigny. 

1837. Aeolis jiatans Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 195, pi. 13, 
figs. 8-10. Oif Teru, S. lat. 13°. 

Genus FIONA Hancock and. Embleton. 

FIONA PINNATA Eschscholtz. 

1831. AeoUdia phinata Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, pt. 4, p. 1-1, 
pi. 19, fig. 1. Eastern Pacific; off Sitka, Alaska, and south- 
ward. Pelagic. 

FIONA MARINA Forskal, var. PACIFICA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 560. Juan Fernandez 
Island and Talcahuano, Chile. 

Genus GLAUCILLA Bergh. 

GLAUCILLA DISTICHOICA Orbigny. 

1837. Glaueus distlchoims Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 196, pi. 
14, figs. 1-3. Off Peru, S. lat. 20°. 

Family PHYLLIRHOID^. 

Genus PHYLLIRHOE Peron and Lesueur. 

PHYLLIRHOE ROSEA Orbigny. 

1836. PJiylUrJioe roseum Orbigny, Voy. Aui. Mer., p. 183, pi. 20, 
figs. 16-17. Eastern Pacific S. lat. 36°. 

Family PLEUROPHYLLIDIID^. 

Genus PLEUROPHYLLIDIA Meckel. 

PLEUROPHYLLIDIA CUVIERI Orbigny. 

1837. Dlphyllidia cuvleri Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 199, pi. 
17, figs. 1-3. Paita, Peru, to Valparaiso, Chile, in 7-8 
fathoms. 

Family TRITON IID^. 

Genus TRITONIA Cuvier. 

TRITONIA (CANDIELLA) AUSTRALIS Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 530, pi. 31, figs. 17-25. 
Calbuco, Chile. Juan Fernandez Island. 

{HOLOHEPATICA.) 
Family DORIDID.E. 

[CRYPTOBRANCHIATA. ) 
Genus ARCHIDORIS Bergh. 

ARCHIDORIS? FONTAINEI Orbigny. 

1837. Dork fontainei Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 189, pi. 15, 
figs. 1-3. Valparaiso, Tumbes, Chile. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 2 03 

ARCHIDORIS? INCERTA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 504, pi. 29, figs. 21-25. 
Tumbes, Chile. 

Genus ANISODORIS Bergh. 

ANISODORIS MARMORATA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 515, pi. 30, figs. 5-7. 
Coquimbo, Chile. 

ANISODORIS PUNCTUOLATA Orbigny. 

1837. Doris imnctuolata Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 187, pi. 
16, figs. 4-6. — Bekgh, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 509, pi. 29, 
figs. 31-31; pi. 30, figs. 1-2, 1898. Callao, Peru, south to 
Talcahuano, Chile. 

ANISODORIS TESSELLATA Bergh. 

1898.. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 518, pi. 30, figs. 8-11. 
MoUe Ba}-, Chile, 8 fathoms. 

ANISODORIS VARIOLATA Orbigny. 

1837. Dorh varloJata Orbigny, Yoy. Am. Mer., p. 186, pi. 16, 
figs. 1-3. — Bergh, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 512, pi. 30, 
figs. 3-4, 1898. Valparaiso and Tumbes, Chile. 

Genus TRIPPA Bergh. 

TRIPPA ? HISPIDA Orbigny. 

1837. Dork hhpkia Orbigny, Vol. Am. Mer., p. 188, pi. 15, 
figs. 4-6. Calbuco, Valparaiso, and Tumbes, Chile. 

Genus TYRINNA Bergh. 

TYRINNA NOBILIS Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 524, pi. 30, figs. 21-29; 
pi. 32, figs. 21-24. Calbuco, Chile. • 

Genus PLATYDORIS Bergh. 

PLATYDORIS PUNCTATELLA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 521, pi. 30, figs. 12-20. 
Isla de Pajargo, Chile. 

Genus CHROMODORIS Alden and Hancock. 

CHROMODORIS JUVENCA Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 531, pi. 31. figs. 4-11. 
Isla de Pajargo, Chile, and Juan Fernandez Island. 

[POROSTOMATA.) 

Family DORIOPSIDID.F:. 
Genus DORIOPSIS Pease. 

DORIOPSIS PERUVIANA Orbigny. 

1837. Doris 2)eruviana Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 188, pi. 15, 
figs. 7-9. Galapagos Islands and Callao, Peru, and south to 
Valparaiso, Chile. 



204 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

{PHANEROBRANCHIATA. ) 

Famil.r POLYCERATID^. 

Genus EUPLOCAMUS Philippi. 

EUPLOCAMUS MACULATUS Bergh. 

1898. Plate, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 53i, pi. 31, figs. 12-16, 
Juan Fernandez Island. 

Order PULTvlON AXA. 

Suborder BASOMMATOPHORA. 

Superfamily AKTEOPHILA. 

Family AURICULID^F. 

Genus AURICULA Lamarck. 

AURICULA STAGNALIS Orbigny. 

1835. Orbigny in Guerin, Mag. de Zool., p. 23; Voy. Am. M^r., 
p. 325, pi. 12, figs. 7-8, 1837. Panama to Guayaquil. 

Genus MELAMPUS Montfort. 

MELAMPUS ACROMELAS Troschel. 

1852. Coiiorulus acromelas Troschel, Arch. f. Nat., vol. 18, 
pt. 1, p. 197, pi. 6, fig. 2. Peru (Tscbudi). 

MELAMPUS LUTEUS Quoy and Gaimard. 

1832. Voy. Astrolabe, Zool., vol. 2, p. 163, pi. 13, figs. 25-27. 
Tumaco Island, Guayaquil. Peru (Tschudi). 

MELAMPUS PIRIFORMIS Petit. 

1842. Auricula piriformis Petit, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 202. — 
Kl'Ster, Conch, dih.., Auricula., p. 37, pi. 5, figs. 12-14, 1844. 
Tumaco Island, Guayaquil. 

MELAMPUS (SIONA) FRUMENTUM Petit. 

1812. Co7unmlus frumentumV'E'm, Rev. Zool., p. 32. Callao, 
Peru. 

MELAMPUS (SIONA) AVENA Petit. 

1812. Conovulas avena Petit, Rev. Zool., p. 106. — Kltster, 
Conch. Cab., Auricula, p. 48, pi. 7, tigs. 17-19, 1844. Val- 
paraiso, Chile. 

MELAMPUS (DETRACIA) GLOBULUS Ferussac. 

1835. Orbigny, Mag. de Zool., p. 23, no. 4. — Pfeiffer, Nov. 
Conch., vol. 1, p. 23, pi. 6, figs. 23-25. Tumaco Island, 
Guayaquil. 

Genus TRALIA Gray. 

TRALIA (ALEXIA) REFLEXILABRIS Orbigny. 

1840. Aurieulu refe,rHiihr!s Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 326, pi. 
42, figs. 1-3. Callao, salt marshes. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 205 

Genus MARINULA King. 

MARINULA ACUTA Orbigny. 

1835. Auricula acuta Oebignt, in Guerin, Mag. de ZooL, 1835, 
p. 23, no. 2; Voy. Am. Mer., p. 326, pi. 42, figs. 4-6, 1837. 
Panama to Guayaquil. 

MARINULA MARINELLA Kuster. 

1844. Anrlcida m.arinella Kuster, Conch. Cab., Auricula^ p. 24, 
pi. 3, figs. 4, 5. Callao, Peru, south to the island of Chiloe. 

MARINULA PEPITA King. 

1831. Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 344. — H. and A. Adams, Gen. Rec. 
Moll., vol. 2, p. 247, pi. 83, fig. 2«, 1856. Guayaquil, south 
to the island of Chiloe. 

Superfamily PETROPHILA. 

Family 8IPH0NARIID.E. 

Genus SIPHONARIA Sowerby. 

SIPHONARIA COSTATA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 6. — Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 9, pi. 4, 
fig. 19, 1856. Guacoma3^o, Central America, south to Val- 
paraiso, Chile. 

SIPHONARIA GIGAS Sowerby. 

1825. Tankerville Cat., App., p. vi. — Reeve, Con. Icon., pi. 1, 
fig. 3, 1856. Acapulco, Mexico, to Peru. Cocos and Gala- 
pagos Islands. 

SIPHONARIA L.ffiVIUSCULA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 7. — Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 9, pi. 1, 
fig. 5. 1856. Valparaiso, southward to the Magellan Straits. 

SIPHONARIA LESSONI Blainville. 

1824. Diet. Sci. Nat., vol. 32, p. 267, pi. 44, fig. 2. Nicaragua, 
and south to the Magellan Straits. 

SIPHONARIA LINEOLATA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 6. — Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 9, pi. 3, 
fig. 11, 1856. Guayaquil, south to the Chilean coast. 

SIPHONARIA MAURA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 7. — Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 9, pi. 7, 
fig. 36, 1856. Magdalena Ba}^, Lower California, south to 
Guayaquil. Chile (Dautzenberg). 

SIPHONARIA TENUIS Philippi. 

1860. Atacama Reise, p. 181, Zool., pi. 7, figs. ha-c. Paita, 
Peru, to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus WILLIAMIA Monterosato. 

W^ILLIAMIA GALAPAGANA Dall. 

1909. Nacella snhspiralis Wimmer, Sitzb. k. Akad. Wiss. Wien., 
vol. 80, p. 41, 1879, not of Carpenter, 1866. Galapagos 
Islands, Panama Bay, etc. , on floating seaweed. 



206 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Family GADINIID^. 

Genus GADINIA Gray. 

GADINIA PERUVIANA Sowerby. 

1835. Mourdla jK'niviana Sowerby, Proc, Zool. Soc. , p. 6; 
Zool. Becchey's Voy., Moll., p. 147, pi. 39, fig. 6, 1839. 
Gulf of California, south to Talcahuano, Chile. 

Suborder STYLOMMATOPHOKA. 

Superfamily DITREMATA. 

Family ONCHIDIID^. 

Genus ONCHIDIUM Buchanan. 

ONCHIDIUM CHILENSE Hupe. 

1854. Gay, Hist. Chile, p. 120. San Carlos de Chiloe. 

ONCHIDIUM JUANFERNANDEZIANA Wissell. 

1898. Zool. Jahrb., suppl. vol. 4, pp. 583-640, pi. 1-3. Juan 
Fernandez Island. 

ONCHIDIUM LANUGINOSUM Hupe. 

1854. Ga}', Hist. Chile, p. 121. San Carlos de Chiloe. 

Superorder CTENOBRANCHIATA. 

[STREPTONEURA.) 

Order ORTHODONTA. 

Superfamily TOXOGLOSSA. 

Family TEREBRID.F. 
Genus TEREBRA Bruguiere. 

TEREBRA GUAYAQUILENSIS E. A. Smith. 

1880. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 481. Guayaquil. 

TEREBRA STRIGATA Sowerby. 

1825. TankervilleCat., App., p. xxv; Thes. Con., p. 151, pi. 41, 
fig. 10, 1847. Cape St. Lucas and Gulf of California south 
to Paita. Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

TEREBRA ASPERA Hinds. 

1843. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 154.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., p. 174, 
pi. 43, fig. 44, 1847. Guayaquil and Paita, Peru. 

TEREBRA GEMMULATA Kiener. 

1839. Kiener, Icon., Terebra, p. 15, pi. 5, figs. 11, lla. Chile. 

TEREBRA LARV.ffiFORMIS Hinds. 

1843. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 155. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., p. 176, 
pi. 43, figs. 46, 47, 1847. Guayaquil. 

TEREBRA PLICATA Gray. 

1834. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 61.— Tryon, Man., vol. 7, p. 24, pi. 7, 
fig. 20, 1885. Guayaquil. 



I 



N... 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 207 

Family CONID^. 
Genus CONUS Linnaeus. 

CONUS BRUNNEUS Mawe. 

1828. Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. pi. 3, %. 1. — Sowerbt, Con. 
111., Conns, pi. 57, fig. 88; var. tig. 63. Central America 
and southward to Manta, Ecuador, and the Galapagos Islands. 

CONUS FERGUSONI Sowerby. 

1875. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 115, pi. 15, tig. 1. Panama and south- 
ward. Galapagos Islands. 

CONUS LUCIDUS Mawe. 

1828. Wood, Index Test, suppl. pi. 3, tig. -1. Gulf of Panama; 
Paita, Peru; and Galapagos Islands. 

CONUS MONILIFER Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51. Con. 111., pi. 33, tig. 37, 1833. 
Magdalena Bay, Lower California, and south to Sechura Bay, 
Peru. 

CONUS PRINCEPS Linnaeus. 

1758. Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 713.— Sowerby, Con. 111., tigs. 
30rt-30('>, 1833. Panama, south to Paita, Peru. 

CONUS PURPURASCENS Broderip. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51.— Sowerby, Con. 111., tig. 13, 1833 
Gulf of California and south to Paita, Peru. 

CONUS RECURVUS Broderip. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51.— Sowerby, Con. 111., fig. 36, 1833. 
Guaymas, Mexico, to Guayaquil. 

CONUS TORNATUS Broderip. 

1833. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 53. — Sowerby, Cou. 111., fig. 25,1833. 
Ecuador coast. 

CONUS XIMENES Gray. 

1839. Zool. Beech. Voy. p. 119, pi. 33, fig. 2. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Family TURRITID^. 
Genus SURCULA H. and A. Adams. 

SURCULA MACULOSA Sowerbv. 

1833. PJeurotohia maadosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 135. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon,, Plearotoma, fig. 15. Gulf of California 
to Guayaquil. 

SURCULA MAURA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma maura Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 131. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 47 (not P. maura 
Kiener). Guayaquil. 

SURCULA OLIVACEA Sowerby. 

1833. PItut'otoina olivacea Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, y. 
136, — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoina, fig. 27. Guayaiiuil, 
Salango, Ecuador. • 



208 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Genus DRILLIA Gray. 

DRILLIA ADUSTA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma adusta Soweeby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 137. 
Monte Cristi, Ecuador. 

DRILLIA ATERRIMA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma aterrlma Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 137. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma^ fig. 100. Monte Cristi, 
P^cuador. 

DRILLIA BOTT.1E Valenciennes. 

1810. Pleurotoma hottse (Valenciennes) Kiener, Icon., p. 33, 
pi. 15, fig. 12. Gulf of California to Guayaquil. 

DRILLIA CLAVATA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma clavata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 135. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 132. Ecuador coast. 

DRILLIA COLLARIS Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma collaris Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 13t>. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma^ fig. 120. Ecuador coast. 

DRILLIA DISCORS Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma dlscors Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 137. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 38. Ecuador coast. 

DRILLIA LUCTUOSA Hinds. 

1843. Pleurotoma luctuosa Hinds, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 40; Zool. 
Sulph. Voy., p. 18, pi. 6, fig. 4 (as Olavatula). Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, and south to Guayaquil. 

DRILLIA NIGERRIMA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma nigerrima Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 
137. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 102. Gulf of 
California to Ecuador. 

DRILLIA ROSEA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma rosea Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 134. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 43. Nicaragua coast 
and southward to Ecuador. 

DRILLIA RUDIS Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma rudis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 134. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 53. Mazatlan, Mexico, 
south to Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. 

DRILLIA RUSTICA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma rustica Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 138. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 91. Mazatlan, Mexico, 
and south to Ecuador. 

DRILLIA SOWERBYI Reeve. 

1833. Pleurotoma sowerbyi Reeve, Con. Icon., errata, and fig. 
49. Ecuador coast. 

DRILLIA ZONULATA Reeve. 

1843. Pleurotoma zonxdata Reeve, Syst. Con., vol. 2, pi. 234, 
fig. 10; Con. Icon., Pleurotoma, fig. 39. Coast of Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 209 

Genus CLATHURELLA Carpenter. 

CLATHURELLA ASPERA Hinds. 

1843. PleuTotoma asjyera Hinds, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 40; Zool. 
Sulph. Voy., p. 19, pi. 6, figs. 7, 8, 1844. Guayaquil. 

Genus MANGILIA (Leach) Risso. 

MANGILIA FORMICARIA Sowerby. 

1833. Pleurotoma formicaria Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
130. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pleurotoma^ fig. 247. Iquique. 

MANGILIA ORDINARIA E. A. Smith. 

1882. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 216.— Tryon, Man. Con., vol. 
6, p. 250, pi. 34, fig. 97, 1884. Chile and Peru. 

MANGILIA RUFOCINCTA E. A. Smith. 

1882. Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 215. Porto Cavallo. 

Family CANCELLARIID.E. 

Genus CANCELLARIA Lamarck. 

CANCELLARIA ALBIDA Hinds. 

1843. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 47. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. 
442, pi. 94, fig. 43, 1848. Coast of Nicaragua and south to 

CANCELLARIA BREVIS Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 52; Thes. Con., pi. 93, fig. 21, 1848. 
Mazatlan, Mexico, and south to Guayaquil. 

CANCELLARIA BUCCINOIDES Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p, 54; Con. 111., vol. 2, fig. 11, 1832. 
Coast of Nicaragua and southward to Mejillones, Chile. 

CANCELLARIA BULLATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 53; Con. 111., fig. 35, 1832. Gulf of 
Panama and southward to Iquique. 

CANCELLARIA CASSIDIFORMIS Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 53; Con. 111., fig. 22, 1832. Gulf of 
California to Paita, Peru. 

CANCELLARIA CHRYSOSTOMA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 54; Thes. Con., p. 451, pi. 94, fig. 39. 
Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru. 

CANCELLARIA CLAVATULA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 52; Con. 111., fig. 12, 1832. Panama 
to Paita, Peru. 

CANCELLARIA CORRUGATA Hinds. 

1843. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 48. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. 
448, pi. 96, figs. 92-93, 1848. Guayaquil. 

CANCELLARIA EXOPLEURA Dall. 

1908. Albatross Rep., p. 294. Panama Bay to Paita, Peru. 

Proc.N.M.vol.nT— 00 14 



210 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

CANCELLARIA MITRIFORMIS Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool., Soc. p. 51; Con. 111., %. 15, 1832. Panama 
to Pacasmayo, Peru. 

CANCELLARIA OBESA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 52; Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. Ill, pi. 95, 
fig. 37, 1818. Gulf of California to Gua3^aquil. 

CANCELLARIA PARVA Philippi. 

18()0. Atacama lieise, p. 187, pi. 7, tig. IS. Paposo, Chile. 

CANCELLARIA TESSELATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51; Thes. Con., vol. 2, pi. 93, fig. 32, 
1818. Gulf of California to Guayaquil. 

CANCELLARIA TUBERCULOSA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 51; Con. 111., fig. 36, 1833. Callao. 
Peru, south to Mejillones, Chile. 

CANCELLARIA UNIPLICATA Sowerby. 

1818. Thes. Con., vol. 2, pi. 93, fig. 35. Panama to Valparaiso. 

Superfamily RHACHIGLOSSA. 

Family OLIVID.E. 

Genus OLIVA Martyn. 

OLIVA ANGULATA Lamarck. 

18 10. Ann. du Mus. , vol. 10, p. 310; Encycl. Meth. , pi. 363, fig. 6. 
Magdalena Bay, Lower California, southward to Peru. 

OLIVA KALEONTINA Duclos. 

1836. Mon. (Jlnri., pi. 8, figs. 7, 8.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., p. 10, 
pi. 333, figs. 92, 93, 1871. Cape St. Lucas and southward to 
Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

OLIVA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

1810. Ann. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 317. — Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 
11. Whole Peruvian province from Paita, Peru, to Lota, 
Chile, and tlie Galapagos Islands. 

OLIVA TESTACEA Lamarck. 

1810. Ann. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 321.— Martens, Arch. Nat., 
vol. 63, p. 165, pi. 15, figs. 13, 11, 1897; and var. j>hil/pj)it; 
Idem, pi. 16, figs. 7, 12, 1897. Mazatlan, Mexico, and south- 
ward to Cobija, Chile. 

Genus OLIVELLA Swainson. 

OLIVELLA COLUMELLARIS Sowerby. 

1825. Tankerville Cat., App., p. xxxiv. — Reeve, Con. Icon., 
Olira, fig. 62, 1850. Central American coast and southward 
to Sechura Ba}^, Peru. 

OLIVELLA SEMISTRIATA Gray. 

1839. Zool. Beech. Voy., p. 130, pi. 36, fig. 10. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Sechura Bay, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 211 

OLIVELLA TERGINA Duclos. 

1835. Mon. Oliva, pi. 2, fi^s. 13-16. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Ollva, 
fig. 80, 1850. Acapulco, Mexico, and southward to Paita, 
Peru. 

OLIVELLA VOLUTELLA Lamarck. 

1810. Oliva volutella Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 322. — 
DucLos, Mon. Oliva^ pi. 6, tigs. 5, 6, 1835. Gulf of Califor- 
nia to Paita, Peru. 

OLIVELLA ZONALIS Lamarck. 

1810. Oliva sonalis Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 327. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Oliva, fig. 56, 1850. Mazatlan, Mexico, 
to Guayaquil. 

Family MARGINELLID^ 

Genus MARGINELLA Lamarck. 

MARGINELLA CURTA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 105; Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 397, pi. 76, 
figs. 88, 89. Gulf of California and southward to Iquique, 
Chile. 

MARGINELLA FRUMENTUM Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 57. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Marginella^ 
fig. 71, 1865. Cape St. Lucas and south to Gua3'aquil and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

MARGINELLA SAPOTILLA Hinds. 

1811. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 74. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 
383, pi. 77, figs. 150, 151. Gulf of Panama to Peru. 

Family VOLUTIDiE. 
Genus ADELOMELON Dall. 

ADELOMELON MAGELLANICUS Lamarck. 

1811. Voluta magellanica Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., vol. 17, p. 69; 
Encycl. Meth., pi. 385, figs. 1«, \h, 1816. Chiloe Island and 
southward to Magellan Straits, and on the Argentine coast 
and the Falkland Islands. 

ADELOMELON ANCILLA Solander. 

1786. Portland Museum, p. 137, No. 3061.— Lamarck, Encycl. 
Meth., pi. 385, fig. 3, 1816. Magellanic region and northward 
to Puerto Montt, and Chiloe Island, Chile. 

Family TURBINELLID^E. 

Genus VASUM Bolten. 

VASUM CESTUS Broderip. 

1833. Txtrhinella cxstus Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 8. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Tuvhiyiella, pi. 6, fig. 34a. San Diego, 
California, south to Ecuador. 



212 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.ST 



Family MITKID^. 

Genus MITRA Martyn. 

MITRA EFFUSA Swainson. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc. , p. 191. — Reeve, Con. Icon., 3fit?'a, pi. 
11, fig-. 100, 1811. Gulf of Panama to the Galapagos Islands. 

MITRA LENS Mawe. 

1828. Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. pi. 3, fig. 25. Mazatlan, Mexico, 
south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

MITRA ORIENTALIS Gray. 

1831. Grifiith's Cuvier, pi. 10, fig. 5. Ancon, Peru, south to 
Iquique, Chile. 

MITRA SEMIGRANOSA Von Martens. 

1897. Arch. Nat., vol. 63, p. 178, pi. 10, figs. 21, 25. Ecuador 
coast and south to Chile. 

MITRA SULCATA Swainson. 

1825. Tankerville Cat.. App., p. xxvi. — Reeve, Con. Icon., 
Mitra, pi. 22, fig. 176, 1811. West coast Central America 
and southward to Ecuador. 

MITRA TRISTIS Swainson. 

1835. Tlaratristis Swainson, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 191. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon. ^ Mitra, pi. 15, fig. 114, 1841. Mazatlan, Mexico, 
to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

Family FASCIOLARIID^. 

Genus FASCIOLARIA Lamarck. 

FASCIOLARIA GRANOSA Broderip. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 32. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Fasciolaria., 
fig. 6, 1847. West Mexico, Panama; Peru (Tschudi). 

FASCIOLARIA PRINCEPS Sowerby. 

1825. Tankerville Cat., App., p. xvi.— Kiener, Icon., Fascio- 
laria., p. 6, pis. 12, 13. Gulf of California to Peru and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Genus LATIRUS Montfort. 

LATIRUS CERATUS Gray. 

1828. In Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. pi. 5, fig. 15 (as Mureoc). 
Mazatlan, Mexico, to Manta, Ecuador, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

LATIRUS CONCENTRICUS Reeve. 

1847. Con. Icon., Turbinella., figs. 2, 11. Acapulco, to Panama 
and Guayaquil, 



I 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 213 

Family BUCCINID^. 
Genus AUSTROFUSUS Kobelt. 

AUSTROFUSUS FONTAINE! Orbigny. 

1841. Fusus fontainei Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 447, pi. 63, 
fig. 2. Callao, Peru, south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus ATRACTODON Charlesworth. 

ATRACTODON PLUMBEUS Philippi. 

1844. Fumts lAumheuH Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 1(>8, pi. 1, fig. 3. 
Southern Chile and the Magellanic region; Puerto Montt; 
Chiloe. 

Genus GALEODES Bollen. 

GALEODES PATULUS Broderip. 

1829. Pyrula patula Broderip and Sowerbt, Zool. Journ., vol. 
1, p. 377.— Gray, Beech. Voy., Zool., p. 115, pi. 34, fig. 10; 
pi. 35, figs. 1, 3. Central American coast; Gulf of Panama 
and southward. 

Genus SOLENOSTEIRA Dall. 

SOLENOSTEIRA FUSIFORMIS Blainville. 

1832. Purpura faslformis, Blaintille, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 
vol. 1, pi. 11, fig. 7. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Bucclnura^ pi. 7, 
fig. 50, 1846. Gulf of Panama and southward to the Chincha 
Islands, Peru. 

Family COLUBRARIID^. 

Genus COLUBRARIA Schumacher. 

COLUBRARIA SOWERBYI Reeve. 

1844. Triton sowerhyl Reeve, Con. Icon., Triton, fig. 65. Gala- 
pagos Islands. 

Genus CANTHARUS Bolten. 

CANTHARUS BOLIVIANUS Eydoux and Souleyet. 

1852. Buccinuni hoUmanmn Eydoux and Souleyet, Vo}'. 
Bonite, Zool., vol. 2, p. 610, pi. 41, figs. 22, 24. Cobija, Chile. 

CANTHARUS DISTORTUS Gray. 

1828. Buccinum distort am Gray, in Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. 
pi. 4, fig. 7. Panama to Guayaquil. 

CANTHARUS ELEGANS Gray. 

1833. Triton {Pusio) elegans Gray, in Griffith's Cuvier, vol. 12, 
p. 600, pi. 25, fig. 2; not of Orbigny, 1852. Mazatlan, 
Mexico, to Paita, Peru. 



214 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

CANTHARUS GEMMATUS Reeve. 

1846. Buccinum gemmatum Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 49. Ma- 
zatlan, Mexico, to Guayaquil. 

CANTHARUS INCA Orbigny. 

1841. MuTex inca Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 455, pi. 78, 
fig. 3. Peruvian coast, Pacasmayo to Callao. 

CANTHARUS JANELLI Kiener. 

1835. Parpura janelll Kiener, Icon., Purpura., p. 122, pi. 38, 
fig. 89; not of Valenciennes, 1846. Paita, Peru, and the 
Chincha Islands. 

CANTHARUS RINGENS Reeve. 

1846. Buccinum ringens Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 45. Panama 
to Guaj^aquil. 

CANTHARUS SANGUINOLENTUS Duclos. 

1833. Purpura sanguinolenta Duclos, Guerin, Mag. de ZooL, 
vol. 5, p. 22, fig. 1. Mazatlan, and south to Guayaquil. 

CANTHARUS VIBEX Broderip. 

183^. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 175 (unfigured). Gulf of Panama to 
Guayaquil. 

Genus ENGINA Gray. 

ENGINA CONTRACTA Reeve. 

1846. Rlcinula contracta Reeve, Con. Icon., Picinula., fig. 32. 
Gulf of Panama to Guayaquil. 

ENGINA CARBONARIA Reeve. 

1846. Ricihula carhonaria Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 22. Gulf of 
Panama to Manta, P^cuador, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Family ALECTRIONID^. 
Genus ARCULARIA Link. 

ARCULARIA LUTEOSTOMA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Nassa luteostoma Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., 
vol. 4, p. 376.— Gray, Beech. Voy., p. 127, pi. 36, fig. 3, 1839. 
Mazatlan to Panama. Peru (Tschudi), 

ARCULARIA PAPOSANA Philippi. 

1860. Buccmmn papomnum Philippi, Atac. Reise, p. 188. 
Paposo, Chile. 

Genus ALECTRION Montfort. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) COMPLANATUS Powys. 

1835. Nassa complanata'^ov/YS., Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 36. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Nassa^ figs. 105, 107, 111?>. Gulf of Panama south 
to S. lat. 25^. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) DENTIFERUS Powys. 

1835. JVassa dentifera Powys, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 95. — Orbigny, 
Voy. Am. Mer., p. 432, pi. 61, figs. 22, 23, 1841. Gulf of 
Panama south to Valparaiso, Chile. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALL. 215 

ALECTRION (HIMA) ESCALvE Philippi. 

1800. Buccui}(in escalx Philippi, Atac. Reise, p. 188, pi. 7, 
fig. 19. Mejillones, Chile, S. lat. 23^. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) EXILIS Powys. 

1835. JVassa exills Powys, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 95. — Reeve, Con. 
Icon., JVassa, fig. 101a. Panama to Paita, Peru. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) FESTIVUS Powys. 

1835. JVassa /"estiva Powys, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 95. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., JViissa, fig. 117. Panama to Guayaquil. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) GAYII Kiener. 

1835. Buccinum gayli Kiener, Icon., Bucciniirn^ p. 71, pi. 21, 
fig. 79. Callao, Peru, southward to Magellan Straits. 

ALECTRION INSCULPTUS Carpenter, var.? 

Sechura Ba}', Peru. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) PANAMENSIS Philippi. 

1851. Buccinum i^anamense Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 61; 
not of Adams. Panama to Paita, Peru. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) PLANICOSTATUS A. Adams. 

1851. Nassa planicostata Adams, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 108. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Nassa^ fig. 96J. Paita. 

ALECTRION (HIMA) SPARTA Marrat. 

1897. JSassa sjxirta Marrat, New forms of JVassa, p. 11, pi. 1, 
fig. 22. "West coast of South America." 

ALECTRION (HIMA) VERSICOLOR C. B. Adams. 

1852. jVassa versicolor Adams, Panama Shells, p. 66. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., JVassa, fig. 110. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, 
Peru. 

ALECTRION (TRITIA) T^NIOLATUS Philippi. 

1815. Buccinurii tseniolatmn Philippi, Arch. f. Naturg., vol. 11, 
p. 69.— HuPE, Hist. Chile, vol. 8, p. 207, pi. 1, fig. 7, 1854. 
Magellan Straits and northward to Coquimbo, Chile. 

ALECTRION (TRITIA) TSCHUDII Troschel. 

1852. JVassa tschudii Troschel, Arch. f. Naturg., p. 173, pi. 5, 
fig. 4. Peru. 

Genus NORTHIA Gray. 

NORTHIA NORTHIiE Gray. 

1833. Nassa ■northiw Gray, in Griffith's Cuvier, pi. 30, fig. 2. — 
Kiener, Icon., Buccinum, p. 23, pi. 9, fig. 28, 1831. Gulf 
of Panama and south to Guayaquil. 

Genus BUCCINANOPS Orbigny. 

BUCCINANOPS PAYTENSIS Valenciennes. 

1831. Buccinum paytensis Valenciennes, Kiener, Icon., p. 17, 
pi. 6, fig. 16. Paita, Peru. 



216 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Family COLUMBELLID.E. 

Genus COLUMBELLA Lamarck. 

COLUMBELLA FUSCATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 117; The.s. Con., ColumheUa, p. 114, 
pi. 30, tigs. 21, 25, 1841. Gulf of Calif oruia and southward 
to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

COLUMBELLA H^EMASTOMA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 116; Thes. Con., Colurabelhu p. HI, 
pi. 36, tig-. 5, 1844. Gulf of California and southward to 
Ecuador and the Galapagos Islands. 

COLUMBELLA LABIOSA Sowerby. 

1822. Gen. Sh., ColumheUa., fig. 2, Santa Elena, Guayaquil. 

COLUMBELLA MAJOR Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 119; Thes. Con., Columhella, p. 110, 
pi. 36, tigs. 3, 4, 1844. Gulf of California, south to Paita, 
Peru. 

COLUMBELLA PAYTENSIS Lesson. 

1830. Voy. Coq., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 402.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., 
Coliim'hella., p. 116, pi. 36, tigs. 36, 37, 1844. Pacific coast of 
Nicaragua and southward to Sechura Ba}^, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

COLUMBELLA STROMBIFORMIS Lamarck. 

1822. An. s. Vert., vol. 7,4). 293. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Cohim- 
hella, p. 110, pi. 36, tigs. 1, 2, 1844. Gulf of California to 
Paita. Pern, and the Galapagos Islands. 

COLUMBELLA UNCINATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 114. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Colum- 
hella, p. 112, pi. 36, tigs. 13, 14, 1844. Guayaquil. 

Genus ANACHIS H. and A. Adams. 

ANACHIS FLUCTUATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 115. — Kiener, Icon., Cokmibella, p. 
45, pi. 9, tig. 2. Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru. 

ANACHIS GUATEMALENSIS Reeve. 

1859. Columhella guatemalensh Reeve. Con. Icon., vol. IJ, pi. 
31, fig. 198. Gulf of California to Zorritos, Peru, 

ANACHIS PYGMiEA Sowerby. 

1832. Colli iiihrlla pygmsea Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 119; 
Thes. Con., Columhella, p. 141, pi. 40, fig. 163, 1847. Gulf 
of California to Guayaquil. 

ANACHIS RUGOSA Sowerby. 

1832. Columhella rugosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 115; C. 
hicolor KiENER, Icon., Columhella, p. 46, pi. 16, tig. 4. Gulf 
of California to Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLH FROM PERU— BALL. 217 

ANACHIS RUGULOSA Sowerby. 

18M. Colimibella rugulosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51; 
Thes. Con., Columbella, p. 133, pi. 39, fig-. 131, 1844. Gulf 
of Panama to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

ANACHIS VARICOSA Gaskoin. 

1851. Colujuhella costellata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, 
p. 118; not of Sowerby 1829. C. varicosa Gaskoin, Proc. 
Zool. Soc, 1851, p. 5.— SoAVERBY, Thes. Con., CoIamhcUa^ 
fig. 147, 1844. Mazatlan, Mexico, south to Paita, Peru, and 
Arica, Chile. 

Genus ASTYRIS H. and A. Adams. 

ASTYRIS ELECTROIDES Reeve. 

1858. ColuniheUa electroides Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 72. Guaya- 
quil. 

ASTYRIS UNICOLOR Sowerby. 

1832. ColuiiileUa unlcolor Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 119. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., ColumheUa^ fig. 105. From Chimbote 
Ba}", Peru, south to the island of Chiloe, Chile; also at the 
Galapagos Islands. 

ASTYRIS UNIFASCIATA Sowerby. 

1832. ColumheUa iiuifasclata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 114; 
Thes. Con., Cohimbella, p. 133, pi. 39, fig. 130, 1844. Val- 
paraiso, Chile, north to Arica. Magellan ? ( C. ebenum Gould.). 

Genus NITIDELLA Swainson. 

NITIDELLA BUCCINOIDES Sowerby. 

1832. Colunihella huccinoides Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 114 
(not of Lesson, 1842).— Sowerby, Thes. Con., fig. 128, 1844. 
Paita, Peru, south to Coquimbo, Chile. 

NITIDELLA OCELLATA Gmelin. 

1791. Valuta ocellata Gmelin, S. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3455. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., ColumheUa^ fig. 62. Tropical Atlantic. West 
Indies. Pacific, from Cape St. Lucas south to the Galapagos 
Islands and Guayaquil. 

NITIDELLA OBLITA Reeve. 

1850. ColumheUa oblita Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 11, pi. 31, fig. 
22. Peru. 

Genus STROMBINA Morch. 

STROMBINA DORSATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 120. — Reeve, Con. Icon., ColumheUa 
fig. 15a. 1858. Guayaquil. 

STROMBINA GIBBERULA Sowerby. 

1832. ColumheUa gibherula Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 115. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., ColumheUa, fig. 61^. 1858. West coast 
of Central America and southward to Paita, Peru. 
I 



218 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

STROMBINA LANCEOLATA Sowerby. 

1832. ColunJ)L'Ua laneeolata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 110; 
(not of LocARD, 1886); Thes. Con., Columbella.^ p. 139, pi. 
■10, fig. 153-155, 1847. Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

STROMBINA RECURVA Sowerby. 

1832. Coliuiibella vecurva Sowerby, Proe. Zool. Soc, p. 115. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., fig. 18a, 1858. Central America and 
south to Guaj^aquil. 

STROMBINA TURRITA Sowerby. 

1832. Columbella turrita Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 115; 
Thes. Con., p. 135, pi. 39, figs. 137, 138, 1847. Nicaragua, to 
coast of Ecuador. 

family MUKICID.E. 

Genus TROPHON Montfort. 

Subgenus XANTHOCHORUS Fischer. 
TROPHON CASSIDIFORMIS Blainville. 

1832. Purj)ura cassidiformis Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 
vol. 1, p. 214. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Purpura, fig. 24. Paita, 
Peru, south to Chiloe Island, Chile, and at the Galapagos 
Islands. 

TROPHON HORRIDUS Broderip. 

1832. Mure.i' Jurrridus Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 176. — 
Sowerby, Con. 111., 3furex, fig. 29, 1834. Panama and south 
to Antofagasta, Chile. 

Subgenus TROPHON s. s. 
TROPHON LACINIATUS Martyn. 

1784. Buccinu))i laciniatuni Martyn, Univ. Conch., vol. 2, pi. 
42. Magellan Straits and northward to Puerto Montt, Chile. 

Genus MUREX Linnaeus. 

MUREX ELENENSIS Dall, new name. 

1909. Murex plicatus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1840, p. 139; 
Con. Ill, Mure.!', fig. 6, 1834. Not M. plicatus Gmelin, 
1791. Gulf of California and south to Santa Elena, Bay of 
Guayaquil. 

MUREX NIGRESCENS Sowerby. 

1840. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 138; Con. 111., vol. 2, pi. 198, fig. 113, 
1841. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

Genus PHYLLONOTUS Swainson. 

PHVLLONOTUS BICOLOR Valenciennes. 

1833. 2£urex hlcolor Valenciennes, Zool. Humboldt Voy., vol. 
2, p. 301.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Murex, pi. 11, fig. 44, 1845. 
Guajnuas, Mexico, to Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 219 

PHYLLONOTUS BRASSICA Lamarck. 

1822. Iftnrx hrassica Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 167. — 
SowERBY, Con. 111., %. 56, 1834. Mazatlan, Mexico, and 
south to Peru. 

PHYLLONOTUS EXIGUUS Broderip. 

1832. Murex exiguus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 175. — Sow- 
ERBY, Con. 111., tig. 17, 1834. Salango, Ecuador. 

PHYLLONOTUS HUMILIS Broderip. 

1832. J/i^r^a? A^w^^7/5 Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 176. — Sow- 
ERBY, Con. 111., figs. 46, 47, 1834. Gulf of Panama to Guaya- 
quil. 

PHYLLONOTUS INCISUS Broderip. 

1832. Murex incisns Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 176 (not of 
Carpenter). — Sowerby, Con. 111., fig. 13, 1834. Bay of 
Guayaquil. 

PHYLLONOTUS LAPPA Broderip. 

1832. Murex lappa Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 177. — Sow- 
erby, Con. 111., fig. 15, 1834. Mazatlan, Mexico, south to 
Gua} aquil. 

PHYLLONOTUS RADIX Lamarck. 

1822. Jl/?//¥,5? r«c/^a? Lamarck., An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 168 (after 
Gmelin, 1791). — KiENER, Icon., Murex^ p. 60, pi. 37, tig. 1; 
pi. 38, fig. 1. Acapulco, Mexico, southward to Panama and 
Paita, Peru. 

PHYLLONOTUS REGIUS Wood. 

1828. Murex regius Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. pi. 5, fig. 13. Aca- 
pulco, Mexico, to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. 

PHYLLONOTUS SQUAMOSUS Broderip. 

1832. Murex f<quamosus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 176. — 
Sowerby, Con. 111. fig. 27, 1834. Paita, Peru. 

PHYLLONOTUS TORTUOSUS Sowerby. 

1841. Murex tortuosus Sowerby, Con. 111., Murex, fig. 8; new 
name for M. crispus (Broderip not of Lamarck). Pacas- 
mayo, Peru. 

PHYLLONOTUS VARICOSUS Sowerby. 

1834. Con. 111., Murex, fig. 49, — Murex varicosus Sowerby, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 115, 1840; Acapulco, Mexico, and south 
to Ecuador. 

Genus TRITONALIA Fleming. 

TRitONALIA BUXEA Broderip. 

1832. Murex huxeus Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 194. — Sow- 
erby, Con. 111., Murex^ pi. 61, fig. 28, 1834. Pacasmayo, 
Peru, and south to Iquique, Chile. 

TRITONALIA CRASSILABRUM Gray. 

1829. Murex erdsallahrxua Gray, Spicil. Zool., vol. 1, p. 4. — 
Sowerby, Con. Ill,, Murex, fig. 14, 1834. Peruvian coast 
and southward to Valparaiso, Chile. 



220 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

TRITONALIA HAMATA Hinds. 

1844. Murex Jiainatus Hinds, Zool. Sulph. Voy.,p. 8, pi. 3, tigs. 
11, 12. Guayaquil, Ecuador, and south to Paita, Peru. 

Genus PURPURA Martyn. 

PURPURA FONTAINEI Tryon. 

1880. Murex fontii in ei Tryon, Man., vol. 2, p. 126, pi. 35, figs. 
384, 385. Paita, Peru. 

PURPURA PINNIGERA Broderip. 

1832. Mwrex pmnhjer Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 174. — M. 
erlstatus Gray, Con. 111., tig. 50, 1834. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

Genus TYPHIS Montfort. 

TYPHIS CORONATUS Broderip. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 178. — Sowerby; Con. 111., pi. 200, figs. 
3, 4, 1841. Salango, Ecuador. 

TYPHIS CUMINGII Broderip. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 177.— Sowerby, Con. 111., pi. 200, 
figs. 1, 2, 1841. Bahia de Caraques, Ecuador. 

TYPHIS QUADRATUS Hinds. 

1843. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 18; Zool. Sulph. Voy., p. 10, pi. 3, 
figs. 3, 4, 1844. Gulf of Panama, and south to Guayaquil. 

Genus MURICIDEA Swainson. 

MURICIDEA VITTATA Broderip. 

1832. Murex vittatus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 176; Con, 
111., Murex., fig. 19, 1834. Manta, Ecuador, and south to 
Paita, Peru. 

Genus EUPLEURA Adams. 

EUPLEURA MURICIFORMIS Broderip. 

1832. Ranella miirlciforrnis Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
179.^Reeve, Con. Icon., Ranella., fig. 41. Bay of Montijo, 
West Columbia, and north to Gulf of California. 

EUPLEURA NITIDA Broderip. 

1832. Ranella nltlda Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 179. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Ranella^ fig. 45. Bahia de Caraques, 
Ecuador. 

Genus THAIS Bolten. 

THAIS BISERIALIS Blainville. 

1832. Purpura hiserialis Blainville, Mon. Purjmra., p. 50, 
pi. 11 , fig. 11 . Cedros Island, west coast of Lower California, 
and southward to Callao, Peru. 

THAIS CALLAOENSIS Gray. 

1828. Purpura callaoensis Gray, Spicil. Zool., p. 4, pi. 6, fig. 
11. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Purpura, fig. 79, 1846. Gulf of 
Panama, and southward to Callao, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— D ALL. 221 

THAIS CHOCOLATA Duclos. 

1832. Farpuni ehocolata Duclos, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 2(5, p. 
108, pi. 2, fig. T. — Orbigny, Voy. Ara. Mer., vol. 5, p. 436, 
pi. 61, figs. 1-3, 1811. Paita, Fern, south to Valparaiso, 
Chile. 

THAIS COLUMELLARIS Lamarck. 

1822. Pu7'j)ura columellaris Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. T, p. 
236. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Purjyura^ pi. 2, fig. 9, 1816. Gulf 
of Panama to Peru and the Galapagos Islands. 

THAIS COSTATA Blainville. 

1832. Purpura costata Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., vol. I, 
p. 231, pi. 11, fig. 8. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, Peru. 

THAIS CRASSA Blainville. 

1832. Purpura C7'assa Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., vol. 1, 
p. 241, pi. 12, fig. 4 (March). — P. inelones Duclos, Ann. Sci. 
Nat., vol 26, p. 105, pi. 1, fig. 2 (May), 1832. Gulf of Pan- 
ama to Callao, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

THAIS DELESSERTIANA Orbigny. 

1841. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 439, pi. 77, fig. 7. Cedros Island, 
Lower California, south to the Chincha Islands, Peru. 

THAIS KIOSQUIFORMIS Duclos. 

1832. Purpura I' ! osqw'fonnis Duclos, Ann. Sci. Nat., vol. 26, 
pi. 1, fig, 5. — KiENER, Icon., Purpura., p. 59, pi. 15, fig. 40. 
Magdalena Bay, Lower California, southward to Tumbes, 
Peru. 

THAIS PATULA Linnaus. 

1758. Buccinum patulwn Linnaeus, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 739; 
12th ed., p. 1202, 1767.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Purjmra, fig. 3. 
Girif of California to Panama and the Galapagos. Peru 
(Tschudi). West Indies. 

THAIS PERUENSIS Dall, new name. 

1909. Purpura i)eruviana Etdoux and Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, 
Zool., vol. 2, p. 606, pi. 40, figs. 1-3, 1852. Not of Blain- 
ville, 1832. Paita and Pacasmayo, Peru. 

THAIS PLANOSPIRA Lamarck. 

1822. Purpura planosplra Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 
240. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Purpmra., pi. 3, fig. 14, 1846. 
Lower California, and southward to Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

THAIS TRIANGULARIS Blainville. 

1832. Purpura triangularis Blainville, Nouv. Ann. du Mus., 
vol. 1, p. 223, pi. 11, fig. 4. Mazatlan, Mexico, and south 
to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 



222 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. ST. 

Genus CYMIA Morch. 

CYMIA TECTUM Wood. 

18ii8. Buccmuni tectum Wood, Ind. Test., suppl. pi. 4, fig, 13, — 
SowERBY, Gen, Sh., Purpura {callosa), tig., 1834. Gulf of 
Panama to Manta, Ecuador. 

Genus CONCHOLEPAS Lamarck. 

CONCHOLEPAS CONCHOLEPAS Bruguiere. 

1789. Buccinum concholepas Bruguiere, Encj^cl. Meth., p. 252. 
Purpura peruviana Blainvillp:, Mon., Purpura, p. 55, 1832. — 
Tryon, Man. Con., vol. 2, p. 199, pi. 162, fig.s. 314-310, 
1880. West coast of Mexico {x. Martens); Callao, Peru, and 
southward to Magellan Straits. 

Genus ACANTHINA Fischer. 

ACANTHINA BREVIDENTATA Mawe. 

1828, Buccinum hrevldentatum Mawe, in Wood, Index Test., 
suppl. pi. 4, fig. 10. Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru. 

ACANTHINA CALCAR-LONGUM Martyn. 

1784. Bucclnuui calcar-longum Martyn, Univ. Conch., pi. 50. 
B. wn/come Bruguiere, Enc. Meth., p. 254, pi. 396, tig. 2, 
1789. Peruvian coast, south to the island of Chiloe, Chile. 

ACANTHINA MURICATA Broderip. 

1832. Purpura rnuricata Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 125. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Monoceros^ pi. 2, fig. 7, 1846. Mazatlan, 
Mexico, to Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

ACANTHINA TUBERCULATA Gray. 

1835. SowERBY, Con. 111., Ilonoceros^ pi. 82, fig. 9. Mazatlan, 
Mexico, to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Genus CHORUS Gray. 

CHORUS GIGANTEUS Lesson. 

1829. Monoceros gigantenis Lesson, Voy. Coq., Moll., p. 405, 
pi. 11, fig. 4. Concepcion, Chile. 

Family CORALLIOPHILID^. 
Genus CORALLIOPHILA H. and A. Adams. 

CORALLIOPHILA CARDUUS Broderip. 

1832. Ihirex carduus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 175. — 
SowERBY, Con. 111., Murex, pi. 61, tig. 22, 1834. Pacas- 
ma3^o, Peru, from a coral reef 12 miles ofl' shore. 

CORALLIOPHILA SCALARIFORMIS Lamarck. 

1822. Purpura seal a/r if or mis Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, 
p. 241. — KiENER, Icon., Purpura^ p. 74, pi. 19, fig. 55. 
Guayaquil. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 223 

Suborder STREPTODONTA. 

Superfamily PTENOGLOSSA. 

Family SCALID^. 

Genus EPITONIUM Bolten. 

EPITONIUM DUCALE Morch. 

1875. Scalaria ducalis Morch, Mai. Bljitt., vol. 22, p. 143. — 
SowERBY, Thes. Con., Scalaria, p. 88, pi. 34, fig. 75, 1847; 
as S. pri7ici])alis (not of Pallas, 1774). Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

EPITONIUM ELENENSE Sowerby. 

1844. Scalaria elenoms Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 20; Thes. 
Con., Scalaria, p. 98, pi. 34, fig. 102, 1847. Santa Elena, Bay 
of Gua3'aquil, Ecuador. 

EPITONIUM OBTUSUM Sowerby. 

1844. Scalaria ohtasa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 29; Thes. 
Con., Scalaria, p. 98, pi. 33, fig. 54, 1847. Santa Elena, Bay 
of Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

EPITONIUM ORBIGNYI Nyst. 

1873. Scalaria orhignyi Nyst, Tabl., p. 48; S. elegans Orbigny, 
Voy. Am. Mer., p. 389, pi. 64, figs. 1, 2, 1840; not of Risso, 
1826. Southern Chile. 

EPITONIUM POLITUM Sowerby. 

1844. Scalaria jpolita Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 30; Thes. 
Con. , Scalaria, p. 100, pi. 34, fig. 99, 1847. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

EPITONIUM STATUMINATUM Sowerby. 

1844. Scalaria statmninata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 30; 
Thes. Con., Scalaria, p. 102, pi. 35, fig. 127, 1847. Bay of 
Guayaquil, southward to Paita, Peru. 

Family JANTHINID^. 

Genus JANTHINA Bolten. 

JANTHINA EXIGUA Lamarck. 

1822. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 206.— Tryon, Man., vol. 9, 
p. 37, pi. 10, figs. 17-22, 1887. Chile; also Atlantic and Pacific 
oceans. Pelagic. 

JANTHINA JANTHINA Linnaeus. 

1758. Helix jantJiina Linn^us, Syst. Nat., lOth ed., p. 772. — 
Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 413, pi. 61, figs. 8-10, 1841. 
Pelagic. N. Lat. 42° to S. lat. 36° in the Pacific Ocean. 

JANTHINA PALLIDA Harvey. 

1817. Thompson's Ann. Phil. Nat. Hist., vol 5, p. 96, pi. 2, fig. 
2. Pelagic in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic. 



224 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



Superfamily GYMNOGLOSSA. 
Family EULIMID^. 

Genus EULIMA Risso. 

EULIMA HASTATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 7. — Reeve, Con. Icon., EuUma^ fig. 
9. — Sowerby, Con. 111., Eullma., fig. 10, 1841. Santa Elena, 
Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

EULIMA PUSILLA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc. , p. 7 ; Con. 111. , Euliraa^ fig. 6, 1841. Santa 
P^lena, Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

EULIMA VARIANS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 8. — Reeve, Con. Icon,, Leiostraca^ 
fig. 1. — Sowerby, Con. 111., EuUma^^g. 14,1841. Jipijapa, 
Ecuador. 

Genus NISO Risso. 

NISO IMBRICATA Sowerby. 

1834. Eullma imbricata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 1. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., JYlso., tig. 3. Santa Elena, Bay of (xuaya- 
quil, Ecuador. 

NISO SPLENDIDULA Sowerby. 

1834. Eulirna splendidula Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 6. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Wiso., fig. 7. Santa Elena, Bay of Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador. Also western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. 

Genus ENTOCOLAX Voight. 

ENTOCOLAX SCHIEMENZII Voight. 

1901. Zool. Anz., vol. 24, pp. 285-292, illustrated. Chile. 
(Ento-parasitic in Chirodot<( phanii.) 

Family PYRAMIDELLID^. 
Genus TURBONILLA Risso. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) ANNETTiE Dall and Bartsch. 

1909. Mon. W. Am. Pyr., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 68, p. 76, 

pl. 7, fig. 7. 
Ofl:' Manta, Ecuador. 

TURBONILLA (PYRGISCUS) CORA Orbigny. 

1810. Chemnitzia com Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 398, pl. 76, 
figs. 7-9. Paita, Peru. 

Genus ODOSTOMIA Fleming. 

ODOSTOMIA (MENESTHO) CHILENSIS Dall and Bartsch. 

1909. Mon. W. Am. Pyr., Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., No. 68, p. 189, 

pl. 21, fig. 6. 
Tome, Chile, in 14 fathoma 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 225 

Superfamily NUCLEOBRANCHIATA. 

Family ATLANTID^. 

Genus ATLANTA Lesueur. 

ATLANTA PERONII Lesueur. 

1836. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 171, pi. 12, figs. 1-15. Eastern Pacific. 
Pelagic. Also Atlantic. 

ATLANTA TURRICULATA Orbigny. 

1836. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 173, pi. 20, figs. 5-11. Eastern Pacific, 
lat. 30° S. Pelagic. 

GenLis OXYGYRUS Benson. 

OXYGYRUS RANGII Eydoux and Souleyet. 

1841. Voy. Bonite, Atlas, pi. 18, figs. 18-24; text, Zool., vol. 2, 
p. 369, 1852. Southeastern Pacific. Pelagic. 

Family PTEROTRACHEID^. 

Genus PTEROTRACHEA Forskal. 

PTEROTRACHEA PERONII Orbigny. 

1836. Fh'ola (Anops) peronii Orbigny^ Voy, Am. Mer., p. 149, 
pi. 10, figs. 8-10. Eastern Pacific, lat. 20° S. Pelagic. 

Genus FIROLOIDA Lesueur. 

FIROLOIDA LESUEURI Orbigny. 

1836. Firola {Cerojyliom) lesueur i Orbigny,^ Voy. Am. Mer., p. 
151, pi. 10, figs. 11-12. Eastern Pacific, lat. 30° S. Pelagic. 

Genus CARINARIA Lamarck. * 

CARINARIA PUNCTATA Orbigny. 

1836. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 160, pi. 11, figs. 6-15. Off Juan 
Fernandez Island, S. lat. 33°. Pelagic. 

Superfamily T^NIOGLOSSA. 

Family SEPTID^. 

GenLis DISTORTIO Bolten. 

DISTORTIO CONSTRICTUS Broderip. 

1833. Triton constr ictus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 5.— 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Triton^ pi. 12, fig. 41, 1844. Acapulco, 
Mexico, south to the coast of Ecuador. 

GenLis CYMATIUM Bolten. 

CYMATIUM GIBBOSUM Broderip. 

1833. Triton gibbosum Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 7. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Triton^ pi. 11, fig. 38, 1844. Panama to Guaya- 
(luil. 

Proc.X.M.vol.37— 09 15 



226 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

CYMATIUM LIGNARIUM Broderip. 

1833. Triton lUjnarlus Broderip, Proc. Zool. 8oc. , p. 5. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Triton^ pi. 13, fig. 40, 1844. Gulf of Panama to 
Ecuador. 

CYMATIUM PILEARE Linnaeus. 

1758. Murex pilearis^ Linn^us, Syst. Nat., 10th ed., p. 749; 
Triton pilearis Lamarck; Kiister, Con. Cab., 2d ed., Triton.,, 
p. 196, pi. 42, figs. 3, 4; pi. 56, fig. 4, 1878. Peru (Tschudi). 
Indo-Pacific and Atlantic, West Indies. 

CYMATIUM COSTATUM Born. 

1778. Murex costata Born, Ind. Mus. Vind., p. 295. — Murex 
oharium Linn^us, 1767, not 1758. — Kobelt, Icon. Europ. 
Meeresconch., vol. 2, pi. 38, figs. 1, 2; pi. 39, fig. 1, 1901. 
Paita, Peru; Galapagos Islands. Cosmopolitan. 

CYMATIUM VESTITUM Hinds. 

1844. Triton vestitus Hinds, Zool. Sulph. Voy., p. 11, pi. 4, fig. 1. 
West Coast of Central America to the Chincha Islands, Peru. 

CYMATIUM CINGULATUM Lamarck. 

1822. Oassidaria('i?i(/ulaiaIjAMAB.CK, An. s. Vert., a^oI. 7,p. 216. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., vol. 2, Triton^ fig. 35. Peru (Tschudi). 
Indo-Pacific region. 

CYMATIUM WIEGMANNI Anton. 

1839. Triton wiegmanni Anton, Verz., p. -77.^ — Reeve, Con. 
Icon., Triton^ fig. 37. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, Peru. 

Genus ARGOBUCCINUM Morch. 

ARGOBUCCINUM RUDE Broderip. 

1833. Triton riu/is Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 6. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Triton, fig. 53. Iquique to Valparaiso, Chile. 

ARGOBUCCINUM SCABRUM King. 

1831. Triton scaher King, Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 348. — Pallia 
scahra Gray, Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. Ill, pi. 36, fig. 16, 
1837. Coast of Ecuador, south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

ARGOBUCCINUM VEXILLUM Sowerby. 

1841. Tianella vexiUwn Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51; Con. 
111., Ranella, fig. 13, 1841. Southern Chile. 

Family RANELLID^. 
Genus BURSA Bolten. 

BURSA C^LATA Broderip. 

1832. Ranella adata Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 179. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon. , Ranella, fig. 4. Panama. Peru (Tschudi). 

BURSA VENTRICOSA Broderip. 

1832. Ranella ventricosa Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 178. — 
Sowerby, Con. III., pi. 92, fig. 16, 1836. West coast of 
Nicaragua, south to Callao, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 227 

Family CASSIDID.^. 

Genus CASSIDEA Bruguiere. 

CASSIDEA (BEZOARDICA) ABBREVIATA Lamarck. 

1822. Cassis abbreviata Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 224. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Cassis, fig. 18, 1848. Central American 
coast and south to Guayaquil. 

Family DOLIIDtE. 
Genus MALEA Valenciennes. 

MALEA RINGENS Swainson. 

1822. Doliwin ringens Swainson, Bligh Cat. app., p. 4. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., DoUmn, pi. 4, fig. 5, 1848. Acapulco, Mexico, 
and south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Family AMPHIPERASID^. 
Genus SIMNIA Risso. 

SIMNIA RUFA Sowerby. 

1832. Ovula rufa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 173; Con. 111., 
fig. 58, 1836. Bahia de Caraques, Ecuador. 

Genus CYPHOMA Bolten. 

CYPHOMA EMARGINATA Sowerby. 

1830. Ovula emarginata Sowerby, Species Con., pt. 1, p. 7, 
tigs. 54, 55; Thes. Con., Ovulum^ figs. 11,12. Panama to 
Guayaquil. 

Family CYPR^ID^. 

Genus CYPR^EA Linnaeus. 

CYPRiEA ALBUGINOSA Gray. 

1824. Zool. Journ., vol. 1, p. 510, pi. 7, fig. 2, p. 12, fig. 2.— 
Sowerby, Con. 111., Cijprxa, p. 6, no. 45, 1832. Gulf of 
California to the Galapagos Islands. 

CYPRiEA ANNETT.ffi Dall. 

1909. Dall, Nautilus, vol. 22, no. 12, p. 125.— 6^. sowerhyi 
KiENER, 1845, Icon., Cyprwa, p. 38, pi. 7, fig. 3; not of 
Gray, 1832. Gulf of California and southward to Sechura 
Bay, Peru. 

CYPRiEA ARABICULA Lamarck. , 

1810. An. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 100, no. 54; An. s. Vert., vol. 7, 
p. 399. —Sowerby, Thes. Con., Cyprsea, p. 16, pi. 7, figs. 38, 
39, 1859. Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

CYPRiEA EXANTHEMA Linnseus. 

1767. Syst. Nat., 12th ed., p. 1172.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., 
Cyprxa, p. 5, pi. 22, fig. 181, 1859. Gulf of California to 
Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 



228 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 



CYPRiEA NIGROPUNCTATA Gray. 

1828. Zool. Journ., vol.4, p. 81.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Ci/pra^a, 
fig. 22, 1832. Mauta, Ecuador, south to Paita, Peru (Chile, 
Hidalgo), and the Galapagos Islands. 

CYPR^A ROBERTSI Hidalgo. 

1906. Mon. Cyprasa, pp. 161, 220. — C. punctulata.^ Gray, Zool. 
Journ., vol. 1, p. 387, 1824; not of Gmelin, Syst. Nat., p. 
3404, 1791.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Cyprsea, pi. 4, fig. 20, 1832. 
Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

Family TRIVIID.E. 
Genus TRIVIA Gray. 

TRIVIA ACUTIDENTATA Gaskoin. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 201.— Button, Nautilus, vol. 19, p. 
132, 1906. (Unfigured.) Guayaquil and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

TRIVIA FUSCA Gray. 

1832. In Sowerby, Con. 111., fig. 37. Mazatlan to Guayaquil 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

TRIVIA PACIFICA Gray. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 185. — Sowerby, Thes. Con. Cyprsea., 
p. 45, pi. 34, figs. 441, 443, 1859. Gulf of California to 
Panama and the Galapagos Islands. 

TRIVIA PULLA Gaskoin. 

1846. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 24; 1848, p. 97.— Sowerby, Thes. 
Con., Cyprxa, p. 48, pi. 26. figs. 490, 491, 1859. Gulf of 
California to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

TRIVIA RADIANS Lamarck. 

1810. Gypvcea radians Lamarck, Ann. du Mus., vol. 16, p. 
102.— Sowerby, Con. 111., pi. 119, fig. 146, 1837. Gulf of 
California to Peru and Chile and the Galapagos Islands. 

TRIVIA RUBESCENS Gray. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 185. — Sowerby, Con. 111., Cypriea, 
fig. 31, 1832. Gulf of California to Panama and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

TRIVIA SANGUINEA Gray. 

1832. In Sowerby, Con. 111., p. 13, fig. 32. Gulf of California 
to Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

TRIVIA SOLANDRI Gray. 

1832. In Sowerby, Cop. 111., p. 15, pi. 7, fig. 43. Santa Barbara 
Islands, California, and south to Panama and Peru. 

Genus ERATO Risso. 

ERATO (ERATOPSIS) SCABRIUSCULA Gray. 

832. In Sowerby, Con. 111., Gyprsea^ fig. 45; Thes. Con., 
Erato, p. 81, pi. 210, figs. 14-16, 1859. Cape St. Lucas, Lower 
California, and southward to Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 229 

Family STROMBID^. 
Genus STROMBUS Linnaeus. 

STROMBUS GRACILIOR Gray. 

1828. Wood, Index Test., suppl. pi. 4, fig. 1. Gulf of Califor- 
nia to Manta, Ecuador. 

STROMBUS GRANULATUS Gray. 

1828. Wood, Index Test., suppl. pi. 4, fig. 21.— Sowerby, Thes. 
Con., Stromhus, p. 33, pi. 9, fig. 100, 1847. Mazatlan, 
Mexico, and southeast to Guayaquil. 

STROMBUS PERUVIANUS Swainson. 

1831. Zool. 111., pi. 39.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 34, pi. 
10, fig. 110, 1847. Manta, Ecuador, to Paita, Peru. 

Family CERITHIIDvE. 

Genus CERITHIUM Bruguiere. 

CERITHIUM ADUSTUM Kiener. 

1841. Icon., Cerithimn^ p. 37, pi. 13, fig. 2. Mazatlan to 
Panama and the Galapagos Islands. 

CERITHIUM INTERRUPTUM Menke. 

18.50. Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 178.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. 
869, figs. 155, 156, 1855. Gulf of California to Manta, 
Ecuador, and the Galapagos Islands. 

CERITHIUM MACULOSUM Kiener. 

1841. Icon., Cerlthiam, p. 36, pi. 13, fig. 3. Panama to Guaya- 
quil and the Galapagos Islands. 

CERITHIUM OCELLATUM Bruguiere. 

1792. Encycl. Meth., p. 499, no. 43.— Tryon, Man., vol. 9, p. 
13, pi. 24, fig. 19, 1887. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Panama and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

CERITHIUM PACIFICUM Sowerby. 

1833. Sowerby, Gen. Shells, Cerithiwn^ part xlii, fig. 9. Panama 
and south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

CERITHIUM STERCUSMUSCARUM Valenciennes. 

1833. Humboldt Voy., Zool., vol. 2, p. 278. Cedros Island, 
Lower California, and southward to Tumbes, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

Genus BITTIUM (Leach) Gray. 

BITTIUM PERUVIANUM Orbigny. 

1841. Ceritliium peruvianum Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 443, 
pi. 77, figs. 9, 10. Arica, Chile. 

BITTIUM (STVLIDIUM) SULCIFERUM Troschel. 

1852. Rlssoina sulcifefi'a Troschel, Arch. f. Naturg., vol. 18, pt. 
1, p. 154, pi. 5, fig. 1. Peru (Tschudi). 



230 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Genus CERITHIDEA Swainson. 

CERITHIDEA MONTAGNEI Orbigny. 

1841. Cet'ithiuvi montagnd Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p, ^143, 
pi. 63, figs, 3, 4. Gulf of California, and south to Panama 
and Chile. 

Family CERITHIOPSID^. 

Genus SEILA A. Adams. 

SEILA ASSIMILATA C. B. Adams. 

1852. Cerithioptils asaimilata Adams, Panama Sh., pp. 150, 
309.— SowERBY, Thes. Con., vol. 2, p. 881, pi. 184, fig. 246, 
1855. Catalina Island, California, south to the Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, Panama, and Sechura Bay, Peru. 

Family MODULID^. 

Genus MODULUS Gray. 

MODULUS PERLATUS Dillwyn. 

1817. Cat. Rec. 8h., vol. 2, p. 788. — Eydoux and Souleyet, 
Voy. Bonite, Zool., vol. 2, p. 598, pi. 37, figs. 25-31, 1852. 
Isla Puna, Guayaquil. Peru (Tschudi). 

Family PLANAXID^. 
Genus PLANAXIS Lannarek. 

PLANAXIS PLANICOSTATUS Sowerby. 

1825. Tankerville Cat., app., p. xiii; Con. Icon., Planaxis^ fig. 
26. Mazatlan, Mexico, south to Panama and the Galapagos 
Islands. Peru (Tschudi). 

Family VERMETID.1^. 

Genus BIVONIA Gray. 

BIVONIA COMPACTA Carpenter. 

1864. Rep. Brit. Assoc, for 1863, pp. 628, 654; Ann. Mag. Nat. 
Hist., 3rd ser., vol. 14, p. 427, Dec, 1864. (Unfigured.) 
Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and southward to Paita, 
Peru. 

Genus SERPULORBIS Saeco. 

SERPULORBIS SQUAMIGERUS Carpenter. 

1856. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 226.— Tryon, Man., vol. 8, p. 181, 
pi. 54, figs, 73, 74, 1886. San Diego, California, and south- 
ward to Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 231 

Family TURRITELLID^. 

Genus TURRITELLA Lamarck. 

TURRITELLA CINGULATA Sowerby. 

18^5. Taiikerville Cat.,app., p. xiii. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Ti/rri- 
tella, fig. 23, 1849. Manta, Px'uador, south to the island of 
Chiloe, Chile. 

TURRITELLA GONIOSTOMA Valenciennes. 

1833. Humboldt Voy., Zool., vol. 2, p. 2T5. — Reeve, Con. Icon., 
Turrltella, tigs. iOa-l, 1819. (lulf of California, to the 
Lobos Islands, Peru. 

TURRITELLA RADULA Kiener. 

1810. Icon., Turritella, p. 13, pi. 2, tig. 1. Ray of (xuayaquil. 

TURRITELLA RUBESCENS Reeve. 

1819. Con. Icon., TurrHeUa^ fig. ()3. Gulf of Panama. 

Family LITTORINID.F]. 
Genus LITTORINA Ferussac. 

LITTORINA ARAUCANA Orbigny. 

1810. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 393, pi. 53, figs. 3, 4. Coast of Nica- 
ragua, and south to Paita, Valparaiso, and the island of Chiloe. 

LITTORINA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

1822. Phasianella peruviana Lamakck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 
53.— Gray, Beechey\s Voy., p. 138, pi. 36, fig. 8, 1839. Coast 
of Nicaragua, and southward to Valdivia, Chile, and the Gala- 
pagos Islands. 

LITTORINA PULCHRA Sowerby. 

1832. Gen. Sh., Littorma, figs. 2, 3. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Lit- 
torina^ fig. 17. Panama to Guaj'^aquil. 

LITTORINA THERSITES Reeve. 

1857. Conch. Icon., Littorina^ fig. 78. "Chile and Peru" 
(Reeve). 

LITTORINA UMBILICATA Orbigny. 

1810. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 391, pi. 76, fig. 1-3. Coast of Ecua- 
dor and Peru, south to Cobija, Chile. 

LITTORINA VARIA Sowerby. 

1832. Gen. 8h., Littorina^ vol. 38, fig. 3.— Philippi, Abb., vol. 2, 
Littorina^ pi. 1, figs. 2-3. Gulf of California to Casma, 
Peru. (Chiloe?). 

LITTORINA ZICZAC Gmelin. 

1791. Trochus ziczac Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. S, p. 3587. — 
Littorina glabrata Philippi, Abb., vol. 3, p. 62, \i\. 7, fig. 5, 
1848. Paita, Peru. 



232 PROCEEDiyOS of the XATIOKAL museum. vol.37. 

Genus TECTARIUS Valenciennes. 

TECTARIUS GALAPAGIENSIS Stearns. 

1892. Nautilus, vol. 6, no. 8, Dec, p. 87; Proc. U. S. Nat. 
Mus., vol. 16, p. 396, ph 51, fig. 7, 1893. Manta, Ecuador, 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

Family SOLARIIDJ^. 

Genus ARCHITECTONICA Bolten. 

ARCHITECTONICA GRANULATA Lamarck. 

1822. Solarium gramdatum Lamarck, An. .s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 
3. Encycl. ]\Ieth., pi. 446, fig. ha-h. — Kiexer, Icon., Sola- 
rium, p. 1, pi. 2, fig. 2. Lower California to Panama and 
Peru (Tschudi). 

ARCHITECTONICA KOCHII Dall, new name. 

1909. Solarium nanum (Koch ms.) Philippi, Conch. Ca))., 2d 
ed., Mon. Solarium^ 1853, p. 27, pi. 1, fig. 5; not Solarium 
'iianum Grateloup, 1838. Chile. 

Family RISSOID.E. 

Genus RISSOA Freminville. 

RISSOA (ALVANIA) CARPENTERI Weinkauff. 

1885. Alva7iia carpenteri Weinkauff, Conch. Cab., 2d ed., 
Rissoa, p. 192. A. reticulata Carpenter, 1861, not of 
Montagu, 1801. Neah Bay, Washington, to the Galapagos 
Islands. 

Genus RISSOINA Orbigny. 

RISSOINA CANCELLATA Philippi. 

1817. Zeitschr. Mai., p. 127. — Schwartz von Mohr., Mon. 
Rksoina, p. 89, pi. 7, fig. 52, 1860. Coast of Ecuador and 
Peru. Also in the West Indies. 

RISSOINA COSTATA A. Adams. 

1851. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 266. — Schwartz von Mohr,, Mon. 
RiHi<olna^ p. 53, pi. 2, fig. 16, 1860. Cobija, Chile. 

RISSOINA INCA Orbigny. 

1810. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 395, pi. 53, figs. 11-16. Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands, and south to the island of Chiloe. 

Family CALYPTR^:iD.5D. 

Genus CHEILEA Modeer, 
CHEILEA EQUESTRIS Linnaeus. 

1758. Syst. Nat., loth ed., p. 780; 12th ed., p. 1257, 1767.— 6". 
varia Broderip, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 197, 
pi. 27, fig. 3, 1831. Mazatlan, ]\Iexico, to Arica, Chile, and 
the Galapagos Islands. Cosmopolitan. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERV—DALL. 233 

CHEILEA CORRUGATA Broderip. 

1884. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 197, pi. 27, fig. 2. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Trochita, fig. 9. Gulf of California, 
south to Callao, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Genus CALYPTR^EA Lamarck. 
CALYPTREA LICHEN Broderip. 

1834:. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 201, pi. 28, fig. 4. 
Muerte Island, Guayaquil. 

CALYPTRiEA MAMILLARIS Broderip. 

1834. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 201, pi. 28, fig. 5. 
Muerte Island, Guayaquil. 

Genus TROCHITA Schunaacher. 

TROCHITA INTERMEDIA Orbigny. 

1811. Cahjpti'xa intermedia Ob.big^y^ Voy. Am. Mer. , p. 463., 
pi. 59, figs. 4-6. Islay, Peru, 20 fathoms. 

TROCHITA TROCHIFORMIS Gmelin. 

1791. Patella t?rjchifor7nis Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3693. — 
SowERBY, Gen. Sh., Calyptrsea^ fig. 9, 1824. Panama to 
Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus CRUCIBULUM Schumacher. 

CRUCIBULUM IMBRICATUM Sowerby. 

1824. Calyptrx.a imbricata Sowerby, Gen. Sh. , fig. 5. — Broderip, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 198, pi. 27, fig. 7, 1834. 
Gulf of California, and southward to Callao, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

CRUCIBULUM QUIRIQUINiE Lesson. 

1830. Voy. Coq., vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 397. — Broderip, Trans. Zool. 
Soc. London, vol. 1, pi. 27, fig. 9, 1834. Gulf of California, 
southward to the Straits of Magellan. 

CRUCIBULUM SPINOSUM Sowerby. 

1824. Calyptrxa spinosa Sowerby, Gen. Sh., figs. 4, 7. — Bro- 
derip, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, pi. 28, fig. 8, 1834. 
California (at Monterey), south to northern Chile. 

Genus CREPIDULA Laniarck. 

CREPIDULA ACULEATA Gmelin. 

1791. Patella aculeata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3693.— 
Favanne, Conch., vol. 1, p. 564, pi. 4, fig. F 2. — Broderip, 
Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, pi. 29, fig. 1, 1834. Cali- 
fornia to Lobos Islands, Peru; West Indies, Africa, Japan. 
Cosmopolitan. 

CREPIDULA CREPIDULA Linnaeus. 

1764. Patella crepidula Linn.^us, Mus. Lud. Ulrica, p. 689. — 
Favanne, Conch., pi. 4, fig. lower D. Mazatlan, Mexico, to 
Callao, Peru. West Indies. Cosmopolitan. 



234 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

CREPIDULA DILATATA Sowerby. 

1824. 0. dilatata (Lamarck Ms.) Sowerby, Gen, Sh., Crepidula, 
fig. 5. — Delessert, Rec. de Coq. pi. 24, fig. 4:a-<\ Califor- 
nia, and southward to Magellan straits. 

CREPIDULA DORSATA Broderip. 

183 i. Calyptreea dorsata Broderip, Trans. Zool. Soc. London, 
vol. 1, p. 202, pi. 28, fig. 10. California, south to Valparaiso, 
Chile. 

CREPIDULA EXCAVATA Broderip. 

1884. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 225, pi. 29, fig. 7. 
Gulf of California and south to the Chilean coast. 

CREPIDULA INCURVA Broderip. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 40; Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, 
pi. 29, fig. 6. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, Peru. 

CREPIDULA ONYX Sowerby. 

1824. Gen. Shells, C7'epidida^ fig. 2. San Pedro, California, 
south to Arica, Chile. 

CREPIDULA SQUAMA Broderip. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 40; Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, 
p. 205, pi. 29, fig. 10, 1834. Straits of Fuca south to Pata- 
gonia. 

Family CAPULID^. 

Genus CAPULUS Montfort. 

CAPULUS UNGARICOIDES Orbigny. 

1841. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 457, pi. 78, fig. 4. Paita, Peru. 

Family HIPPONICID^E. 
Genus HIPPONIX Defrance. 

HIPPONIX ANTIQUATA Linnasus. 

1767. Patella antl<nmta Linn^us, Syst. Nat. , 12th ed. , p. 1259. — 
Sowerby, Thes., vol. 1, p. 369, pi. 73, figs. 18-20, 1847. Santa 
Barbara, California, and south to Peru and the Galapagos 
Islands. Also West Indies. 

HIPPONIX BARBATA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 5; Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 369, pi. 73, 
figs. 26-27, 1847. Mazatlan, Mexico, and south to Guayaciuil 
and the Galapagos Islands. Also Indo-Pacific. 

HIPPONIX GRAYANA Menke. 

1853. Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 115.— Tryon, Man., vol. 8, p. 135, 
pi. 40, figs. 4, 5, 1886. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Guayaquil and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

HIPPONIX SUBRUFA Lamarck. 

1819. Plleopsls Huhrufa Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 
16.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 370, pi. 73, figs. 21-23, 
1847. Panama and south to the Lobos Islands, Peru; Indo- 
Pacific. Also West Indies. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 235 

Family NATICID^. 

Genus NATICA Scopoli. 

NATICA BRODERIPIANA Recluz. 

1847. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 205. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Natica^ fig. 
66a. Mazatlan, Mexico, and southward to the Ecuador coast. 

NATICA ELEN.(E Recluz. 

1843. Proc. Zooh Soc, p. 205. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Natlca, fig. 
94a. Panama to Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

NATICA UNDATA Philippi. 

1852. Arch. f. Naturg., vol. 1, p. 160. — Kijster, Con. Cab., 2d. 
ed., mtica, pi. 11, fig. 12, 1852. Peru (Tschudi). 

NATICA UNIFASCIATA Lamarck. 

1822. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 201.— Reeve, Con. Icon., 
Natica^ fig. 49, 1855. Gulf of California, Panama and {jide 
Tschudi) Peru. 

Genus POLINICES Montfort. 

POLINICES ALVEATUS Troschel. 

1852. Natica aZt'c^ato Troschel, Arch. f. Naturg., p. 159, pi. 5, 
fig. 3. Peru (Tschudi). 

POLINICES CORA Orbigny. 

1840. Natica cora Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 401, pi. 76, figs. 
10, 11. Callao, Peru, to Caldera, Chile. 

POLINICES DUBIUS Recluz. 

1843. Natica duhia Recluz, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 209. — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Natica^ fig. 41. Paita, Peru, to Mejillones del 
Sur, Chile. 

POLINICES OTIS Broderlp. 

1829. Natica otis Brodertp, Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 372. — 
Gray, Beechey's Voy., Zool., pi. 34, fig. 13; pi. 37, fig. 3, 1839, 
Gulf of California, and south to Paita, Peru, and the Gala- 
pagos Islands. 

POLINICES PHILIPPIANUS Nyst. 

1845. Natica philipjnana Nyst, Bull. Acad, de Bruxelles, vol. 
12, pt. 2, p. 153, n. n. for N. acuta Philippi, Abb., vol. 2, 
pi. 2, fig. 3, 1847; not iV. ac?/ia Deshayes, 1825. Galapagos 
Islands, Peru, and southern Chile. 

POLINICES RAVIDUS Eydoux and Souleyet. 

1852. Natica ravida Eydoux and Souleyet, Voy. Bonite, Zool., 
vol. 2, p. 582, pi. 35, figs. 12-15. Santa F^lena, Ecuador, to 
Paita, Peru. 

POLINICES USER Valenciennes. 

1833. Natica uher Valenciennes, Humboldt Voy., vol. 2, p. 
266.— Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 401, pi. 55, figs. 12-14, 
1840. Gulf of California, south to Callao, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 



236 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



POLINICES (EUSPIRA) AGUJANUS Dall. 

1908, Bull. Mus. Cornp. Zool., vol. 43, no. 6, p. 334, pi. 9, fig. 2 
(young). Gulf of Panama to Sechura Bay, Peru. 

POLINICES (EUSPIRA) PISIFORMIS Recluz. 

1843. Natica pisiform is Kecluz, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 213.— 
SowERBY, Thes. Con., Natica, fig. 163. Valparaiso. 

POLINICES (NEVERITA) GLAUCA Humboldt. 

1826. Natica glauca Humboldt, Ms., in Lesson, Voy. Coq., 
Atlas, pi. 11, tig. 1; text, Zool., p. 369, 1830. Acapulco, 
Mexico, to Callao, Peru. 

POLINICES (NEVERITA) RECLUZIANA Deshayes. 

1839. Natica recluziana Deshayes, Rev. Zool. Soc. Cuv., p. 
361. — GuERiN, Mag. de Zool., pi. 37, 1841. Catalina Island, 
California, south to Mexico (and Chile, Philippi). 

Genus SINUM Bolten. 

SINUM CONCAVUM Lamarck. 

1822. Sigaretiis concavus Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt 2, 
p. 208. — SowERBY, Gen. Sh., Sigaretiis, tig. 1, 1823. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, pi. 1, fig. 1, 1844. Capon, Peru, the 
Galapagos Islands, and south on the mainland to S. lat. 25^-^ 30', 
at Taltal, Chile. 

Family MARSENIID^.. 

Genus MARSEN lOPSIS Bergh. 
MARSENIOPSIS PACIFICA Bergh. 

1886. Die Marseniadcn, vol. 1, pp. 19-22, pi. 1, figs. 17-27. 
Magellan straits and northward to Calbuco, Chile. 

Superfamily DOCOGLOSSA. 

Family PATELLID.E. 

Genus PATELLA Linnaeus. 
PATELLA MAGELLANICA Gmelin. 

1791. Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3703. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Patella, 
fig. 19, 1854. Magellanic Province, and northward to Puerto 
Montt, Chiloe Island, and the Dalcahue channel. 

PATELLA MEXICANA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 369.— Pilsbry, Man. Con., vol. 13, 
p. 108, pi. 31, figs. 59-62, 1891. Gulf of California, south 
to Paita, Peru. 

Genus NACELLA Schumacher. 
NACELLA CLYPEATER Lesson. 

1830. Patella clypeater Lesson, Voy. Coq., vol. 2, p. 419. — 
Pilsbry, Man. Con., vol. 13, p. 122, pi. 60, figs. 40-43, 1891. 
Valparaiso, and northward (to Peru, Tschudi), southward to 
the Magellanic reffion. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 237 

Genus HELCIONISCUS Dall. 
HELCIONISCUS NIGRISQUAMATUS Reeve. 

1854. Patella nigrisqtiainata Reeve, Con. Icon., Patella^ fig. 3. 
Concepcion, Chile. 

Family ACM^ID^. 
Genus SCURRIA Gray. 

SCURRIA MESOLEUCA Menke. 

1851. Acmaea mesoleuca Menke, Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 38. — 
Patella striata Reeve, Con, Icon., Patella^ fig. 99; not P. 
striata Quoy. Gulf of California, and south to Guayaquil 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

SCURRIA PARASITICA Orbigny. 

1841. Patella parasitica Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mei-., p. 481, pi. 81, 
figs. 1-3; not of Reeve. Mollendo, Peru, and south to Val- 
paraiso, Chile. 

SCURRIA SCURRA Lesson. 

1830. Patella scurra Lesson, Voy. Coq., p. 421. — Orbigny, Voy. 
Am. Mer., p. 478, pi. 64, fig. 11, 1841. From Callao, Peru, 
south to S. lat. 41°, living on the stalks of Macrocystls. 

SCURRIA ZEBRINA Lesson. 

1830. Patella zehrma, Lesson, Voy. Coq. , p. 417. — Acmsea sehrina 
Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer. , p. 480, pi. 65, figs. 1-3, 1841. Mol- 
lendo, Peru, and south to the Magellanic region. 

Genus ACM^^A Eschscholtz. 
ACMiEA ALBESCENS Phillippi. 

1846. Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 50. Abb., vol. 3, p. 118, pi. 2, fig. 7. 
1849. Central Chile. 

ACM.iEA ARAUCANA Orbigny. 

1841. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 482, pi. 65, figs. 4-6; not of Reeve. 
Paita, Peru, and south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

hCmjEK CECILIANA Orbigny. 

1841. Patella ceciliana Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 482, pi. 81, 
figs. 4-6. Antofagasta to Valparaiso, Chile. 

ACM.^A COFFEA Reeve. 

1855. Patella coffea Reeve, Con. Icon., Patella^ fig. 139. Val- 
paraiso. 

ACM.SA ORBIGNYI Dall, new name. 

1909. Aomx.a scutum Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 479, pi. 64, 
figs. 8, 9, 1841. Not of Eschscholtz, Zool. Atlas, part 5, 
p. 19, pi. 23, figs. 1-3, 1833. Salaverri, Peru, and the Gala- 
pagos Islands, and south to the Magellanic region. 

KCmMX VARIABILIS Sowerby. 

1839. Zool. Beechey's Voy., p. 147, pi. 39, fig. 5 (only). Whole 
Peruvian Province, and the Galapagos Islands. 



238 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

ACM.SA VIRIDULA Lamarck. 

1822. Patella viridnla Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 7, p. 539. 
Acm.aia jpretrel Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 481, pi. 78, iigs. 
15, 16, 1841. Paita, Peru, the Lobos Islands, and south to 
Valparaiso, Chile. 

Superfamily RHIPIDOGLOSSA. 
Family PHASIANELLID^E. 

Genus PHASIANELLA Lamarck. 

PHASIANELLA (TRICOLIA) PERFORATA Philippi. 

1848. Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 164.— Pilsbry, Man. Con., vol. 10, 
p. 172, pi. 39«, %. 12, 1888: not of Carpenter. Paita, Peru. 

PHASIANELLA (EULITHIDIUM) MINIMA Philippi. 

1860. Reise Atacamu, p. 186, pi. 7, tig. 17; Paita, Peru, south to 
Chimba Bay, Chile, in S. lat. 23^ 37'. 

Family TURBINID^F:. 

Genus LEPTOTHYRA (Carpenter MS.) Dall. 
LEPTOTHYRA CUNNINGHAMI Smith. 

1881. Collonia cunninghaiid E. A. Smith, Proc. Zool. kSoc, 
p. 33, pi. 4, fig-y. 10, lOrr. Chiloe, and southward. 

Genus TURBO Linnaeus. 

TURBO MAGNIFICUS Jonas. 

1847. Zoitschr. f. Mai., p. 167.— Philippi, Abb., vol 2, p. 25, 
pi. 6, tig. 1, 1847. IManta, Ecuador, and south to Callao, 
Peru, and the Lobos Islands. 

TURBO (PRISOGASTER) NIGER Wood. 

1828. WooD,IndexTest., suppl. pi. 6, no. 1. — Sowerby, Beechey's 
Voy., p. 143, pi. 36, tig. 1, 1839; Gen. Shells, Turho, fig. 7, 
1832. Pacasmayo, Peru, south to the Magellan straits. 

TURBO (PRISOGASTER) ELEVATUS Eydoux and Souleyet. 

1S52. Voy. Bonite, Zool., vol. 2, p. 594, pi. 37, figs. 15-19. 
Caldera, Chile, south to Valparaiso. 

TURBO (SENECTUS) SQUAMIGER Reeve. 

1842. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 186.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Turho, fig. 
21. Gulf of California, south to Paita, Peru, and the Gala- 
])agos Islands. 

TURBO (CALLOPOMA) FLUCTUOSUS Wood. 

1828. Index Test, suppl. pi. 6, fig. 44. Gulf of California, and 
Cedros Island, south to Paita, Peru. 

TURBO (CALLOPOMA) SAXOSUS Wood. 

1828. Index Test., suppl. pi. 6, fig. 45. Mazatlan, Mexico, and 
south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 239 

Genus ASTR^^A Bolten. 

ASTRjEA (CYCLOCANTHA) BABELIS Fischer. 

1874. Tm'bo habelis Fischer, in Kiener, Icon., Trochus, pi. 78, 
tig-. 2.— PiLSBRY, Man. Con., vol. 10, p. 238, pi. 52, figs. 21-22, 
1888. Santa Elena and south to Guayaquil. 

ASTREA (UVANILLA) BUSCHII Philippi. 

1844. Trochus huschii Philippi (not Kiener) in Kiister, Con. 
Cab. , 2d ed., Trochvs, p. 213, pi. 32, fig. 1. Gulf of California, 
south to Paita, Peru. 

Family LIOTIID^. 

Genus LIOTIA Gray. 
LIOTIA CANCELLATA Gray. 

1829. Delphinula cancellata Gray, Spicil. Zool., p. 3. — Pilsbry, 
Man. Con., vol. 10, p. 109, pi. 36, tig. 2, 1888. Arica to 
Coquimbo, Chile. 

Family TROCLIID^. 

Genus TEGULA Lesson. 

TEGULA ATRA Lesson. 

1830. Trochus ctter Lesson, Voy. Coq. Zool., p. 344, pi. 16, 
tig. 2.— Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 188, pi. 5, tig. 6, 1844. 
Pacasmayo, Peru, south to Magellan straits, and the Chincha 
Islands. 

TEGULA EURYOMPHALUS Jonas. 

1844. Trochus euri/omphalus Jo's AS, Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 113. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 2, p. 27, pi. 6, tig. 4, 1847. Peru 
(Tschudi) south to Talcahuano, Chile. 

TEGULA FUSCESCENS Philippi. 

1844. Trochus fuscescens Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 92, pi. 3, 
tig. 8 (not of Carpenter). Chile and Peru. 

TEGULA GAUDICHAUDI Hupe. 

1854. Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, p. 146, pi. 4, tig. 4. Valparaiso. 

TEGULA LUCTUOSA Orbigny. 

1841. Trochus luctuosus Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 409, pi. 
76, tigs. 16-19. Ancon, Peru, and south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

TEGULA LUGUBRIS Philippi. 

1844. Trochus lugubrls Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 91, pi. 3, tig. 
7. Chile. 

TEGULA MELALEUCA Jonas. 

1844. Trochus melaleucos Jonas, Zeitschr, f. Mai., p. 169. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 2, Trcchns, p. 16, pi. 6, tig. 7, 1847. 
Peru. 

TEGULA MOESTA Jonas. 

1844. Trockus moestus JosAS, Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 113. — Hupe, 
Hist, de Chile, Zool., pi. 4, tig. 6, 1854. Pacasmayo, Peru, 
south to Antofagasta, Chile. 



240 PROCEEDIXGS OF THE yATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



TEGULA PANAMENSIS Philippi. 

1848. Trochus (Phorcm) panamensis TmiAPPi., Zeitschr. f. Mai., 
p. 127; Conch. Cab., 2d ed., Trochiis, p. 311, pi. 44, fig. 15. 
Panama to Paita. Peru. 

TEGXJLA PATAGONICA Orbigny. 

1840. Trochus patagonicus Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 408. pi. 
55, fig. 1-4; Phil., Conch. Cab., 2d ed.. Trochus, p. 225. pi. 
34, fig. 12. Lobos de Af uera Island, Peru, south to San Bias, 
Patagonia (Chile). 

TEGULA QUADRICOSTATA Gray. 

1828. Wood, Index Test., suppl. pi. 5, fig. 16. — Orbigny, Voy. 
Am. Mer., p. 408, 1840. Peru and south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

TEGULA RETICULATA Gray. 

1^28. Trochus reticulatus Wood, Index Test., suppl. pi. 6, fig. 
38. Panama, and south to Guayaquil, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

TEGULA SMITHU Tapparone-Canefri. 

1874. Oiuphalius smithii Tapparone-Canefri, Viag. Magenta, 
p. 166, pi. 1, figs. 13, a-h. Peru. 

TEGULA TRIDENTATA Potiez and Michaud. 

1838. Troch(>< fridentatus Potiez and Michaud, Gal. de Douai, 
vol. 1, p. 321, pi. 29, figs. 16, 17.— KiENER, Icon., Trochus, 
pi. 57, fig. 2. Sechura Bay, Peru, and southward to the 
Chonos archipelago, southern Chile. 

Genus MONODONTA Lamarck. 

MONODONTA (DILOMA) CRUSOEANA Pilsbry. 

1889. Man. Conch., vol. 11, p. 98, pi. 35, figs. 19-21. Pacasmayo, 
Peru, south to Coquinibo, Chile, and Juan Fernandez Island. 

MONODONTA (DILOMA) NIGERRIMA Gmelin. 

1791. Trochus nigerrimus Gmelix, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3597. — 
Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., pi. 55, figs. 5-8, 1841. — Philippi, 
Conch. Cab., 2d ed., Trochus, p. 149, pi. 24, fig. 14. Sala- 
verri, Peru, south to the straits of Magellan. 

Genus CALLIOSTOMA Swainson. 
CALLIOSTOMA FONKII Philippi. 

1860. Trochus fonk 11 Philippi, Atacama Reise, p. 185, pi. 7, 
fig. 22. — Pilsbry, Man. Conch., vol. 11. p. 371, pi. 57, fig. 48, 
1889. Peru, and south to the island of Chiloe. 

Family VITRINELLID^. 

Genus CIRCULUS Jeffreys. 
CIRCULUS COSMIUS Bartsch. 

1907. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 32, no. 1520, p. 173, fig. 8. 
Atacamas, Ecuador, 30 fathoms. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 241 

Family NERITID^. 
Genus NERITA (Linnaeus) Lamarck. 

NERITA BERNHARDI Recluz. 

1850. Journ. de Conch}!., vol. 1, p. 285 (name only). — Reeve, 
Con. Icon., JVerita, pi. 12, fig. 27, 1855. Panama to Peru. 

NERITA CEROSTOMA Troschel. 

1852. xVrch f. Naturg., vol. 18, pt. 1, p. 179, pi. 5, fig. 5. Peru. 

NERITA SCABRICOSTA Lamarck. 

1822. An. s. Vert, vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 191.— Trton, Man. Con. , vol. 10, 
pi. 6, fig. 6, 1888. Lower California and south to Ecuador 
and the Galapagos Islands. Peru (Tschudi). 

Genus NERITINA Lamarck. 

NERITINA OWENII Mawe. 

1828. Wood, Index Test., suppl. pi. 8, fig. 16. Costa Rica, 
and south to Paita, Peru. 

NERITINA SOBRINA Recluz. 

1819. In SowERBY, Thes. Con., Neritina, p. 536, pi. 112, fig. 100. 
Chile. 

Superfamily ZYGOBRANCHIA. 

Family FISSURELLID.?]. 

Genus FISSURELLA Bruguiere 

FISSURELLA BRIDGESII Reeve. 

1S19. Conch. Iconica, Fissurella^ fig. 15. Paposo to Valparaiso, 
Chile. 

FISSURELLA CLYPEUS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 128; Con. 111., Fissurella, fig. 77, 1835. 
Santa Elena, Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

FISSURELLA COSTATA Lesson. 

1830. Voy. Coq., vol. 2, p. 410.— Sowerbt, Con. 111., Fissurella^ 
fig. 36, 1835 (as F. chilensis). Mollendo, Peru, to Valparaiso. 

FISSURELLA CRASSA Lamarck. 

1822. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 2, p. 11. — Sowerby, Con. 111., Fissu- 
rella^ fig. 11, 1834; not fig. 2, nor figure in Sow^erby, Genera 
Sh., 1823. Galapagos and Pescadores Islands, Peru, and 
southward to the Magellanic region. 

FISSURELLA FULVESCENS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 127; Con. 111., Fismrella, fig. 49, 1835. 
Valparaiso. 

FISSURELLA LATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 124; Con. 111., Fismrella, fig. 5, 1834. 
Valparaiso, and south to the Magellanic region. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 16 



242 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

FISSURELLA LATIMARGINATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 126; Con. 111., FinsureUa., lig. 69. 
Peru, and south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

FISSURELLA LIMBATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 123; Con. 111., Fissurdla, fig. 74, 183.5. 
Antofagasta to Valparaiso, Chile. 

FISSURELLA MAXIMA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 123; Con. l\\.^ Fissurella, tig. 18, 1834. 
Manta, Ecuador, to Valparaiso, Chile. 

FISSURELLA NIGRA Lesson. 

183U. Voy. Coq., Zool., vol. 2, p. 412. — Reeve, Con. Icon., 
Fisstirella^ tig. 11, 1850. Callao, Peru, south to Magellan 
straits. 

FISSURELLA OBOVALIS Lesson. 

1830. Voy. Coq., Zool., vol. 2, p. 411. (Untigured.) Concep- 
cion, Chile. 

FISSURELLA ORIENS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 124; Con. 111., Fissurella, fig. 25, 1834. 
Chiloe Island, Chile. 

FISSURELLA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

1822. An, s. Vert., vol. 7, pt. 2, p. 15 (not of Delessert, Kec 
pi. 24, tig, 7). — Reeve, Con. Icon., Fismrelhi, tig. 26, 1849. 
Pacasma3'o, Peru, south to Coquimbo, Chile. 

FISSURELLA PfflLIPPIANA Reeve. 

1849. Con. Icon., Fissurella^ fig. 87; errata. Concepcion, Chile. 

FISSURELLA PICTA Gmelin. 

1791. ratella p icta GmeIjIi^., Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3729, — Pils- 
BRY, Man. Con., vol. 12, p. 144, pi. 45, tigs. 9-11, 1890. 
Manta, Ecuador, and south to the straits of Magellan. 

FISSURELLA PULCHRA Sowerby. 

1834, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 124; Con. 111., Flssurella, tig. 21, 1834. 
Paposo, Chile, and south to Valparaiso. 

FISSURELLA PUNCTATISSIMA Pilsbry. 

1890. Man. Conch., vol. 12, p, 150, pi. 58, tigs. 21-23. Valparaiso. 

FISSURELLA RUGOSA Sowerby. 

1835. Qon.lW..^ FiasureUa^^g. 51. Mazatlan, Mexico, and south 
to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

FISSURELLA STELLATA Reeve. 

1850. Con. Icon., Fissurella., fig. 80. Valparaiso. 

FISSURELLA (CREMIDES) ASPERELLA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 127; Con. 111., Fissurella, fig. 71. 
Lobos Islands, Peru. 

FISSURELLA (CREMIDES) MACROTREMA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 125; Con. 111., Fissurella, tig. 41. 
Panama south to the Lobos Islands, Peru, and the Galapa- 
gos Islands. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF HUELLS FROM I'ERU—DALL. 243 

FISSURELLA (CREMIDES) OBSCURA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 125; Con. 111., Fissureila, fig. 27. 
Gulf of Panama southward to Lambayeque, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

FISSURELLA (CREMIDES) VIRESCENS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 125; Con. 111., Fissurella^ fig. 51. 
Mazatlan, Mexico, south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

Genus MEGATEBENNUS Pilsbry. 
MEGATEBENNUS COKERI Dall. 

1909. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 178, pi. 5, figs. 3, 7. 
Lobos de Afuera Island, Peru. 

Genus FISSURIDEA Swainson. 
FISSURIDEA ALTA C. B, Adams. 

1852. FissiLvella alta C. B. Adams, Panama Sh., pp. 236, 320. — 
Sowerby, Thes. Con., FlssureUa^ p. 194, pi. 7, figs. 154-6, 
1866. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands, 

FISSURIDEA ASPERIOR Dall, new name. 

1909. FisHurclhi as2)era Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, 1834, p. 127; 
Con. 111., Fissurella, fig. 46. Not of Eschscholtz, Zool. 
Atlas, 1833. Pacasmayo, Peru. 

FISSURIDEA FONTAINEANA Orbigny. 

1841. Fiss'urella Jhntainean a Orbigthy^Yoj. Am. Mer., p. 477, 
pi. 78, figs. 12, 13, Islay, Peru. 

FISSURIDEA INiEQUALIS Sowerby. 

1834. Fissurella hicf/jualis Sowerby', Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 126; 
Con. I\\., Fissurella^ fig. 45, 1835. Lower California to Pan- 
ama and the Galapagos Islands. 

FISSURIDEA SATURNALIS Carpenter. 

1864. Glyphls saturnalis Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 
479. (Unfigured.) Cape St. Lucas, and south to the Gala- 
pagos Islands. 

Genus LUCAPINELLA Pilsbry. 
LUCAPINELLA iEQUALIS Sowerby. 

1834. Fissurella iecjualis Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 127; 
Con. 111., Fissurella^ fig. 56, 1841. Santa Elena, Guayaquil, 
Ecuador. 

LUCAPINELLA CALLOMARGINATA Carpenter. 

1872. Clypidella callomarginata (Carpenter Ms.) Dall, Am. 
Journ. Conch,, vol. 7, p. 133, pi. 15, fig. 8. — Pilsbrt, Man. 
Con., vol, 12, p. 196, pi. 44, figs. 3, 4, 5; pi. 61, figs. 1-5, 
1890. Lobitas, California, and southward to Paita, Peru, 
and Valparaiso, Chile. 



244 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Genus PUNCTURELLA Lowe. 
PUNCTURELLA FALKLANDICA A. Adams. 

1862. Cemoria falllandica Adainis, Thes. Con., Fissnrellida'^ p. 
208, pi. 245, fij?. 14. Falkland Islands, Patagonia, and 
southern Chile. 

Family STOMATELLIDJC. 

Genus GENA Gray. 
GENA, species. 

1900. '"'■Gena planulata Lamarck" T. v. Bayern, Nachrbl. Mai. 
Ges., vol. 32, p. 53. Antofagasta, Chile. 

Subclass ISOPLEURA. 
Order POLYF'LACOF'HORA. 

Superfamily MESOPLACOPHORA. 
Family ISCHNOCHITONID^. 

Genus TONICELLA Carpenter. 
TONICELLA (MOPALIELLA) STIGMATA Dall, new name. 

1909. Chiton hipimctatu.s Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. , 1832, p. 104; 
Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 27, 1833; not of G. Fischer, Tabl. Syn. 
Zoog. p. 11, 1808. Lobos Islands, Peru. 

Genus CH^^TOPLEURA Shuttle^^^orth. 

CHJETOPLEURA BENEVENTEI Plate. 

1899. Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. Bd. 4, p. 194, pi. 2, fig. 143, pi. 11, 
fig. 305-30G. Tumbes; Iquique, Chile. 

CH^ETOPLEURA FERNANDENSIS Plate. 

1899. Zool. Jahrb., Suppl. Bd. 4, p. 197, fig. Juan Fernandez 
Island. 

CH^TOPLEURA HENNAHI Gray. 

1828. Chiton Jiennahi Gray, Spicil. Zool., p. 6, no. 11. — Sow- 
erby, Con. 111., Chiton^ figs. 1, 33, 1833. Callao, Peru, 5-7 
fathoms. 

CHiETOPLEURA LURIDA Sowerby. 

1832. CJtiton luridus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 26; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 20, 1833. Gulf of California, and south- 
ward to Islay, Peru. 

CH^TOPLEURA PERUVIANA Lamarck. 

1819. Chiton peruvianas Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, 
p. 321; Encycl. Meth., pi. 163, figs. 7, 8.— Sowerby, Con. 111., 
Chiton^ fig. 44. Tumbes, Peru, to Valparaiso, Chile. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 245 

Genus VARIOLEPIS Plate. 

VARIOLEPIS IQUIQUENSIS Plate. 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, vol. 1, p. 200, fig. ; pi. 11, figs. 307-311. 
Iquique, Chile. 

Genus ISCHNOCHITON Gray. 
ISCHNOCHITON CATENULATUS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton catenulatm Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 104; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 145, 1840. Lobos Islands, Peru. 

ISCHNOCHITON FIMBRIATUS Sowerby. 

1840. Chiton Jiinhriatus Sowerby, Mag. Nat. Hist., p. 293; 
Con. III., Chiton, fig. 137. Peru. 

ISCHNOCHITON IMITATOR Smith. 

1881. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 35, pl. 4, fig. 13. Turabes, Chile, to 
the Magellanic region and the Falkland Islands. 

ISCHNOCHITON INCA Orbigny. 

1841. Chiton inca Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 486, pl. 65, figs. 
20-24. Islay, Peru. 

ISCHNOCHITON KEILI Plate. 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, vol. 2, p. 108, pi. 2, fig. 145; pl. 7, figs. 
227-230. Juan Fernandez Island. 

ISCHNOCHITON (STENOPLAX) LIMACIFORMIS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton, limaciformis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 26; 
Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 38, 1833. Mazatlan, Mexico, to the 
Lobos Islands, Peru; also in the West Indies, and perhaps 
Japan. 

ISCHNOCHITON PUNCTULATISSIMUS Sowerby. 

1832. Chito7i punctulatissimiis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 58; 
Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 9, 1833. Tumbes, Peru, and south- 
ward to Mejillones del Sur, Chile. 

ISCHNOCHITON PUSILLUS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton pusillus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 57; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 31. Pacasmayo, Peru, in 17 fathoms, 9 
miles off shore. 

ISCHNOCHITON BOOGI Haddon. 

1886. Challenger Chitons, p. 16, 1886. — Chiton roseus Sowerby, 
Proc. Zool. Soc, 1832, p. 58; not of Blainville, 1825; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 14, 1833. Ecuador and Peru. Also 
Atlantic. 

ISCHNOCmTON RUGULATUS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton rag ulatus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 58; Con. 
III., Chiton, fig. 42, 1833. Gulf of Panama to the Lobos 
Islands, Peru. 

ISCHNOCHITON STRAMINEUS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton stramineus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 104; 
Con. Ill, Chiton, fig. 28. Chiloe Island, Chile. 



246 PROCEEDINOS OF THE NATlOyAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

ISCHNOCHITON VARIANS Plate. 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, p. 113, fig. Tumbes, Chile, to Chiloe 
Island and Juan Fernandez. 

Genus CALLISTOCHITON Carpenter. 
CALLISTOCHITON ELENENSIS Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton elenensis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 27; Con. 
111., Chiton^ fig-. 69, 1840. Panama to Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

CALLISTOCHITON INFORTUNATUS Pllsbry. 

1892. Man. Con., vol. 14, p. 266, pi. 59, figs. 37-42. Gulf of 
California to Ecuador. 

CALLISTOCHITON PULCHELLUS Gray. 

1S28. Chiton pulcheUus Gray, Spicil. Zool., vol. 1, pt. 1, p. 6, 
pi. 3, fig. 9 (not of Orbigny). Islay, Peru, to Arica, Chile. 

CALLISTOCHITON VIVIPARUS Plate. 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, p. 154, pi. 9, figs. 267-281. Near 
Coquimbo, Chile. 

Family MOPALIID^l 
Genus PLACIPHORELLA Carpenter. 

PLACIPHORELLA BLAINVILLEI Broderip. 

1832. Chiton hlainvillei Brodp:rip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 27; 
Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 6, 1833. Galapagos, Cocos, and Lobos 
islands. 

Genus PLAXIPHORA Gray. 

PLAXIPHORA SETIGER, var. FREMBLII Broderip. 

1832. Chiton yre//t bin Broderif, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 28; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 4, 1833. Valparaiso, Chile. 

PLAXIPHORA FERNANDEZI Thiele. 

1909. Zoologioa, vol. 22, p. 22, pi. 3, figs. 1-8. Juan Fernandez 
Island. 

Family ACANTH0CHITID.1<:. 

Genus ACANTHOCHITES Risso. 
ACANTHOCHITES HIRUDINIFORMIS Sowerby. 

Is32. Chiton hirudiniforinis Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 59; 
Con. 111., Chiton, figs. 23, 142. Paita to Islay, Peru, and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

Superfamily TELEOPLACOPHORA. 

Family CHITONIDJ^. 

Genus CHITON Linnaeus. 
CHITON BRODERIPI Potiez and Michaud. 

1838. Galerie de Douai, vol. 1, p. 533 (unfigured, relations 
unknown). Chile, 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF .SHELLS! FROM PERU—DALL. 247 



CHITON CUMINGSII Frembly. 

182T. Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 198, suppl. pi. 16, fig. 3.— Sow- 
ERBY, Con, 111., Chiton^ j^g. 32, 1833. — Anhamvc/dtonTHi^L.i:,, 
Gebiss d. Schn., vol. 2, p. 362, 1893. Callao, Peru, to Chiloe 
Island, Chile. 

CHITON GLAUCOCINCTUS Fr-^mbly. 

1827. Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 201, suppl. pi. 17, fig. 2. Valpa- 
raiso, Chile. 

CHITON GRANOSUS Frembly. 

1827. Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 200, suppl. pi. 17, fig. 1.— Reeve, 
Con. Icon., CJnton^ pi. 5, fig. 27. — Cliondropla.i\ Thiele, 
Gebiss d. Schn., vol. 2, p. 364, 1893. Callao, Peru,' to the 
Magellanic region. 

CHITON GRANULOSUS Frembly. 

1827. Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 201; suppl. pi. 17, fig. 3. Isla 
Blanca, Peru, to Concepcion, Chile. 

CHITON LATUS Sowerby. 

1825. (Jan.) Tankerville Cat., app. p. v; not of Lowe (April, 
1825) or GuiLDiNO, 1829. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Ch/ton, pi. 1, 
fig. 3 (as C. 7nagnljiGus). Valparaiso and Coquimbo, Chile. 

CHITON PUSIO Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 105. — C. murrayi Ha.ddon, Challen- 
ger Chitons, p. 21, pi. 1, fig. 7, pi. 3, fig. 7a-'le, 1886. Cal- 
lao, Peru, to Valparaiso, Chile. 

CHITON STOKESII Broderip. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 25.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 
24, 1833. Guaj^mas, Mexico, south to Arica, Chile. 

CHITON SUBFUSCUS Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 26; Con. 111., Chiton, figs. 3, 41, 1833 
(as C. striatum, Barnes). Southern Chile; Puerto Montt; 
Chiloe Island. 

Section RADSIA Gray. 
CHITON BARNESII Gray. 

1828. Spicil. Zool., vol. 1, p. 3, pi. 6, fig. 22.— Sowerby, Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 2, 1833. Coquiinl)0, Chile. 

CHITON GOODALLI Broderip. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 25.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Chiton^ figs. 
34, 40, 1833. Galapagos Islands. 

CHITON SULCATUS Wood. 

1815. Gen. Conch., p. 16, pi. 3, fig. 1. — Sowerby, Con. 111., 
Chiton, fig. 12. Galapagos Islands. 

Genus TONICIA Gray. 

TONICIA ARGYROSTICTA Philippi. 

1845. Chiton argyroHtictal^YaiAvvi, Arch. f. Naturg., p. 49; Ata- 
cama Reise, p. 179, pi. 7, fig. 4, 1S60. Isla Blanca, Peru, to 
Masfellan Straits. 



248 PROCEEDiyOii OF THE XATIOXAL }JI'SEUM. vol. r^7. 

TONICIA CALBUCENSIS Plate. 

1897. Fauna Chilensis, p. 205, fig. Calbuco, Chile, S. lat. 41°. 

TONICIA CHILENSIS Frembly. 

1827. Chiton chilensis Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 204, 
suppl. pi. 17, fig. 8. Coquimbo, Tumbes, Valparaiso, Chile. 

TONICIA DISJUNCTA Frembly. 

1827. Chiton disjunctus Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 203, 
suppl. ])1. 17, fig. 5. Tumbes and Valparaiso, Chile. 

TONICIA ELEGANS Frembly. 

1827. Chiton deganfi Frembly, Zool. Journ. , vol. 3, p. 203, suppl. 
pi. 17, fig. 6.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 75, 1840. 
Callao, Peru, and south to Chiloe Island, Chile. 

TONICIA FONTAINEI Rochebrune. 

1882. Hull. Soc. Philom., Paris, p. 193. (Unfigured.) Chile. 

TONICIA GAUDICHAUDI Rochebrune. 

1883. Bull. Soc. Philom., Paris, p. 35. (Unfigured.) Chile. 

TONICIA GRANIFERA Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton (jrdniferufi Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 104. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Chiton, pi. 15, fig. 86. Concepcion, 

Chile, 9 fathoms. 

TONICIA GRAYI Sowerby. 

1832. Chito7i grai/i SowiE,RJiY, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 57; Con. 111., 
Chiton, figs. 8, 16. Callao Iky, Peru. 

TONICIA LINEOLATA Frembly. 

1827. Chiton lineolatus Frembly, Zool. Journ., vol. 3, p. 204, 
suppl. pi. 17, fig. 7. — Sowerby, Con. I 11., Ch!t(m, fig. 154, 
1840. Valparaiso and Talcahuauo Bay, Chile. 

TONICIA RUBIDENS Pilsbry. 

1892. Man. Con. , vol. 14, p. 202, pi. 44, figs. 65-67. Callao, Peru, 
Chile (U. S. Expl. Exp.). 

TONICIA SWAINSONI Sowerby. 

1832. Chiton siaainsoni Sowf.uby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 27; Con. 
111., Chiton, fig. 5, 1833. Callao, Peru, to Iquique, Chile. 

Genus ACANTHOPLEURA Guilding. 
ACANTHOPLEURA ECHINATA Barnes. 

1823. Chiton echinatus Barnes, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 7, p. 71, 
pi. 3, figs. 4, 4a.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Chiton, fig. 47 (as C. 
sjjiniferm). Paita, Peru, and south to Valparaiso, Chile, and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

Genus ENOPLOCHITON Gray. 
ENOPLOCHITON NIGER Barnes. 

1823. Chiton niger Barnes, Am. Journ. Sci., vol. 7, p. 71, pi. 3, 
fig. 3. Mollendo, Peru, and south to Valparaiso. 



NO. 1T04. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PBRU—DALL. 249 

Class SCAPHOPODA. 

Order SOLENOCONCKLA. 
Family DENTALIID^E. 

Genus DENTALIUM Linnaeus. 

DENTALIUM .SQUATORIUM Pilsbry and Sharp. 

1897. Man. Con., vol. 17, p. 112, pi. 21, fig. 43. Off Manta, 
Ecuador. 

DENTALIUM INNUMERABILE Pilsbry and Sharp. 

1897. Man. Con., vol. 17, p. 119, pi. 18, figs. 6-8. Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, and southward to Panama and 
Guayaquil. 

DENTALIUM NUMEROSUM Dall. 

1897. Man. Con., vol. 17, p. 25, pi. 10, figs. 70-73. Todos 
Santos Bay, Lower California, and southward to Panama 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

DENTALIUM QUADRANGULARE Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 29; Thes. Con., vol. 3, p. 103, pi. 224, 
fig. 31, 1860. West Coast of Nicaragua and south to Jipi- 
japa, Ecuador. 

DENTALIUM TESSARAGONUM Sowerby. 

. 1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 29. — Pilsbry and Sharp, Man. Con., 
vol. 17, p. 34, pi. 4, fig. 1, 1897. Gulf of Panama and south 
to Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

Genus CADULUS Philippi. 

CADULUS ALBICOMATUS Dall. 

1889. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 12, p. 259, pi. 9, fig. 8. Gulf 
of Panama to vicinity of Manta, Ecuador. 

CADULUS PERPUSILLUS Sowerby. 

1832. Dentaliuin 2>€rpu8illu'm Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
29.— Pilsbry and Sharp, Man. Con., vol. 17, p. 191, pi. 36, 
figs. 23, 24, 1847. Off Lower California, N. lat. 23° 33', and 
south to Panama and Guayaquil. 

CADULUS PLATYSTOMA Pilsbry and Sharp. 

1897. Man. Con., vol. 17, p. 180, pi. 35, figs. 17, 18. Off 
Manta, Ecuador. 



250 riiOCEEDINGB OF THE NATIONAL MVSEVM. vol.37. 

Class PELECYPODA. 

Order F»RI0N0DE:SNIACE:A. 

(FOLIOBRANCHIA TA.) 
Superfamily NUCULACEA. 

Family NUCULID^.. 
Genus NUCULA Lamarck. 

NUCULA COLOMBIANA Dall. 

1908. Albatross Rep., p. H71. Panama to Patagonia. 

NUCULA DECLIVIS Hinds. 

1843. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 97; Zool, Voy. Sulph., p. 63, pi. 18, 
tig. 8, 1844. Panama to Magellan Straits. 

NUCULA EXIGUA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc., p. 198; Con. Ill, Nucida, figs, 24, 24*, 
1833. Acapiilco, Mexico, south to Ecuador and to the 
Magellanic region. 

NUCULA GRAYI Orbigny. 

1841. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 625.— Sowerby, Con. 111., Nucida, 
tig. 21. Valparaiso, Chile, 

NUCULA PAYTENSIS A. Adams. 

1850. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 51. — Hanley, Thes. Con., Nucula., p. 
50, pi. 5, tigs, 160-161, 1860. Paita, Peru. 

NUCULA PISUM Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 198; Con. 111., Nucula, fig. 23, 1841.— 
Okbigny, Vo3^ Am. Mer., p, 624 (as N. semiornata)^ pi. 84, 
figs. 27-29, 1846. Valparaiso to San Bias, Chile. 

Family LEDID^E. 
Genus LEDA Schumacher. 

LEDA ACUTA Conrad. 

1831. Nucula acuta Conrad, Am. Mar. Con., p. 32, pi. 6, fig. 3 
(not of Sowerby, 1839). — Sowerby, Con. 111., Nucula., fig. 
15 (as y. cuneata). California, the Gulf of Panama, and south 
to Valparaiso, Chile. Also Atlantic. 

LEDA CALLIMENE Dall. 

1908. Leda {Jupiter ia) calliinene Dall, Alhatross Rep,, p. 342, 
pi. 17, figs. 3, 4. Gulf of Panama to Tome, Chile. 

LEDA EBURNEA Sowerby. 

1832. Nucula ehurnea Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 198; Con. 
III., Nucula, fig. 10, 1833. Gulf of Panama to the Bay of 
Caraques, Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 251 

LEDA ELENENSIS Sowerby. 

1832. JV^ucula elenensis SowKRBY , Proc. Zool. Soc. , p. 198; Con. 
111., JV'Ucula, fig-, 14, 1833. Santa P^lena, Ecuador. 

LEDA GIBBOSA Sowerby. 

1832. Nucula gibhosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 198; Con. 
111., Nucnla^ fig. 9, 1833. Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru. 

LEDA ORNATA Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 546, pi. 82, tigs. 4-6. Paita, Peru. 
Genus YOLDIA Moreh. 

YOLDIA (ADRANA) SOWERBYANA Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 544. — Sowerby, Con. 111., Nucnla^ 
tig. 1 (as Imiceolata)^ 1833. — Hanley, Thes. Con., Nuciilldse.^ 
Leda No. 2, fig. 33, 1860. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

YOLDIA (ADRANA) CRENIFERA Sowerby. 

1832. Nucula ci'enif era '^oy^^w&x ^Yyoq. Zool. Soc, p. 197; Con. 
111., Nucula, fig. 3. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 

YOLDIA (ADRANA) ELONGATA Sowerby. 

1832. Nucnia elonr/ata Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 197; Con. 
111., Nucula, tig. 2, 1833. Coast of Ecuador. 

Genus MALLETIA Desmoulins. 
MALLETIA CHILENSIS Desmoulins. 

1832. Actes Soc. Linn, de Bordeaux, vol. 5, p. 85, pi. 1. Co- 
quimbo, south to Talcahuano Bay, Chile. 

Genus TINDARIA Bellardi. 
TINDARIA SULCULATA Couthouy. 

1852. Nucula aulculata Couthouy, Wilkes Exp. Sh., p. 424, pi. 
37, figs. 539 a-e. Talcahuano, Chile, south to the Magellanic 
region. 

(FILIBRANCHIATA.) 

Superfamily ARCACEA. 

Genus ARCA Linnaeus. 

ARCA ANGULATA King. 

1831. Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 336. — Stempell, Fauna Chilensis, 
vol. 2, p. 219, pi. 12, figs. 1-9, 1899. Juan Fernandez Island. 

ARCA MUTABILIS Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 17. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 13, 
fig. 35, 1844. Gulf of California to Guayaquil. 

ARCA PACIFICA Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca pacifica Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 17. — 
Reeve, Qon. Iqow., Area, pi. 11, fig. 75, 1844. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Paita, Peru. 



252 PROCEEDINOS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



ARCA ALTERNATA Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca alternata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. IT. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 13, fig. 88, 1844. Panama to 
Ecuador. 

ARCA GRADATA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 365. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Arm, 
pi. 14, fig. 92, 1844. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Iquique, Chile, 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

ARCA PUSILLA Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca jpusilla Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 18. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 16, fig. 112, 1844. Coast of 
Ecuador, and south to S. lat. 23° 37'. 

ARCA SOLIDA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 18. — Reeve, Con. Icon., J.r<?(7, pi. 16, 
fig. 106, 1844. Gulf of California, to Paita, Peru, and the 
Galapagos Islands. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) BIANGULATA Sowerby. 

1833. Area hiangulata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 21. Guaya- 
quil. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) DECUSSATA Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca decussata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 18. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 12, fig. 81, 1844. Galapagos 
Islands. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) LITHODOMUS Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca Uthodomus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 16. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 12, fig. 76, 1844. {Barhatia 
grown in a Lithodoimis burrow?) Monte Cristi, Ecuador. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) LURID A Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca lurida Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 19. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 14, fig. 95, 1844. Santa Elena, 
Guayaquil. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) REEVIANA Orbigny. 

1846. Area reeviana Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 635. — Area 
helhlingi Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 14, fig. 90, 1844; not 
of Bruguiere, 1789. From Manta, Ecuador, south to Paita, 
Peru. 

ARCA (BARBATIA) VELATA Sowerby. 

1833. Byssoarca vclata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 18. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, fig. 79, 1844. Indo-Pacific Peru 
(Tschudi). 

ARCA (CUCULLARIA) PLATEI Stempell. 

1899. Ai'ca {Barhat id) jjlatei Stkmfkl,1j, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 2, 
p. 220, pi. 12, tigs. 10-12. Juan Fernandez Island. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) AVICULOIDES Reeve. 

1844. Area avicidoides Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 10, fig. 63 
(and pi. 6, fig. 35 as A. auricxdata Sowerby, not Lamarck). 
Panama to (juayaquil. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 253 

ARC A (SCAPHARCA) BREVIFRONS Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 1, 
fig. 6, 1844. Gulf of California to Tumbes, Peru. 

ARCA fSCAPHARCA) CEPOIDES Reeve. 

1844. Con. Icon., Area, pi. 10, fig. 66. San Miguel, Ecuador. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) EMARGINATA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. ZooL Soc, p. 20. — Reeve, Con. Icon., A^'ca, pi. 4, 
fig. 26, 1844. Gulf of California, and south to Atacames, 
Ecuador, and Guaj^aquil. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) FORMOSA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 20.— Hanley, Rec Biv. Sh., p. 160, 
pi. 19, fig. 9, 1843. Lower California to Paita, Peru. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) LABIATA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p., 21. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 1, 
fig. 7, 1844. San Diego, California, to Tumbes, Peru. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) LABIOSA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 21. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 10, 
fig. 67, 1844. Tumbes, Peru. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) NUX Sowerby. 

1833. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 19. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 1, 
fig. 1, 1844. Panama to Ecuador. Jipijapa, 12 fathoms. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) GEES A Sowerby. 

1833. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 21. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 1, 
fig. 3, 1844. Ecuador coast. 

ARCA (SCAPHARCA) TUBERCULOSA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 19. — Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 44, pi. 
1, fig. 2, 1843. Ballenas lagoon. Lower California, to Tumbes, 
Peru. 

ARCA (CUNEARCA) .EQUATORIALIS Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 636. — Area ovata Reeve (not Gmelin, 
1791), Con. Icon., Area, pi. 8, fig. 49, 1844. Santa Elena, 
Ecuador. 

ARCA (CUNEARCA) CARDIIFORMIS Sowerby. 

1833. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 22. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 3, 
fig. 17, 1844. Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

ARCA (ANADARA) GRANDIS Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 365. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Ai'ea, 
pi. 1, fig. 4, 1844. Magdalena Bay, Lower California, to 
Tumbes, Peru. 

ARCA (NOETIA) REVERSA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 20. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Area, pi. 1, 
fig 5, 1844. Gulf of California to Tumbes, Peru. 

Genus GLYCYMERIS Da Costa. 

GLYCYMERIS CHEMNITZU Dall, new name, 

1909. Pectuneulus minor Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., 1846, p. 628, 
not of I. Lea, 1833. Gulf of California, south to Monte 
Cristi. Ecuador. ** 



254 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



GLYCYMERIS INiEQUALIS Sowerby. 

1832. Pectuncidus hicequalis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 196 
(not of Sowerby, 1830). — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pectuncuhis., 
pi. 4, fig. 16, 1843. Mazatlan, Mexico, south to Sechura Bay, 
Peru. 

GLYCYMERIS MULTICOSTATA Sowerby. 

1832. Fectunculus tmdticostatus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
195. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pectaneuhis, pi. 5, fig. 24, 1843. 
Mazatlan, Mexico, to Guayaquil. 

GLYCYMERIS OVATA Broderip. 

1832. Pectuncuhis ovatus Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 126. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pecttincxilus., pi. 1, fig. 2, 1843. Lobos 
Islands, Peru, to Coquimbo, Chile. 

GLYCYMERIS STRIGILATA Sowerby. 

1832. PectnncuIuH strigilatus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
196. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pectuncultis^ pi. 6, fig. 31, 1843. 
Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

GLYCYMERIS TESSELLATA Sowerby. 

1832. Pectuncuhis tessellatus Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc. , p. 196. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Pectunculus., pi. 6, fig. 29, 1843. Cape 
St. Lucas, Lower California, to Monte Cristi, Ecuador. 

Superfamily PTERIACEA. 
Family PINNID^l^. 

Genus PINNA Linnaeus. 

PINNA LANCEOLATA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 84. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pinna., pi. 
31, fig. 58, 1858. Gulf of California, and south to Guayaquil. 

PINNA MAURA Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 84. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Pinna., pi. 
29, fig. 54, 1858. Gulf of California to Panama. Peru 
(Tschudi). 

Family MELINID^E. 

Genus MELINA Retzius. 
MELINA LEGUMEN Gmelin. 

1791. Ostrea legumen Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3399. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Perna^ pi. 5, fig. 22, 1858. Galapagos 
Islands. 

MELINA QUADRAWGULARIS Reeve. 

1858. Perna quadrangular is Reeve, Con. Icon., Perna., pi. 2, 
fig. 6. Galapagos Islands. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 255 

Family PTERIID.i:. 

Genus PTERIA Scopoli. 
PTERIA PERUVIANA Reeve, 

1857. Avicula peruviana Reeve, Con. Icon., Aoicula, pi. 14, 
fig. 53. Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

Genus MARGARITIPHORA Megerle. 
MARGARITIPHORA CUMINGl Reeve. 

1857. Avicula camlngl Reeve, Con. Icon., pi. 1, fig. 6. Paita, 
Peru, and the Galapago.s Lslancls. 

Superfamily OSTRACEA. 
Family OSTREID.E. 

Genus OSTREA Linnaeus. 
OSTREA ^QUATORIALIS Orbigny. 

1846. Vo3\ Am. Mer., p. 672. Bay of Guayaquil (on tree.s). 
Paita, Peru. 

OSTREA CALLICHROA Hanley. 

1845. Proc. Zool. 8oc. , p. 107. — Sowerby, Con. Icon., Ostrea^ 
pi. 4, fig. 6, 1870. Chiloe Island, Chile. 

OSTREA CHILENSIS Philippi. 

1845. Con. Cab., ed. 2, Ostrea, p. 74, pi. 13, figs. 7, 8. Coast of 
Ecuador, south to Chiloe Island, Chile. 

OSTREA COLUMBIENSIS Hanley. 

1845. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 107. — Sowerby, Con. Icon., Ostrea. 
pi. 7, fig. lOa-b^ 1871. Gulf of California, south to Coquimbo, 
Chile. 

OSTREA LONGIUSCULA Hupe. 

1854. Hist, de (Jhile, Zool., Mol., p. 282, pi. 5, fig. 3. Coquimbo, 
Chile. 

OSTREA MEGODON Hanley. 

1845. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 106. — Sowerby, Con. Icon., Ostrea, 
pi. 12, fig. 24, 1871. Scammon Lagoon, Lower California, 
to Sechura Bay, Peru. Fossil, Antilles. 

OSTREA VINOLENTA Hupe. 

1854. Hist, de Chile, Zool., Mol., p. 282, pi. 5, fig. 2. Coquimbo, 
Chile. 

Superfamily PECTINACEA. 

Family PECTINID^. 
Genus PECTEN Muller. 
PECTEN DENTATUS Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 109; Thes. Con., vol. 1, Pecten, p. 49, 
pi. 15, figs. 105, 106, 1843. Santa Elena, Ecuador, to Paita, 
Peru. 



256 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

PECTEN DIGITATUS Hinds. 

ISU. Zool. Sulph. Voy., Moll., p. 61, pi. 17, % 2. Bay of 
Guayaquil. 

PECTEN PATAGONICUS King. 

18;^>1. Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 337. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., vol. 1, 
p. 54, pi. 13, fig. 60, 1842. Magellanic Region, north to Chiloe 
Island and Puerto Montt. 

PECTEN PURPURATUS Lamarck. 

1819. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, p, 166. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., 
vol. 1, p. 53, pi. 15, tig. 113; pi. 16, tigs. 123-125, 1843. 
Panama and south to Coquimbo, Chile. 

PECTEN ROSACEUS Stempell. 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, p. 228. — P. australis Philippi, Arch. f. 
Naturg., vol. 11, p. 56, 1845; not of Sowerby, 1842. Cal- 
bueo, Chiloe, and the Chonos Islands. 

PECTEN SUBNODOSUS Sowerby. 

1835. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 109, no. 1; Thes. Con., Pecten., p. 65, 
pi. 15, figs. 97, 112. Gulf of California to Guayaquil and 
the Galapagos Islands. 

PECTEN TUMBEZENSIS Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 663. — P. aspersus Sowerby (not of 
Lamarck), Thes. Con., Pecten, p. 51, pi. 19, figs. 198-9, 1843. 
Tumbes and Paita, Peru. 

PECTEN VENTRICOSUS Sowerby. 

1842. Thes. Con., Pecte^i, p. 51, pi. 12, figs. 18, 19, 26. Gulf of 
of Panama, south to Paita, Peru. 

Family SPONDYLID^. 

Genus SPONDYLUS Linnasus. 

SPONDYLUS CRASSISQUAMA Lamarck. 

1819. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, p. 191. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Spon- 
dyhts (as S. pictorum Chemnitz), p. 422, pi. 85, fig. 17; pi. 
86, fig. 28; pi. 88, fig. 45, 1847. Panama to Guayaquil. 

Genus PLICATULA Lamarck. 
PLICATULA DUBIA Hanley. 

1847. Sowerby, Thes. Con., Pllcatula^ p. 437, pi. 91, fig. 19. — 
Hanley, Rec. Biv. Sh., p. 289, 1856. Panama to Guayaquil. 

Family LIMIDJE. 

Genus LIMA Cuvier. 
LIMA ANGULATA Sowerby. 

1843. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 23; Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 86, pi. 22, figs. 
39, 40, 1843. Gulf of Panama and southward to Juan Fer- 
nandez Island. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 257 



LIMA GALAPAGENSIS Pilsbry and Vanatta. 

1902. Proc. Wash. Acad. Sci., vol. 4, p. 556, pi. 35, fig. 4. Gal- 
apag-os Islands. 

LIMA PACIFICA Orbigny. 

1S40. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 654. — Z. arcuata Sowerbt (not Gein- 
ITZ, 1840), Thes. Con., vol. 1, p. 86, pi. 22, figs. 41-42, 1843. 
Panama to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

Superfamily ANOMIACEA. 

Family ANOMIID.E. 
Genus ANOMIA Linnasus. 
ANOMIA ADAMAS Gray. 

184y. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 117. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Anoniia. 
pi. 3, fig. 15, 1859. Gulf of California to Sechura Bay, Peru, 
and the Galapagos Islands. 

ANOMIA PACJLUS Gray. 

1849. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 117. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Ayiomia^ 
pi. 4, fig. 19, 1859. Tumbes, Peru. 

ANOMIA PERUVIANA Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 673.~Philippi, Abb., vol. 3, p. 211, 
pi. 1, tig. 2, 1850. San Pedro, California, south to Panama, 
and to Paita, Peru. 

Genus MONIA Gray. 

MONIA FOLIATA Broderip. 

1834. PlacunanoTnia foliata Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 2. — 
Reeve, Con. Icon., Placunanomia^ pi. 1, fig. 5, 1859. San 
Pedro, California, and south to Guayaquil. 

Superfamily MYTILACEA. 
Family MYTILID^E. 

Genus MYTILUS Linnaeus. 

MYTILUS ADAMSIANUS Dunker. 

1856. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 360. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Mytilus, pi. 
11, fig. 55. Gulf of Panama, to the Galapagos Islands. 

MYTILUS ATER Molina. 

1782. Stor. Nat. Chile, p. 203.— J/, orbigny anus Hupe, Hist, de 
Chile, Mol., p. 211, pi. 5, fig. 5, 1854. Manta, Ecuador, 
and south to Talcahuano, Chile, with the Galapagos Islands. 

MYTILUS CHILENSIS Hupe. 

i 1854. Hist, de Chile, Mol. , p. 309, pi. 5, fig. 4. Valparaiso, Chile, 

■ and southward to the Magellanic region. 

MYTILUS CHORUS Molina. 

1782. stor. Nat. Chile, p. 202.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Jfytilus, fig. 
4. Pacasmayo, Peru, south to Coquimbo, Chile. 

I Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 17 



258 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

MYTILUS DACTYLIFORMIS Hupe. 

1854. Hist, de Chile, MoL, p. 310, pi. 5, fig. 6. Isla Blanca del 
Chimba, Chile, to Corral. 

MYTILUS GRANULATUS Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 17; Rec. Biv. Sh., p. 246, pi. 24, fig. 
33, 1844.— HupJi:, Hist, de Chile, Mol., p. 312, pi. 5, fig. 7, 
1854. Lobos Islands, Peru, and south to the island of Chiloe. 

MYTILUS MAGELLANICUS Lamarck. 

1819. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, p. 119; Encycl. Meth. pi. 217, 
fig. 2. Callao, Peru, south to the Magellanic region. 

MYTILUS PATAGONICUS Orbigny. 

1889. In Clessin, Conch. Cab., 2d ed. Mytilacea^ p. 82, pi. 18, 
figs. 5, 6. Chile and southward. 

MYTILUS PILOSUS Reeve. 

1858. (Recluz, ms. in) Reeve, Con. Icon., Mytilus^ pi. 8, fig. 
35. Iquique to Coquimbo, Chile, and Juan Fernandez 
Island. 

MYTILUS SPLENDENS Dunker. 

1856. Proe. Zool. Soc, p. 368. Peru. 

MYTILUS STEARNSII Pilsbry and Raymond. 

1898. Nautilus, vol. 12, no. 6, p. 70, pi. 4, figs. 1, 2, 3. San 
Diego, California, and southward. (Chile, Dautzenberg, 
Oahu, Conrad.) 

Genus MODIOLUS Lamarck. 

MODIOLUS ARCIFORMIS Dall. 

1909. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 152, pi. 28, fig. 2, Hua- 
quilla, Ecuador. 

MODIOLUS GUYANENSIS Lamarck. 

1819. ModloJa guyanensis Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 6, pt. 1, 
p. 112. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Modiola^ pi. 4, fig. 17, 1857. 
Lower California to Tumbes, Peru. Also Guiana, and 
Brazil at Rio Janeiro. 

MODIOLUS MUTABILIS Carpenter. 

1856. Modlola {hrazillensls var. ?) iiiut(tl)Uix Carpenter, Mazat- 
lan Cat., p. 122. Mazatlan to Ecuador. 

MODIOLUS PURPURA TUS Lamarck. 

1819. An. s. Vert., vol. 6, p. 113.— Clessin, Conch. Cab., 2d 
ed., p. 128, {ovalis) pi. 33, figs. 4, 5, 1889. Ecuador, .south to 
Concepcion, Chile. 

MODIOLUS SPECIOSUS Dunker. 

1889. Conch. Cab., 2d ed., Mytilacea, p. 112, pi. 81, fig. 1. 
Panama, south to Paita, Peru. 

Genus ADULA H. and A. Adams. 
ADULA SOLENIFORMIS Orbigny. 

1846. Mytilus soleniform.is Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 649, 
pi. 85, fig. 17, 18. Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 259 

Genus LITHOPHAGA Bolten; 
LITHOPHAGA ARISTATA Dillwyn. 

1817. Mytilus arutatus (Solander Ms.) Dillwyn, Rec. Shells, 
I, p. 303.— Wood, Index Test., pi. 12, fig. 8, 1825. Gulf of 
California south to the Chilean coast. Red Sea, Senegal, 
West Indies. 

LITHOPHAGA ATTENUATA Deshayes. 

1836. Modiola attenuata Deshayes, An. s. Vert., 2d ed., vol. 7, 
p. 28. — SowEKBY, Gen. Sh., Lithudomus, fig. 3, 182-1. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 2, p. 148, pi. 1, fig. 6, 1847. Coast of 
Peru (at Callao, in nulliporc) and Chile. 

LITHOPHAGA INCA Orbigny. 

1846. Lithodotinis ^V^c* Orbigny, V03'. Am. Mer., p. 651. Paita, 
Peru. 

LITHOPHAGA PERUVIANA Orbigny. 

1846. Lifhodo/// US j)t'ruvianus O'RBiG'SY^Yoy. Am. Mer., p. 651. 
Callao, Peru, and Arica, Chile. 

Order ^NOIVl^^LODESIVlACEA. 

Superfamily ANATINACEA. 
Family PERIPLOMATID^E. 

Genus PERIPLOMA Schumacher. 
PERIPLOMA LENTICULARIS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 87. Muerte Island, Ecuador. 

PERIPLOMA PLANIUSCULA Sowerby. . 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 87. — Hanley, Rec. Biv. Sh., pp. 21, 
339; suppl. pi. 10, fig. 33, 1842. Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

Family PANDORID.Fl 

Genus PANDORA Schumacher. 
PANDORA RADIATA Sowerby. 

1830. Species Conch., figs. 23. 24; Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 94, 1835. 
Muerte Island, Ecuador. 

Genus CLIDIOPHORA Carpenter. 
CLIDIOPHORA ARCUATA Sowerby. 

1830. Pandora arcuata Sowerby, Species Conch., figs. 27, 28; 
Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 93, 1835. Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

Family LYONSIID.E. 

Genus ENTODESMA Phihppi. 
ENTODESMA CUNEATA Gray. 

1828. Anatlna cuneata Gray, Spicil. Zool., vol. 1, pi. 3, fig. 14. 
Coast of Ecuador, south to the Magellanic region. 



260 PROCEEDINGS OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

(SEPTIBRANCHIA TA.) 
Superfamily POROMYACEA. 

Family CUSPIDARIID.E. 

Genus CUSPIDARIA Nardo. 

CUSPIDARIA COSTATA Sowerby. 

18;:)4. Atidtiiia coHtata Sowt£.^W!l:^Vyoc.. Zool. Soc.,p. 87. Coast 
of Costa Rica, and south to Santa Elena, Ecuador, 

Order TELEODESAdACEA. 

(NASSIBRANCHIATA.) 

Superfamily ASTARTACEA. 

Family CRASSATELLITID.F. 

Genus OR ASSATELLITES Kruger. 
CRASSATELLITES GIBBOSUS Sowerby. 

1832. Orassatella gihbosa Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. o^.— 
Reeve, (^on. Icon., Grassatt'Ihi., pi. 1, fig. 1, 1843. Gulf of 
California, .south to Paita, Peru. 

Superfamily CYRENACEA. 

Family CYRENID.E. 
Genus CYRENA Lamarck. 
CYRENA ANOMALA Deshayes. 

1851. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 21. — Prime, Mon. Corbie, p. 30, tig. 
21, 1865.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Cyrena, pi. li», tig-. lo9, 1876. 
Coasts of Ecuador and Peru. 

CYRENA CHILINA Prime. 

1867. Ann. Lye. N. Hist. N. York, vol. 8, p. 418. Chile. 

CYRENA CORDIFORMIS Recluz. 

1853. Journ. de Conchyl., vol. 1, p. 251, pi. 7, tig. 9. Paita, 
Peru. 

CYRENA FONTAINEI Orbigny. 

1844. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 569, pi. 83, tigs. 14-15. Guayaquil, 
Ecuador. 

CYRENA FORTIS Prime. 

1861. Journ. de Conchyl., vol. «>, p. 355; vol. 10, p. 387, pi. 14, 
tig. 2, 1862. Ecuador. 

CYRENA ISOCARDIOIDES Deshayes. 

1854. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22.— Prime, Mon. Corbie, p. 25, 1865; 
Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 159, pi. 26, tig. 4. Ecuador 
coast. Estero Bendito, Tumbes, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 261 



CYRENA MERIDIONALIS Prime. 

18(35. Mon. Corbiculidti?, p. 19, fig. 14. Paita, Peru. 

CYRENA NOTABILIS Deshayes. 

1854. Pi'oc. Zool. Soc, p. 21. — Sowekby, Con. Icon., Cyrena^ 
pi. 18, fig-. 107, 18T(), Paita, Peru. 

Sup.erfamily CARDITACEA. 

Family CARDITID.^1 

Genus CARDITA Bruguiere. 

CARDITA GRAYI Dall. 

1903. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. for 1902, p. 706.— Reeve, 
Con. Icon., Cardita^ pi. 7, fig. 32, 1'6-^^. — Cardita crassaGnAY, 
Beechey's Voy., 1839, not of Lamarck, 1819. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

CARDITA LATICOSTATA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 195. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Cardita, pi. 
7, fig. 30, 1843. Guaymas, Mexico, to Panama and Guaya- 
quil, Ecuador. 

CARDITA (GLANS) NAVIFORMIS Reeve. 

1843. Oardlta navlfor//i/'s Ris.KYE, Con. Icon., Card'dn^ pi. 9, fig. 

45. Arica to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus CARDITAMERA Conrad. 
CARDITAMERA RADIATA Sowerby. 

1832. Cardita radiata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 195. — 
Reeve, C^on. Icon., Cardita^ pi. 1, figs. i)a-h, 1843. Costa 
Rican coast and southward to Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

Genus VENERICARDIA Lamarck. 
VENERICARDIA COMPRESSA Reeve. 

1843. Caidita C0ijijj?\'ssa Rukve, Con. Icon., Cardita, pi. 9, fig. 

46. Valparaiso, Chile, and southward. 

VENERICARDIA CRASSICOSTATA Sowerby. 

1825. Cardita' eras)<ie(»<t<da Sowerby, Tankerville Cat., app. p. 
iv. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Cardita^ pi. 5, figs. 25-26; pi. 8, 
fig. 38, 1843. Gulf of California, and southward to P^cuador 
and the Galapagos Ids. 

VENERICARDIA P.ETELIANA Clessin. 

1888. Cardita jjaeteliana Clessin, Con. Cab., 2d ed., Cardita, 
p. 20, pi. 6, figs 7-8. Iquique, Chile. 

VENERICARDIA SPURCA Sowerby. 

1832. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 195. — Reeve, Con. Icon,, Cardita, 
pi. 7, fig. 32, 1843. Callao, Peru, and southward to the 
Magellanic region. 

VENERICARDIA VELUTINA E. A. Smith. 

1881. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 42, pi. 5, fig. 8. Chiloe Island and 
southward to Punta Arenas. 



262 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



Family CONDYLOCARDIID^E. 

Genus CARDITELLA Smith. 

CARDITELLA PYGM.a:A Philippi. 

1860. Cardiurn. pygmseum Philippi, Atacania Reise, p. 176, 
Zool., pi. 7, figs. 3«-('. Isla Blanca, Chile, S. lat. 23" 30'. 

CARDITELLA SEMEN Reeve. 

1843. Cardita semen Reeve, Con. Icon., Cardita., pi. 9, fig. 43, 
1843. Cobija, Chile, south to Isla Blanca. 

CARDITELLA TEGULATA Reeve. 

1843. Cardita tegulata Reeve, Con. Icon., Cardita^ pi. 9, fig. 
48. Callao, Peru, to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus CARDITOPSIS Smith. 

CARDITOPSIS FLABELLUM Reeve. 

1843. Cardita jJabellum Reeve, Con. Icon.. Cardita., pi. 9, fig. 
47. Callao, Peru, to Valparaiso, and southward to Magellan 
Straits. 

Superfamily CHAMACEA. 
Family CHAMID^F. 

Genus CHAMA Bruguiere. 
CHAMA ECHINATA Broderip. 

1835. Trans. Zool. 8oc. London, vol. 1, p. 305, pi. 39, figs. 5-7. 
Panama and southward to Plata, Peru. 

CHAMA FRONDOSA Broderip. 

1835. Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, p. 302, pi. 38, figs. 1, 2. 
Gulf of Panama to Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

CHAMA PELLUCIDA Broderip. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 60; Trans. Zool. Soc. London, vol. 1, 

p. 302, pi. 38, fig. 3, 1835. San Pedro, California, south to 
Valparaiso, Chile, and Juan Fernandez Island. 

Superfamily LUCINACEA. 
Family LUCINID^. 

Genus PHACOIDES Blainville. 

PHACOIDES FENESTRATUS Hinds. 

1844. Lad na fenestrata Hinds, Zool. Sulph. Vo}-., MoU., p. 66, 
pi. 10, fig. 2. Lower California to Panama and to Tumbes, 
Peru. 

w.fiACOIDES TELLINOIDES Reeve. 

1850. Liicina telUnoides Reeve. Con. Icon., Lucina, pi. 9, fig. 56. 
Magdalena Ba}', Lower California, to Guaj'aquil, Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— BALL. 263 

Family DIPLODONTID^. 
Genus DIPLODONTA Bronn. 

DIPLODONTA ARTEMIDIS Dall. 

1909. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 156, pL 28, fig. 8. Capon, 
Peru. 

DIPLODONTA C.ELATA Reeve. 

1850. Lucina cxlata Keeve, Con. Icon., Lvcina, pi. 6, fig. 27. 
Bay of Guayaquil. 

DIPLODONTA INCONSPICUA Philippi. 

1842. Arch. f. Naturg., p. 71.— Hupe, Hist, de Chile, Zool., p. 
357, pi. 8, fig. 4, 1851. Mejillones, Chile, south to Chiloe 
Island. 

DIPLODONTA PUNCTATA Say. 

1822. Aniphidesi7ia punctata Say, J ourn. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
I, p. 308. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Zucma, pi. 8, fig. 43, 1850. 
Chiloe Island and Atlantic coast. 

DIPLODONTA SERICATA Reeve. 

1850. Lucina sericata Reeve, Con. Icon., Lucina, pi. 9, fig. 25, 
1850. Gulf of California to Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

Family THYASIRID^. 

Genus THYASIRA Leach. 

THYASIRA TOMEANA Dall. 

1901. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 23, p. 818, pi. 39, fig. 3. Tome, 
Chile. 

Family LEPTONID^E. 

Genus ERYCINA (Lamarck) Recluz. 

ERYCINA? DUBLA Deshayes. 

1855. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 183. Guayaquil. 
Genus BORNIA Philippi. 

BORNIA? PAPYRACEA Deshayes. 

1855. Erycina jxipijracea Deshayes, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 183. 
Santa Elena, Bay of Gua3^aquil. 

BORNIA PLATEI Stempell. 

1899. Lepton platei Stempell, Fauna Chilensis, vol. 2, pt. 1, p. 
233, figs. 20-21. eJuan Fernandez Island. 

Genus KELLIA Turton. 

KELLIA BULLATA Philippi. 

1845. Arch. f. Naturg., vol. 11, p. 61; Reise Atacama, p. 175, 
Zool., pi. 7, figs, la-c, 1860. Cobija, Chile, and south to 
Punta Arenas. 



264 I'ROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



KELLIA SUBORBICULARIS Montagu. 

1804:. 2Iya saborhlcalaris Montagu, Test. Brit., pp. 31), 564, pi. 
2, tig. 6. — TuRTOX, Dith3'ra Brit., p. 56, pi. 11, figs. 5, 6, 
1822. Straits of Fuca, British Columbia, south to Panama, 
Ecuador, and Peru. Also Antilles. 

KELLIA TUMBESIANA Stempell. 

1899. D'q)lod(mtina tumlesiaua Stempell, Fauna Chilensis, Bd. 
2, pt. 1, p. 232, pi. 12, figs. 18, 19, 19^/. Tumbes peninsula, 
near Talcahuano, Chile. 

Genus ROCHEFORTIA Velain. 

ROCHEFORTIA COQUIMBENSIS Hanley. 

1856. Montacnta Cixinlnibends Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
310, Coquimbo, Chile. 

Genus LAS^^A Leach. 
LAS.(EA PETITIANA Recluz. 

181:3. Poronla j^etltkma Recluz, Rev. Sci. Soc. Cuv., p. 175. — 
KelUa miUaris Philippi, Reise Atacama, p. 175, Zool., pi. 7, 
figs. 2a-(;', 1860. Callao, Peru, south to Magellan Straits 
and Juan Fernandez. 

Family KELLIELLID^. 

Genus ALIGENA H. C. Lea. 

ALIGENA COKERI Ball. 

19(19. Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 37, p. 155, pi. 28, figs. 5, 6. 
Attached to wormcases b}^ a byssus, at the '"inside beach," 
Capon, Peru. 

Superfamily CARDIACEA. 

Family CARDIID^. 

Genus CARDIUM (Linnaeus) Lamarck. 

CARDIUM (TRACHYCARDIUM) CONSORS Broderip and Sowerby. 

1833. Cardiani coimjr < Broderip and Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, 
p. 85. — Sowerby, Con. 111., Cardiam, p. 3, no. 40, pi. 47, fig. 
8, 1833. Gulf of California to Guayaquil and the CJalapagos 
Islands. 

CARDIUM (TRACHYCARDIUM) MACULOSUM Wood. 

1815. Gen. Conch., p. 218, pi. 52, fig. 3; not of Sowerby, 1833? 
Con. 111., vol. 1, p. 4, pi. 182, fig. 63, 1840. Gulf of Panama to 
Guaya(|uil. 

CARDIUM (TRACHYCARDIUM) SENTICOSUM Sowerby. 

1833. Cardium sentlcosum Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 84; 
Con. 111., Cardium, pi. 47, fig. 10, 1840. Gulf of California to 
Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTIOX OF ,S//FLLK FROM PERU—DALL. 265 



CARDIUM (RINGICARDIUM) PROCERUM Sowerby. 

1832. Cardlum procenim Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. S3; 
Con. 111., vol. 1, p. 5, pi. 60, %. 23, 1834. Cedros Island, 
Lower California, south to the Lobos Islands, Peru. 

CARDIUM (TRIGONIOCARDIA) GRANIFERUM Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Cardiani granlferum Brodekip and Sowerby, Zool. 
Journ., vol. 4, p. 367. Con. 111., Cardlum^ p. 3, no 38, pi. -tl), 
tig. 17, 1834. Gulf of California and south to Guayaquil. 

CARDIUM (TRIGONIOCARDIA) OBOVALE Sowerby. 

1833. Cardlum ohovale Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 84; Con. 
111., Cardlum^ pi. 46, fig-. 4, 1833. Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California, and south to the coast of Ecuador. 

CARDIUM (FRAGUM) BIANGULATUM Sowerby. 

1829. Cardlum hlarxj (datum Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 4, p. 
367. Con. 111., Cardlum, fig. 2, 1833. Catalina Island, Cali- 
fornia, south to Guayaquil. 

CARDIUM (FRAGUM) MAGNIFICUM Deshayes. 

1857. Carpenter, Eep. Brit. Assoc, 18.57, p. 187. — C. j>loi'n,l- 
costatum Sowerby, Con. 111., Cardlum, no. 83, pi. 50, fig. 25, 
1834. Lower California south to Paita, Peru. 

CARDIUM (PAPYRIDEA) ASPERSUM Sowerby. 

1833. Cardlum aspcrsum Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 85; 
Con. 111., Cardiwn, fig. 15, 1834. Magdalena Bay, Lower 
California, to GuaA^aquil. 

CARDIUM (LiEVICARDIUM) ELENENSE Sowerby. 

1840. Cardlum elenense Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 109; 
Con. 111., Cardium, pi. 181, fig. 58, 1840. Gulf of California 
to Guayaquil and Clarion Island. 

Superfamily VENERACEA; 

Family VENERID.E. 

Genus DOSINIA Scopoli. 

DOSINIA DUNKERI Philippi. 

1844. CytkereadunkeriFHUAFFi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 4, pi. 2, fig. 9. — 
Sowerby, Thes. Con., Ai^temls, pi. 140, fig. 5. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, south to Tumbes, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

DOSINIA PONDEROSA Gray. 

1838. Artemis j^onderosa Gray, in Analyst, vol. 8, p. 309. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, Cytherea, p. 171. — Sowerby, Thes. 
Con., Artemis, p. 656, pi. 140, fig. 2, 1852. Magdalena Bay, 
Lower California, south to Paita, Peru. 

Genus TIVELA Link. 
TIVELA BYRONENSIS Gray. 

1838. Trlgona hyronensis Gray, Analyst, vol. 8, p. 302-9, no; 24. 
Scammon Lagoon, Lower California, south to Guayaquil. 



I 



266 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

TIVELA HIANS Philippi. 

1851. Donax hums Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., vol. 8, p. 74. — 
RoEMER, Mon. Venus., p. 9, pi. 3, fig-. 3, 1869. Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

TIVELA PLANULATA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. CytJierca jilanulata Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., 
vol. 5, p. 48. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Cytherea,\A. 127, fig. 13, 
1851. Gulf of California south to Coquimbo, Chile. 

Genus M A.CROC ALLISTA Meek. 
MACROCALLISTA AURANTIACA Sowerby. 

1831. Cytherea mirantiaca Sowerby, Gen. Sh., vol. 33, fig. 6; 
Thes. Con., CyfJured, pi. 132, fig. 97 h!s, 1853. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Guayaquil. 

MACROCALLISTA PANNOSA Sowerby. 

1835. Cytherea }KUinosa Sowerby, Proe. Zool. Soc., p 47; Thes. 
Con., Cytherea, pi. 138, figs. 140-142; pi. 163, tigs. 202-203, 
1851. Gulf of California south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

MACROCALLISTA SQUALIDA Sowerby. 

1835. Cytherea squall da Sowerby, Proe. Zool. Soc, p. 23; Thes. 
Con., Cytherea, p. 629, pi. 131, figs. 87-89, 1851. Cedros 
Island, Lower California, south to Peru. 

Genus PITARIA Roemer. 
PITARIA INCONSPICUA Sowerby. 

1835. Cytherea inconspleua Sowerby, Proe, Zool. Soc., p. 47; 
Thes. Con., Cytherea, pi. 133, figs. 133-134, 1852. Paita, 
Peru, and south to Talcahuano, Chile. 

PITARIA POLLICARIS Carpenter. 

1864. CaUista poUicaris Carpenter, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., 
vol. 13, p. 475. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Dione {prora), fig. 45. 
Gulf of California to Callao, Peru. 

PITARIA TOMEANA Dall. 

1902. Proe. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 26, p. 402, pi. 15, fig. 2. 
Gulf of Panama to Tome, Chile, and the Galapagos Islands. 

PITARIA (LAMELLICONCHA) CIRCINATA Born. 

1780. Venus circhiata Born, Test. Mus. Vind.. p. 61, pi. 4, fig. 
8.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., Cytherea, pi. 132, figs. 104-106, 
1853. Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

PITARIA (LAMELLICONCHA) CONCINNA Sowerby. 

1835. Cytherea concinna Sowerby, Proe. Zool. Soc, p. 23; 
Thes. Con., Cytherea, pi. 132, figs. 99-100, 1851. Magdalena 
Bay, Lower California, to Paita, Peru. 

PITARIA (LAMELLICONCHA) CUMINGI Orbigny. 

1846. Verms cumingi Orbigny, Vo3^ Am. Mer,, p. 563.— 
Cytherea modesta Sowerby, Thes. Con., Cytherea, pi. 136, 
fig. 184, 1851. Jipijax)a, Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 267 

PITARIA (HYSTEROCONCHA) LUPANARIA Lesson. 

1830. Cf/t/terea liipanariaLtF.sso's^Yoj. Coq., p. 430. — Chexu, 
Illustr. Con., Cyt/ierea, pi. 9, fig. 9. Ballenas Lagoon, Lower 
California, to Paita, Peru. 

PITARIA (HYSTEROCONCHA) MULTISPINOSA Sowerby. 

1851. Cytherea wuUispinosa Sowerby, Tbes. Con., Cytherea^ p. 
632, pi. 132, fig. 112. Gulf of Panama, .south to Paita, Peru. 

Genus CYTHEREA Bolten. 
CYTHEREA MULTICOSTATA Sowerby. 

1835. Yenua inuUicostata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22; Thes. 
Con., Venus^ pi. 152, fig. 10, 1853. Gulf of California to Pan- 
ama and the Galapagos Islands. 

CYTHEREA (VENTRICOLA) MACTRACEA Broderip. 

1835. Venus tnactracea Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 41 (unfig- 
ured). Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus CYCLINELLA Dall. 
CYCLINELLA KROYERI Philippi. 

1848. Venus h'oyeriV^iiAvvi^ Abb., vol. 3, p. 78, pi. 7, fig. 9. 
Gulf of California to Valparaiso, Chile. 

CYCLINELLA SUBQUADRATA Hanley. 

1845. Artemis sulx^uadrata Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 11. — 
Sowerby, Thes. Con., Arteniis, pi. 161, fig. 22, 1852. Guay- 
mas, Mexico, south to Guayaquil. 

Genus CHIONE Megerle. 
CHIONE ALVAREZII Orblgny. 

1846. Venus alvarezii Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 557, pi. 83, 
figs. 3, 4. Peru (Tschudi); Patagonia (Orbigny). 

CHIONE ANTIQUA King. 

1831. Ve7ius antiqua King, Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 336. — V. dis- 
crepans Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 174, pi. 3, fig. 2, 1844; not 
of Sowerby, 1835. Callao, Peru, south to the Magellanic 
region. 

CHIONE COMPTA Broderip. 

1835. Venus coiiijpta Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 43. — Sow- 
erby, Thes. Con., Vemis, pi. 154, figs. 32-34, 1853. Gulf of 
California to Sechura Bay, Peru. 

CHIONE CRENIFERA Sowerby. 

1835. Venus crenifeixi Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 43; Thes. 
Con., Venus^ p. 156, figs. 73-74, 1853. Mazatlan, Mexico, to 
Paita, Peru; also Atlantic coast. 

CHIONE ELLIPTICA Lamarck. 

1818. Venus elliptica Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 5, p. 590, no. 
20. Encycl. Meth, pi. 267, fig. 5 a-h. Talcahuano to Chiloe, 
Chile. 



268 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.3-. 

CHIONE GNIDIA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Venus gnidla Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 
4, p. 364. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Venus., pi. 154, fig. 25, 1853. 
Ccdros Island, Lower California, to Paita, Peru. 

CHIONE SPURCA Sowerby. 

1835. Venus spurca Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 23; Thes. 
Con., Vemis^ pi. 156, fig'. 97 only, 1853. Valparaiso, Chile. 

CHIONE SUBROSTRATA Lamarck. 

1818. Venus subrostrata Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 5, p. 588; 
Encyol. Moth., pi. 267, fig. 7. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Venus., 
pi. 154, fig. 39, 1853.- Mazatlan, Mexico, to Paita, Peru; 
also Atlantic coast. 

CHIONE UNDATELLA Sowerby. 

1835. Venus undatella Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22; Thes. 
Con., Venus., pi. 153, fig. 22, 1853. San Pedro, California, 
south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

CHIONE (TIMOCLEA) ASPERRIMA Sowerby. 

1835. Venus asperrima Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 42; Thes. 
Con., Venus, pi. 155, figs. 57-58, 1853. Gulf of California to 
the Lobos Islands, Peru. 

CHIONE (TIMOCLEA) COLUMBIENSIS Sowerby. 

1835. Venus cola inh! exists Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 21; 
Thes. Con., Venus, pi. 155, figs. 53-54, 1853. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia to Pacasmayo, Peru. 

CHIONE (TIMOCLEA) TUMIDA Sowerby. 

1852. Tapes tumida Sowerby, Thes. Con., Tapes., p. 697, pi. 
146, fig. 42 (not var. tumida Carpenter). Panama to Guayaquil. 

CHIONE (LIROPHORA) DISCREPANS Sowerby. 

1835.. Venus discrepans Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 22; Thes. 
Con., Venus, pi. 155, fig. 65, 1853. Not V. discrepans 
Philippi, 1853. Islay, Peru. 

CHIONE (LIROPHORA) MARIjE Orbigny. 

1846. Venus marue Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 563. — Sow- 
erby, Thes. Con., Ve7ius, pi. 157, fig. 113, 1853. Gulf of 
California to Guayaquil. 

CHIONE (LIROPHORA) PERUVIANA Sowerby. 

1835. Ve7^usp)eruvlana^o^\¥!AiWi:., Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22; Thes. 
Con., Venus, pi. 155, fig. 66, 1853. Callao and south to the 
Chilean coast. 

CHIONE (CLAUSINELLA) GAYI Hupe. 

1854. Ve7ius gai/i Hup^, Hist, de Chile, Zool., Mol., vol. 8, p. 
337, pi. 6, fig. 5. Valparaiso, south to Chiloe Island. 

Genus ANOMALOCARDIA Schumacher. 
ANOMALOCARDIA SUBIMBRICATA Sowerby. 

1835. Ve7ius suhiiahricata Sowekby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 21; 
Thes. Con., Venus, pi. 154, figs. 35-37, 1853. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, south to Paita, Peru. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 269 

ANOMALOCARDIA SUBRUGOSA Sowerby. 

1834. Venus suh'ugosa Sowerbt, Geu., Vetius, tig. 2; Thes. Con., 
Verms, pi. 155, fig. 63, 1853. Magdalena Bay, Lower Cali- 
fornia, to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Genus MARCIA (Adams) Fischer. 

MARCIA LENTICULARIS Sowerby. 

1835. Ve?ius lentictdarls Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 42; Thes. 
Con., Vemcs, pi. 161, tig. 191, 1853. Valparaiso and Co- 
quimbo, Chile. 

MARCIA RUFA Lamarck. 

1818. Oytherea rufa Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 5, p. 570 (not 
of Sowerby, 1853); Thes. Con., Tapes,^\. 150, fig. 123, 1852. 
Gulf of Panama and south to Concepcion, Chile. 

Genus PAPHIA Bolten. 

PAPHIA (PROTOTHACA) CINERACEA Hupe. 

1854. Venus cineracea Hupe, 'Hist, de Chile, Zool., Mol., p. 334, 
pi. 6, fig. 2. Callao, Peru, to northern Chile. 

PAPHIA (PROTOTHACA) GRATA Say. 

1831. Venus grata Say, Am. Con., pt. 3, pi. 26. Lower Cali- 
fornia, south to Antofagasta, Chile. 

PAPHIA (PROTOTHACA) THACA Molina. 

1782. Cluuna tfiaca Molina, Saggio Hist, de Chile, p. 178. — 
Philippi, Abb., vol. 1, p. 127, pi. 2, fig. 1; pi. 3, fig. 3, 1844. 
Ancon, Peru, and south to the Chonos Archipelago, Chile. 

Genus VENERUPIS Lamarck. 
VENERUPI^ OBLONGA Lamarck. 

1834. Petrlcola ohlonga., Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, pi 46; 
Thes. Con., Venerujjls, p. 765, pi. 165, fig. 21, 1854. Gulf 
of Panama to Pacasmayo, Peru. 

VENERUPIS FERNANDEZIANA StempelL 

1899. Fauna Chilensis, suppl. Bd. 4, fasc. 1, p. 237, pi. 12, figs. 
22-23. Juan Fernandez Islands. 

Family PETRICOLID^. 

Genus PETRICOLA Lamarck. 
PETRICOLA CONCINNA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 46; Thes. Con., Petrlcola, p. 778, 
pi. 166, fig. 3, 1854. Monte Cristi, Ecuador, to Arica, Chile. 

PETRICOLA DENTICULATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 46; P. dactylus in Thes. Con., Petri- 
cola, p. 773, pi. 166, figs. 6, 7, 1854; not of Sowerby, Gen. 
Sh. 1823. Gulf of California to Paita, Peru. 

PETRICOLA DISCORS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 46. (Untigured.) Lam bayeque, Peru. 



270 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

PETRICOLA ELLIPTICA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. 8oc., p. 46; Thes. Con., Fefricola, p. 774, 
pi. 106, fig. 10, 1854. Paita, Peru, to Arica, Chile. 

PETRICOLA ROBUSTA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 47; Thes. Con., Fetricola, p. 775, 
pi. 166, figs. 16, 17, 1854. Panama to Gua^-aquil. 

PETRICOLA RUGOSA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 47; Thes. Con., Petrlcola^ p. 773, 
pi. 166, figs. 13-14, 1854. Lamba3-eque, Peru, to Chiloe 
Island, Chile. 

Superfamily TELLINACEA. 

Family TELLINID^E. 

Genus TELLINA Linnaeus. 
TELLINA COLUMBIENSIS Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 71; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 307, pi. 65, 
fig. 246, 1846. Monte Cristi, Ecuador. 

TELLINA CRYSTALLINA Wood. 

1815. Gen. Con., p. 149; Index Test., pi. 3, fig. 10, 1825. Pana- 
ma, Gua3'aquil; also West Indies. 

TELLINA EBURNEA Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 61; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 241, pi. 58, 
fig. 91, 1846. Gulf of California, to Paita, Peru. 

TELLINA HIBERNA Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 148; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 282, pi. 57, 
fig. 53, 1846. Panama to Gua3'aquil. 

TELLINA IN.ffiOUISTRIATA Donovan. 

1802. Brit. Shells, vol. 4, pi. 123. Guayaquil. 

TELLINA LYRA Hanley. 

1844. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 68; Thes. Con. Tellina, p. 271, pi. 62, 
fig. 187, 1846. Lower California to Tumbes, Peru. 

TELLINA PRINCEPS Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 62; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 238, pi. 63, 
fig. 206, 1846. Peru. 

TELLINA PRORA Hanley. 

1844. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 61; Thes. Con., Tellvna, p. 243, pi. 60, 
fig. 152, 1846. Bay of Guayaquil. 

TELLINA RUBESCENS Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 60; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 242, pi. 60, 
fig. 153, 1846. Gulf of Panama to Tumbes, Peru. 

Genus TELLIDORA Morch. 
TELLIDORA BURNETI Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Tell'ma hurneti Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., 
vol. 4, p. 362, pi. 9, fig. 2. Mazatlan, Mexico, to Salango, 
Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 271 



Genus METIS H. and A. Adams. 

METIS DOMBEYI Hanley. 

1844. Tellina domheyi Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 144 and 
index; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 323, pi. 62, fig. 182, 1846. Gulf 
of Panama to Peru. 

METIS EXCAVATA Sowerby. 

1867. Tellina excavata Sowerby, Con, Icon., Tellina, pi. 26, fig. 
138. Gulf of California, to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos 
Islands. 

Genus MACOMA Leach. 

MACOMA GRANDIS Hanley. 

1844. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 181; Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 327, pi. 65, 
fig. 247, 1846. Tumbes, Peru. 

MACOMA HUPEANA Dall. 

1908. Dall, Albatross Rep., p. 421. — Tellina inornata IIup6, 
Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, Zool., Mol., p. 356, pi. 8, fig. 2, 1854; 
not of Hanley, 1844. Southern Chile. 

MACOMA INORNATA Hanley. 

1844. Tellina inornata Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 144; Thes. 
Con., Tellina, p. 315, pi. 59, fig. 123, 1846. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, to Concepcion, Chile. 

MACOMA PUMILA Hanley. 

1844. Tellina purnila Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 69; Thes. 
Con., Tellina, p. 279, pi. 57, fig. 41, 1846. Valparaiso, Chile. 

MACOMA UNDULATA Hanley. 

1844. Tellina undulata Ha'Ni.y.y, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 72; Thes. 
Con., Tellina, p. 310, pi. 59, fig. 107, 1846. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia, and south to Santa Elena, Ecuador. 

Family SEMELID^E. 

Genus SEMELE Schumacher. 

SEMELE CORRUGATA Sowerby. 

1832. Amjjhidesma corrugata Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 200; 
Con. 111., Amphldesma, tig. 18, 1833. Gulf of Panama, to 
Valparaiso, Chile. 

SEMELE ELLIPTICA Sowerby. 

1830. Spec Con., Amphidesma, fig. 17. — Amphidesma ellipti- 
cum Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 200, 1832 (not of Koch, 
1837). Monte Cristi, Ecuador. 

SEMELE FORMOSA Sowerby. 

183j}. Amphidesma formosum Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, 
p. 199; Con. 111., Amphidesma, tig. 8, 1833. Santa Elena, 
Bay of Guayaquil, Ecuador. 

SEMELE L^VIS Sowerby. 

1832. Amphidesma leeve Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 199; 
Con. 111., Amphidesma, tig. 6, 1833. Jipijapa, Ecuador. 



272 Ph'OCEEDlXGS OF THE XATIOXAL MLSEUil. vol.37. 

SEMELE LENTICULARIS Sowerby. 

1832. Amphldesina lenticularis Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc. p. 
200; Con. III., Amphidesma, tig. 9, 1833. Santa Elena, 
Guayaquil. 

SEMELE PALLIDA Sowerby. 

I8;')2. AinpJtidesma paUidinn Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc p. 199; 
Con. 111., Amphidesma^ tig- 3, 1833. Salango, Ecuador. 

SEMELE PULCHRA Sowerby. 

1832, Amphidesma pnlchrum Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 57; 
Con. 111.. Am2)hidesma^ fig. 2. 1833. Bay of Caraques. Ec- 
uador. 

SEMELE PURPURASCENS Sowerby, 

1832. Aiaphidesina pinpurascens Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 
199; Con. 111.. Amijhlde><ma^ tig, 5, 1833. Santa Elena. Bay 
of Guayaquil. 

SEMELE ROSEA Sowerby. 

1532. Aiiipliidesma roseum Sowerby. Proc Zool, Soc. p. 199; 
Con. III., Amphidesma^ fig, 1, 1833. Tumbes. Peru. 

SEMELE RUPIUM Sowerby. 

1832. Amphidesma rupium Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 199; 
Con. 111., Ai/iphidesm>u fig- H, 1833. California, south to 
Guayaquil and the Galapagos Islands. 

SEMELE SOLIDA Gray. 

1828. Amphidesma solidum Gray. Spicil. Zool.. pi. 6, fig. 6. — 
HuPE, Hist, de Chile, ]Mol.. pi. 7, fig. 1. Callao, Peru, south 
to the Chonos Archipelago. 

SEMELE VARIEGATA Lamarck. 

1818. A//p/iidei<ma variegatum Lamarck, An. s. Yert., vol. 5, 
p. 190; Encycl. Meth., pi. 291, fig. 3.— Hupe, Hist, de Chile, 
vol. 8. Mol.. p. 359. pi. 7. fig. 2, 1854. Pferu and Chile. 

Genus CUMINGIA So^A^e^by. 

CURIINGIA LAMELLOSA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc Zool, Soc, p, 31; Con. Icon., Cumlngia^ pi. 1, fig. 
5, 1873. Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru, and to northern 
Chile. 

CUMINGIA MUTICA Sowerby. 

1533, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 34; Con. Icon., Cumingia, pi. 1, fig. 
3, 1873. Bay of Guayaquil to Paita, Peru, and south to 
Concepcion, Chile. 

Family PSAMMOBIID.E. 

Genus PSAMMOBIA Lamarck. 
PSAMMOBIA LATA Deshayes. 

1854. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 318. — Reeve, Con, Icon,, Psammobia^ 
pi. 1, fig. 7, 1857. Bay of Guayaquil. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 273 

PSAMMOBIA SOLIDA Gray. 

1828. ' Solecurtus solidus Gray, Spicil. ZooL, pi. 3, fig. 12. — 
PsammoMa solida FuiIjIpfi, Abb., vol. 1, Psa7mnohia, pi. 1, 
fig. 1, 1844. Callao, Peru, to the Chonos Archipelago. 

Genus SANGUINOLARIA Lamarck. 

^NGUINOLARIA HANLEYI Bertin. 

1878. Tellina hanleyi Bertin, Re vis. Tell., p. 268. — Tellina 
7'ufescens Hanley, Thes. Con., Tellina, p. 307, pi. 53, fig. 213, 
1846; not of Chemnitz. Lower California, south to Panama 
and to Tumbes, Peru. 

Genus TAGELUS Gray. 
TAGELUS (MESOPLEURA) DOMBEYI Lamarck. 

1818. Solen domheil Lamarck, An. s. Vert., vol. 5, p. 454; 
Encycl. Meth., pi. 224, fig. 1.— Hupe, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, 
Mol., p. 366, pi. 7, fig. 5,1854. Tumbes, Peru, south to 
Valdivia, Chile. 

Family DONACID^. 

Genus DONAX Linnaeus. 
DONAX ARICANA Dall, new name. 

1909. D. raduitun, Valenciennes, Humb. Voy.,vol. 2, p. 221, 
pi. 50, figs. 3, 4, 1833. — Bertin, Revis. Donacidees, p. 95, 
pi. 3, fig. la-i, 1879; not of Gmelin, Syst. Nat., p. 3266, 
1791. Paita, Peru, to Arica, Chile. 

DONAX ASPERA Hanley. 

1845. Donax a^>er Hanley, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 14. — Sowerby, 
Thes. Con., Donax, p. 307, pi. 1, fig. 24, 1862. Gulf of 
Panama to Tumbes, Peru. 

DONAX GRACILIS Hanley. 

1845. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 15. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Donax, 
p. 314, pi. 3, figs. 76-79, 1862. California, south to Guaya- 
(|uil. 

DONAX OBESA Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 541, pi. 81, figs. 28-30; not D. ohesus 
Gould, 1851. Gulf of Panama to Paita, Peru. 

DONAX OBESULA Deshayes. 

1854. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 352. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Donax, pL 
5, fig. 30, 1858. Peru (Deshayes). 

DONAX PAYTENSIS Orbigny. 

1846. Voy. Am. Mer., p. 541 (unfigured). Panama to Paita, 
Peru, and Arica, Chile. 

DONAX PETALINA Deshayes. 

1854. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 350. — Sowerby, Thes. Con., Donax^ 
p. 315, pi. 3, fig. 86, 1866. Chile 

Proc. X.M. vol ..37— 09 18 



274 I'ROCKEUlXfhS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Genus IPHIGENIA Schumacher. 
IPHIGENIA ALTIOR Sowerby. 

18;-52. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 11)6 (as Capm). — Roemek, Mon. Dona- 
(•id«, p. 114, 1^1. 21. fios. 1-4, lS6i). Gulf of California to 
Tumbes, Peru. 

Superfamily SOLENACEA. 

Fiuuily SOLENID^E. 

Genus SOLEN Linnaeus. 

SOLEN GAUDICHAUDI Chenu. 

1843. lUu.str. Con., Solen, pi. 2, fig-. 7. Valparaiso and Co 
quimbo, Chile. 

SOLEN MACHA Molina. 

1782. Hist. Nat. de Chile, p. 178.— Hupe, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, 
Mol., p. 369, pi. 8, fio-. 6, 1854. Valparaiso to Chiloe, and 
Puerto Montt, Chile. 

Superfamily MACTRACEA. 

Family MACTRH:)^. 
Genus MACTRA (Linnaeus) Lamarck. 

MACTRA (MACTRODERMA) VE^ATA Philippi. 

1848. J/, velata Philippi, Zeitschr. f. Mai., p. 153, no. 7; Abb., 
vol. 3, p. 137, pi. 3, fig. 5, 1850. Gulf of California and 
south to Paita, Peru, and the Galapagos Islands. 

Genus MULINIA Gray. 

MULINIA BICOLOR Gray. 

1838. Loudon's Mag. N. Hist., new ser., vol. 1, p. 375. — Hanley, 
Rec. Biv. Sh.,pl. 10, fig. 31, 1842.— Philippi, Ann. Mus. Nac. 
de Chile, Zool., vol. 4, p. 11, pi. 3, figs. 9, 10, 1893. Copiapo 
to Valparaiso. 

MULINIA BYRONENSIS Gray. 

1838. Loudon's Mag. N. Hist., new ser., vol. 1, p. 376, fig. 33: 
Zool. Reechey's Voy., p. 154, pi. 44, fig. 11, 1839. Salaverri. 
Peru, and south to Talcahuano, Chile. 

MULINIA EDULIS King. 

1831. Mactra edulis King, Zool. Journ., vol. 5, p. 335. — Mactra 
hjjronen.us Hupe, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, Mol., pi. 8, fig. 1, 
1854 (not of Gray, 1838). Callao, Peru, and south to Magel- 
lan straits. 

MULINIA PALLIDA Broderip and Sowerby. 

1829. Mactra pallida Broderip and Sowerby, Zool. Journ., vol. 
4, p. 360.— Reeve, Con. Icon., Mactra, pi. 9, fig. 34, 1854. 
Gulf of California and south to Panama and Manta, Ecuador. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU^DALL. 275 

Family MESODESMATID^E. 

Genus MESODESMA Deshayes. 
MESODESMA DONACIUM Lamarck. 

1818. JIactra donacla Lamarck, An. 8. Vert., vol, 5, p. 479. — 
Chenu, Man., vol. 2, p. 79, fig. 341, 1862. Sechura Bay, 
Peru, south to Valparaiso, Chile. 

Superfamily MYACEA. 
Family CORBULID.E. 
Genus CORBULA Bruguiere. 
CORBULA BICARINATA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. 8oc., p. 35. — Reeve, Conch. Icon., Corhula^ 
pi. 3, fig. 23, 1844. Panama to Guayaquil, 

CORBULA BIRADIATA Sowerby. 

1833, Proc, Zool. Soc, p, 35. — Reeve, Con. Icon., Corbula, 
pi. 1, fig, 3, 1844, Gulf of Panama to Guayaquil. 

CORBULA NASUTA Sowerby. 

1833, Proc. Zool, Soc, p. 35, — Reeve, Con, Icon., Corhula^ 
pi. 1, fig. 1, 1844 (not of Conrad). Gulf of Panama to Jipi- 
japa, Ecuador. 

CORBULA OVULATA Sowerby. 

1833. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 35, — Reeve, Con. Icon., Corhula^ 
pi. 1, fig. 7, 1844. Gulf of Panama to Guayaquil. 

Family SAXICAVID.F, 

Genus SAXICAVA F. de Bellevue. 
SAXICAVA PURPURASCENS Sowerby. 

1834. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 88; Thes. Con., Saxicava^ p. 133, 
pi. 471, fig, 7, 1884, Bay of Guayaquil. 

SAXICAVA SOUDA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 88; Thes. Con,, Saxicava^ p, 133, 
pi, 471, fig, 12, 1884. Bay of Guayaquil and south to Punta 
Arenas, Magellan straits. 

Family GASTROCH.FNID.F. 

Genus GASTROCH^^NA Spengler. 
GASTROCH^NA DENTICULATA Deshayes. 

1854. Proc Zool. Soc, p. 327; Thes, Con,, Gastrochaena, p. 129, 
pi, 470, fig. 7, 1884, Ecuador coast. 

GASTROCH^NA OVATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc Zool, Soc, p. 21; Thes. Con,, Gastrochpena^ p. 128, 
pi, 470, fig. 9, 1884. Panama to La Plata Island, Ecuador, 
Also Atlantic 



276 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

GASTROCHiENA RUGULOSA Sowerby. 

183i. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 22; Thes. Con., Gastrochae.na , p. 128, 
pi. 470, fig. 25, 1884. Galapagos Islands. 

Genus SPENGLERIA Tryon. 
SPENGLERIA TRUNCATA Sowerby. 

1834. Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 21; Thes. Con., GastrocJisena^ p. 130, 
pi. 470, tig. 13, 1884. Panama and southward. 

Superfamily ADESMACEA. 
Family PHOLADID.E. 

Genus PHOLAS Linnaeus. 
PHOLAS CHILOENSIS Molina. 

1782. Saggio stor. nat. de Chile, pp. 104 (note), p. 348. — Philippi, 
Abb., vol. 3, p. 134, pi. 1, figs. 4, 5, 1849.— Hope, Hist, de 
Chile, vol. 8, Mol., p. 381. pi. 6, fig. 3, 1854. Gulf of Panama 
to Peru, and south to Chiloe Island. 

Genus BARNEA Leach. 
BARNEA CRUCIGERA Sowerby. 

1834. Pliolas cruciger Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 69; Thes. 
Con., Pholas, p. 489, pi. 104, figs. 24-26, 1849. Gulf of 
Panama to Guayaquil. Also Atlantic. 

BARNEA SUBTRUNCATA Sowerby. 

1834. PJiohis suhtruncatus Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 69. — 
P. lamdJosa Orbigny, Voy. Am. Mer., p. 498, pi. 77, figs. 
20, 21, 1846. Guayaquil and southward to Paita, Peru, 
Magellan strait, and the Atlantic coast of southern Argentina. 

BARNEA PACIFICA Stearns. 

1871. Phold.s pacijica Stearns, Proc. Cal. Acad. Sci., vol. 5, 
p. 81, pi. 1, figs. 6, a-c. San Francisco Bay, Cal., and south 
to Paita, Peru, and the coast of Chile. 

Genus PHOLADIDEA Turton. 

PHOLADIDEA (NETTASTOMELLA) DARWINI Sowerby. 

184!>. Thes. Con., Pholm, p. 490, pi. 107. figs. 76-77. Esqui- 
mault, British Columbia, and south to Chiloe Island, Chile. 

PHOLADIDEA (HATASIA) MELANURA Sowerby. 

1834. Phol((s melaniirii, So\\Y.\mY, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 70; Thes. 
Con., Pholas, p. 499, pi. 107, figs. 78-79, 1849. Gulf of Cali- 
fornia and south to Ecuador. 

PHOLADIDEA PENITA Conrad. 

1837. Pliolas penlta Conrad, Journ. Acad. Nat, Sci. Phila., 
vol. 7, p. 237, pi. 18, fig. 7. California, south to Guayaquil. 



NO. 1704. .1 COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU— DALE. 277 



PHOLADIDEA QUADRA Sowerby. 

183-t. Pliolds quadra Sowerby, Proc. Zool, Soc, p. 71; Thcs. 
Con., Pholas, p. 499, pi. 106, figs. 62, 68, 1849. Monte Cristi, 
Ecuador. 

PHOLADIDEA TRIDENS Gray. 

1851. Pholas trldens Gray, Ann. Mag-. Nat. Hist., 2nd ser., vol. 8, 
p. 385.— Sowerby, Thes. Con., Pholas^ p. 498, pi. 106, figs. 
60, 61, 1849. Ecuador coast. 

PHOLADIDEA TUBIFERA Sowerby. 

1834. Pholas tuhifera Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 71; Thes. 
Con., PJwlas, p. 499, pi. 106, figs. 64, 65, 1849. Gulf of 
Panama to Paita, Peru. 

Genus JOUANNETIA Desmoulins. 

JOUANNETIA PECTINATA Conrad. 

1849. Pholadopsis pectlnata Conrad, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Phila, for 1849 (August) p. 156; Journ. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
2d ser., vol. 1, p. 279, pi. 39, fig. 3, 1850. Guayaquil and 
Gulf of Panama. 

Genus MARTESIA Leach. 
MARTESIA CURTA Sowerby. 

1834. Pholas c^/r/^c. Sowerby, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 71; Thes. Con., 
PJwlax, p. 494, pi. 104, figs. 33, 34; pi. 108, fig. 105, 1849. 
Gulf of Panama to Tumbes, Peru. Also Atlantic and Antilles. 

Genus XYLOTOMEA Dall. 
XYLOTOMEA GLOBOSA Sowerby. 

1836. Xijlophaga glohosa Sowerby, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 110; 
Thes. Con., Pholas, p. 503, pi. 108, figs. 101-102, 1849. 
Panama south to Valparaiso and Juan Fernandez Island. 

Family TEREDINID.E. 

" Genus TEREDO Linnaeus. 
? TEREDO NAVALIS Linnaeus. 

1854. Teredo naval is Hupe, Hist, de Chile, vol. 8, Mol. p. 384, 
1854 (? not of Linnaeus). Valparaiso. 

Genus XYLOTRYA Leach. 

XYLOTRYA DRYAS Dall. 

1909. Proc U. S. Nat. Mus., Vol. 37, p. 162, pi. 25, figs. 2, 3, 5, 
6, 7. Tumbes, Peru, at Estero del Palo Santo, boring in the 
heart of living mangroves. 



278 rROCEEDIXGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

XYLOTRYA MARTENSI Stempell. 

1899. Teredo (X.) martensi Stempell, Fauna Chilensis. Suppl. 
Bd. 4, fasc. 1, p. 240, pi. 12, figs. 24-27. Punta Arenas, Chile. 

XYLOTRYA SAULII Wright. 

1884. Teredo sauUi (Wright Ms.) Sowerby, Thes. Con., Tei-edo, 
p. 123, pi. 469, fig. 18. Callao. 

SUBKINGDOM MOLLUSCOIDEA. 

Class BRACHIOPODA. 

Order ATREIMATA. 
Superfamily LINGULACEA. 

Family LINGULID^E. 

Genus GLOTTIDIA Dall. 
GLOTTIDIA AUDEBARDI Broderip. 

18;^3, LinguJa axdehardl Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 12.5; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 1, p. 143, pi. 23, fig. 14, 1834. 
(xulf of California, south to Guayaquil. 

GLOTTIDIA SEMEN Broderip. 

1833. Lingida seme7^ Broderip, Proo. Zool. Soc, p. 125. Trans. 
Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 1, p. 144, pi. 23, rig. 17, 1834. Bay 
of Guayaquil. 

Order NEOTREMATA. 

Superfamily DISCINACEA. 

Family DISCINID^. 

Genus DISCINISCA Dall. 

DISCINISCA CUMINGI Broderip. 

1833. Orh'icida cumlngi Broderip, Proc. Zool. Soc, p. 124; 
Trans. Zool. Soc, vol. 1, p. 143, pi. 23, fig. 1, L834. Gulf 
of California, to Paita, Peru. 

DISCINISCA L^VIS Sowerby. 

1822. Orhicula Isevis Sowerby, Trans. Linn. Soc, vol. 13, pt. 2, 
p. 468, pi. 26, figs. la-d. — Reeve, Con, Icon., Orbicida., pi. 
1, fig. 4, 1862. Guayaquil to Callao, Peru. 

DISCINISCA LAMELLOSA Broderip. 

1833. Orh'icida lamellosa Broderip, Proc Zool. Soc, p. 124; 
Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., vol. 1, p. 142, pi. 23, fig. 2, 1834. 
Guayaquil and southward throughout the Peruvian Province. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS PROM PERU—DALL. 279 

Order TELOTREMATA. 

Superfamily TEREBRATULACEA. 

Family TEREBRATULID^. 

Genus LIOTHYRINA Oehlert. 

LIOTHYRINA UVA Broderip. 

1834. Terehratula uva Broderip, Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond., p, 
142, pi. 23, fig. 2. Coast of Guatemala, and south to Peru 
and the Galapag-os Islands. 

Genus TEREBRATELLA Orbigny. 
TEREBRATELLA DORSATA Gmelin. 

1791. Anomla dorsata Gmelin, Syst. Nat., vol. 8, p. 3348. — T. 
chilejisls Broderip, Trans. Zool. Soc. Loud., vol. 1, p. 141, 
pi. 22, fig. 1, 1834. Valparaiso, Chile, to Magellan Straits. 

Genus MAGELLANIA Bayle. 

MAGELLANIA VENOSA Solander. 

1788. Anomla venosa Solander, Dixon's VoJ^, p. 355, pi. 11. — 
Davidson, Rec. Brach., Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd ser., vol. 4, 
p. 49, pi. 8, figs. 1-5, 1886. Southern Chile, and the Magel- 
lanic res'ion. 



280 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

SYNONYMOUS NAMES. 

The student of the preceding list, familiar with the names contained 
in Orbigny's "Voyage," will miss a number of names which he 
would naturally have expected to find. It would have broken up the 
unity and conciseness of the faunal list to have it include any synonym}^ 
not necessary to the references given, i. e., the name used at the time 
of the description of the species and that used in connection with one 
or more good figures of the species. In order that the student may 
be able to identify synonyms with the name adopted in the list, an al- 
phabetical summar}^ of the chief synonyms is here given. The sum- 
mary does not claim to contain all synonyms, for the work of bring- 
ing them together would have amounted to a monograph of the Peru- 
vian provincial mollusk fauna, for which at present time could not be 
spared. Nor is the accuracy of this summary more exact than it could 
be made during the search of the literature and the comparison of the 
species in the collection of the U. S. National Museum. A thorough 
and complete study of the fauna would doubtless reveal the necessity 
for a certain number of changes. The present summary may be re- 
garded as a step toward a future monograph. I have profited much 
in preparing it by the data given in Tryon^s Manual, especially the 
volumes due to Dr. H. A. Pilsbry, without invariably accepting the 
decisions in that work. The works cited in the bibliograph}" preced- 
ing the Faunal List have been carefully examined, together with many 
others which will be found cited in the List, and it is believed that 
nearly all the conspicuous synon^^ms will be found in the following 
summarv. In adopting generic names the International Code of Rules 
for Zoological Nomenclature has been rigidly adhered to, and, while 
it would be too much to expect that absolute accuracy has been at- 
tained, the author has done his best in that direction. Eight hundred 
and sixty-nine species are cited in the Faunal List, and for the whole 
about 650 synonyms have been noted. This would indicate that the 
nomenclature is in a tolerably satisfactory state. 

SUMMARY OF THE CHIEF SYNONYMS. 

Acmaea cymbula Hup^^Scurria scurra Lesson. 

Acmaea nisoiia Philippi= J. viridula Lamarck. 

Acmaea plana Philippi, not Reeve=^. viridula Lamarck. 

Acmaea pretrei Ovhigny^ A. viridnla Lamarck. 

Acmaea punctatissima Fh\\ippi= Scurria jmraaitka Orbigny. 

Acmaea spectrum AVimmer=^. variabilis Sowerby. 

Aeolis auctorum, of. Aeolidia Cuvier. 

Amalthea Schumacher, not Amallheus 'Moi\iiovi= Hipponix Defrance. 

Amphidesma croceum Gon\d= Semcle solida Gray. 

Amphidesma orbiculare Hup^=,S'eme/e solida Gray. 

AmyxaTrosche\=Prisogaster Morch. 

Anomia electus Gray=^. peruviana Orbigny. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 281 

Anomia hamillus Gray = J. peruviana Orbigny. 

Anomia lampe Gray=.-4. peruviana Orbigny. 

Anomia larbas Gray=^. peruviana Orbigny. 

Aply si a lAnudiws, 1767= 7ei%s Linnaeus, 1758. 

Area brasiliensis Reeve, not Lamarck=^'l. cardiiformis Sowerby. 

Area hemicardium Koch=^. reversa Sowerby. 

Area inaequivaltis Ileeve, not Bruguiere=^. cardiiformis Sowerby. 

Area sowerbyi Orbigny=^'l. hiangulata Sowerby, not A. biangula Lamarck. 

Artemis macilenia 'Reeve= Ci/clineUa Iroi/eri Philippi. 

Artemis tenuis Sowerby, 1852, not ^ec\uz = Cyclinella subquadrata Hanley. 

Arthemis sacca.ta Gon\d = C>/clinella subquadrata Hanley. 

Astralium, see Astrasa. 

Auricula nigra Philippi=J/onnnZ« niarinella Kiister. 

Avicula Lamarck, see Pteria Scopoli. 

Barnea truncata Tryon, not Say=£. pacifica Stearns. 

Buccinum bolivianum Souleyet, see Cantharus boUvianus. 

Buccinum cochlidium Kiener, cf. B. paytensis Kiener. 

Buccinum cribrarium Lamarck, see Kitidella ocellata, Gmelin. 

Buccinum fusiforme Sou\eyet=^Solenosteirafusiformis Blainville. 

Buccinum insignis Eeeve, 1846= CantJiarus elegans Gray. 

Buccinum pagodus 'Reeve=Solenosteirafusiformis Blainville. 

Buccinum parvulum 'DniikeT=Nitidella ocellata Carpenter. 

Buccinum pristis Deshayes, 1844 =iVbW7iia northix Gray. 

Buccinum serratum Dufresne, 1834, not of Brocchi, 1814, see Northia. 

Bulla Linnjeus, 1758, p. 725, not p. 425— Bullaria Rafinesque. 

Bulla ampulla Troschel, not Linn8eus=i?. gotddiana/ 

Bulla nebulosa Gould, 1852, not Schroter, 1804=i?. gouldianaf 

Bulla panamensis Philippi, 1848=i?. aspersa? 

Bulla punctata A. Adams, 1850=7?. puncttdata Adams. 

Bulla striata Orbigny, 1837 = 7?. punctulata? 

Cadulus panamensis Pilsbry and Sharp, cf . C. perpusillus Sowerby. 

Callista longispina Morch^ Pitaria viultispinosa. 

Calyptrasa, see also Crucibuluyn and Crepidula. 

Calyptrcca amygdala Yalencienne8= Crepidida onyx Sowerby. 

Calyptrxa araucana Lief-son = Trochita trockiformis Gmelin. 

Calyptrcca cornea Broderip=(.V(ev7fa equestris Linnaeus. 

Calyptrxa dilatata Sowerby, 1824 = rroc/uto trockiformis Gmelin. 

Calyptrxa echinus V>vode.v\^= Crepidula aculeata Gmelin. 

Calyptrwa foliacea 'Broderip = Crepidida dilatata Sowerby. 

Calyptrsea hystrix 'Bvoder\p= Crepidula aculeata Gmelin. 

Calyptrasa rudis Broderip=C/ieifea equestris Linnaeus. 

Calyptrxa rugosa Deshayes, not L;esson= Crucibulum quiriquinx Lesson. 

Calyptrsea sordida Broderip =J'roc/n7a trochiformis Gmelin. 

Calyptraa strigata Broderip = Crepidula dilatata Sowerby. 

Calyptraa tnbifera 'Le?,son=Crucibidum spinosum Sowerby. 

Calyptnea umbrella Deshayes= Cheilea equestris Linnaeus. , 

Calyptrxa umbrella Deshayes (part) = Crucibulum imbricatum Sowerby. 

Calyptrsea unguis Bvoderip = Trod nta, testa juvenis. 

Calyptrsea varia Broderip= Cheilea equestris Linnaeus. 

Cancellaria ovata Sowerby, 1832= C. obesa Sowerby. 

Cancellaria unifasdata Orbigny, cf. C. uniplicata Sowerby. 

Cardita arcella Valenciennes=C. radiata Sowerby. 

Cardita flammea J\Iichaud= Venericardia crassicostata Sowerby. 

Cardita tricolor Sowerby, 1832= C laticostata Sowerby var. 



282 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



Cardita tumida Broderip= Venericardia crassicostata Sowerby. 

Cardita turgida Valenciennes, 1846= C. laticostata Sowerby. 

Cardita varia Broderip= Venericardia crassicostata Sowerby. 

Cardium aspersum Sowerby, cf . C' spinosum Meuschen. 

Cardium laticostatum Sowerby = C. procerum Sowerby. 

Cardium panamense Sowerby=C. procerum Sowerby. 

Cardium planicostatum Sowerby, 1833, not of Sedgwick and ]Murchison, 1829=C. 

magnificum Deshayes. 
Cardium rastrum Reeve = C. scnticosum Sowerby. 
Cardium rotundatum Carpenter=C. procerum junior. 
Cardium snbelongatum Valenciennes, 1846, not of Sowerby, 1840. 
Cassis lactea Kiener= Phalium ahhreviatum Lamarck. 
Ceriihideaf ortiuscula Bayle^C. montagnei Orhigny . 
Cerithidea valida C. B. Adams =C. montagnei Orbigny. 
Cerithidea 'varicosa Sowerby, not Defrance=C. montagnei Orbigny. 
Cerithium galapaginis Adams =C. interruptum Menke. 
Cerithimn humboldtii Valenciennes =0. pacificum Sowerby. 
Cerithium irroratum Gould =C. stercusmuscarum Valenciennes. 
Cerithium nebulosum Sowerby, not Philippi = C. ynacuJosum. 
Chxtopleura hahni JiochehTmie= Chiton fremblyi Broderip. 
Chama thaca Molina, see PapJda thaca Dall. 
Chione antiqua King, cf. Chione alvarezii Orbigny. 
Chione biradiata Gray =3IacrocaUista squalida Sowerby. 
Chione turnens YeYn\\=Anomalocardia subimbricata Sowerby. 
Chionella, see Paradione. 

Chiton actdeatus Sowerby, in Beechey's Voyage, not of Linnaeus. 
Chiton bicostatus Orbigny = C. pulchellus Gray. 
Chiton coquimbensis Fremh\y = Enoplochiton niger Barnes. 
Chiton glaber Clessin, cf. Tonicia elegans Frembly. 
Chiion magnificus Deshayes=C lulus Sowerby. 
Cliiton olivaceus Frembly =C latus Sowerby. 
Chiton patulus Sowerby = C. stokesii Broderip. 
Chiton scabriculus Sowerhy = Chxtopleura lurida Sowerby. 
Chiton spiniferus Frembly= C. echinatus Barnes. 

Chiton striatus Barnes, 1823, not of Lamarck, 1819, nor of Fischer, 1809. 
Chiton tuberculiferus Sowerby =C echinatus Barnes. 
Cltlorostoma, cf. Tegula. 

Chlorostoma tropidophorum Adams= Tegula luciuosa Orl)igny. 
ColumbeUa argus Orhigny =NitideUa ocellata Gmelin. 
Columbella castnnea Gould = C'. unicolor Sowerl)y. 
ColumbeUa costata 'Daclos= Anachisfluctuata Sowerby. 
ColumbeUa ebenum Gould, cf. C. unifasciata Sowerby. 
ColumbeUa fusiformis Hmds= Strombina lanceolata. 
Columbella gibbosula Broderip = Strombina gibberula Sowerby. 
Columbella meleagris Duclos=0. fuscata Sowerby. 
Columbella nodalina Duclos=C fuscata Sowerby. 
Columbella paytalida Duclos=C. paytensis Lesson. 
Columbella recurva Sowerby, cf. Strombina lanceolata. 
ColumbeUa sordida Orbigny = C. unicolor Sowerby. 
Columbella spurca Sowerby, 1832= C. i)ayicnsis Lesson. 
Columbella suturalis Gray = Anachisfluctuata Sowerby. 
Columbella tessellata C. B. Adams, not of Gaskoin = C'. guafejnalermis Reeve. 
Columbella triomphalia I>uc]os= Cantharus distortus. 
Columbella unizonalis Gray=C. unifaseiata Sowerby. 



NO. 1704. .1 COLLECTION OF BBF^LLSi FROM PERU—DALL. 283 

ColumheUd voiilia Duclos = C. lab'osa Sowerby. 

Concholepas imbricatus Kuster=(7. concholepds Bruguit-re. 

Condiolepas oblongus ^eeye= C. concholepas, var. 

Concholepas peruvianus Lamarck=6'. condiolepas Bruguiere. 

Conovulus columbiensis Anton, 1839=J/. luteus Quoy. 

Conus diadema Sowerby = C. brunneus Mawe. 

Conus incurvus Sowerby, 1841 = 0. recurvus Broderip. 

Conus interruptus Broderip and Sowerb}', 1829, not of Mawe, 1828. 

Co?iHS reiicuZat«s Sowerby, 1841 = C. ZtteuZus Mawe. 

Crepidula adolphei Lesson = C. dilatata Sowerby. 

Crepidida arcuala Orbigny=C dilatata Sowerby. 

Crepidula arenata Broderip=C onijx Sowerby. 

Crepidula cerilhicola C. B. Adams=C'. onyx Sowerby. 

Crepidula costata Menke=C aculecda Menke. 

Crepidula fimbriata Reeve=C squama Broderip. 

Crepidula hepatica C. B. Adams=C. onyx Sowerby. 

Crepidula hepatica Menke=C. incurva Broderip. 

Crepidula lessoni Broderip =C. squama Broderip. 

Crepidula niveaC. B. Adaims= C. squama Broderip. 

Crepidula pallida Broderip=C. dilatata Sowerby. 

Crepidula patnla Deshayes=C dilatata Sowerby. 

Crepidula peruviana LamaTck=C. dilatata Sowerby. 

Crepidula plana Say=C. crepidula Linnreus. 

Crepidida strvAala Menke =C squama Broderip. 

Crepidida tmguiculus Broderip=G squama Broderip. 

Crepdula unguiformis Lainarck = C crepidula Linnseus. 

Crucibulum auritum Reeve = C quiriquinx Lesson. 

Crucibulum cinereum Gray=C tubijerum Lesson. 

Crucibulum dentatum Carpenter= C. imbricatum Sowerby. 

Crucibidum ferrugineuni Reeve^C. quiriquinx Lesson. 

Crucibulum Jiispidum Broderip=C. tubiferum Lamarck. 

Crucibulum Ugnarium Broderip=C quiriquinx Lesson. 

Crucibulum maculatum Broderip, not Quoy = C. quiriquinse Lesson. 

Crucibulum pectinatum Carpenter= C. imbricatum Sowerb}^ 

Crucibulum, peziza Gray=C. tubiferum Lesson. 

Crudbulum rude Broderip =C imbricatum Sowerby. 

Crucibulum rugosum Lesson=C imbricatum, Sowerby. 

Crucibulum scrratum Broderip, cf. C. imbricatum Sowerby, 

Crucibulum striatum Broderip, not Say = C quiriquinse Lesson. 

Crucibulum tenue Broderip=C'. quiriquinx Lesson. 

Ctenocondia nuculoides X alenciennes =Malletia diilensis Desuioulins. 

Cuma, Cumia, Fasciolina=Cymia Morch. 

Cumingia cleryi Adams=(7. mutica Sowerby. 

Cumingia grandis Deshayes= C. mutica Sowerby, 

Cuminrfia striata A. Adams=C mutica Sowerby. 

Cumingia trigonularis Sowerby =C. lamellusa Sowerby. 

Cumingia ventricosa Sowerby=C mutica Sowerby. 

Cyprxa cervinetta Kiener=C. exanthema Linna?us, var. 

Cyprxa ferruginosa Kiener, not Gmelin=C. annettn' Dall. 

Cyprxa irina Kiener =C nigropunctata Gray. 

Cyprica lathyrus KieneT= Trivia sanguinea Gray. 

Cyprxa punctulata Gray =C. robertsi Hidalgo. 

Cyprsearota Weinkauff = Tr/na radians Lamarck. 

Cyprsea zonata Sowerby, Con. 111., not Lamarck=C annetttv. Dall. 



284 PROCEEDI\GS OF THE NATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Oyrena cardiformis Sowerby=C. cordlformis Recluz. 

Cijrena peruviana Deshayes=C*. anomala Deshaj^es. 

Ci/therea, see Macrocallista and I'itaria. 

Cytherea affinis Broderip =/*<7ttria coneinna Sower by. 

Ci/therea aurantia Hanley=C. aurantiaca Sowerby. 

Cijtherea brevispinona Sowerby =C. multispinosa Sowerby, var. 

Cytherea cldonsea 'Menke= Macrocallista squalida Sowerby. 

Cytherea corbicula Menke, not Lamarck =Z'/'/e/a hyronensin. 

Cytherea dionaa Gray=Pitnria lupanaria Lesson. 

Cy herea gigantea Sowerby, not Guie\in=Dosinia 2)o'»dero.sa Gray. 

Cytherea hdea V\\\\\\^\i{^= Macrocallinta pannoi^a Sowerby. 

Cytherea inactroide.^ Lamart-k, not Born^ Tivela jjlantduta. 

Cytherea ohliquala 'RaiuieT=Pitaria pollicaris Carpenter. 

Cytherea pactfica Troschel= Dosinia dunkeri Philippi. 

Cytherea pallida Broderi\)= Piiaria multispinosa Sowerby. 

Cytherea pulla Philippic T/wZa byronensis Gray. 

Cytlierea semilamellosa Gaudichaud =Pitar/a lupanaria Lesf^on. 

Cytherea slullorutn Menke, not Mawe — Tivela byronensis Gray. 

Cytlierea subsulcata Menke— Anotnalocardia subrugosa Sowerby. 

Cytherea suppositrix Menkes Pitaria coneinna Broderip. 

Cytherea tortuosa Broderip=P(7a7'ia coneinna, var. 

Cytherea undulata Sowerby = Tivela planidata Broderip and Sowerbj'. 

Delphinula, see Liotia. 

Dione Irevispina Deshayes =P/toria multispinosa Sowerb)'. 

Dione exspinata 'Ree\e^= Pilar ia lupinaria Lesson. 

Dione prora Reeve, not Conra,d^ Pitaria ]>ol Hear is Carpenter. 

Diplodorda tellinoides 'Ree\e= Pliacoides telllnoides Reeve. 

Diplodordina, see Kellia. 

Discina, see Discinisca. 

Dolium latilabre Valenciennes =3/(y/m ringens Swainson. 

Donacilla chilensis Orbigny — Mesodesma donacia J>aiuarck. 

Donax assimilis Hanley=i>. aspera Hanley. 

Donax cayennensis (part) Roemer=Z). obesula Deshayes. 

Donax lessoni 'Deshii.yes= Tivela jdanida.ta Broderip and Sowerby. 

Donax panamensis Philippi=7). paylensis Orbigny. 

Dosina antiqua Gray = C}doue aniiqua King. 

Dosinia simplex Hanley, 1845=i). dunkeri Philippi, 1844. 

Drillia duplicala Weinkauff, not Sowerby =AS'«rc»Zrt maura. 

EntodesDta chilensis I'hi\ii>Y)i=E. cuneata Gray. 

Entodesma {saxicola Baird) Carpenter= J^/nodeswia Dall, 1V)09, new name. 

Euthria Gray, \^oO—Airaclodoih Charlesworth, 1837. 

Fissurella affinis Gray = P. peruviana Lamarck. 

Fissurella atrata Reeve = P. philippiana Reeve. 

Fissurella biradiala Frembly = P. latimarginata Sowerby, var. 

Fissurella chilensis Sowerby =P. costata Lesson. 

Fissurella chlorotrema Menke=P. rugosa Sowerby. 

Fissurella coneinna Philippi=P. maxima Sowerby. 

Fissurella cumingii Reeve=P. latimarginata var. 

Fissurella elegans "Phil." (inedit.?) Peru (Tschudi). 

Fissurella excelsa 'Ree\e= Fisstiridea alta Adams. 

Fissurella galericulum Reeve=P. latimarginata Sowerhy, var. 

Fissurella grandis Sowerby = P. nigra Lesson. » 

Fissurella humilis Menke = P. rugosa Sowerby. 

Fissurella macrotrema Sowerby, of. F. longifissa Sowerby. 



k 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 285 

Fissurella mus 'Reeve= Fissuridea insequalis Sowerby var. 

Flssurella nigra Philippi=7^. j)hilippiana Reeve. 

FissureUa nigrojynnctatu Sowerby=i^. virescens Sowerby var. 

Fissurella occidens Gould =F. peruviana Lamarck. 

Fissurella oriens Sowerby, cf. F. mexicana Sowerby. 

Fissurella pica Sowerby =i^. insequalis Sowerby, var. 

FissureUa rudis Deshayes=i^. costata Lesson. 

Fissurella subrotunda Deshayes=i^. peruviana Lamarck. 

Fissurella viminea Menke, not Reeve, cf. F. rugosa Sowerby. 

Fissurella violacea Eschscboltz=i^. 7iiqra Lesson. 

Fusus alternatus Philippi, 18-i7 =Ausir of ususfontaine I, Orbigny. 

Fusus fusiformis Potiez and 'M.ichand= Trophon cassidiformix. 

Fusus purpuroides Orbigny ^Solenosteira fusiformis Blainville. 

Fusus wiegmanni Philippi = 0(/ma<mni vnegmanni. 

Gadinia pentegoniostoma Carpenter, 1857= G'. peruviajia Sowerby. 

Gadinia stellata Sowerby, 1835^ G'. peruviana Sowerby. 

Gena planulata Lamarck. Philippines. Australia. 

Haminea natalensis Sowerby=//. j^eruviana Orbigny. 

Hipponix australis Menke, not Deshayes=i/. barbata Sowerby. 

Ilipponix mitrata Orbigny =//. anliqnata Linnfeus. 

Hipponix milrula Defrance=//. antiquata Linnseus. 

If ippoiix pilosus Deshayes, 1831, cf. H. barbata Sowerby, 1835. 

Ilippouix radiata Gray, not Quoy and Gray =IL graguna Menke. 

Ilyalcea austjyilis Orbigny, not Person= C/(0 antarctica Dall. 

Ilyalsea flava Orbigny , 1836= Cavolina gibbosa Rang. 

Hyalsea gegenbaurl Pfeffer, 1880= Cat^oZma gibbosa Rang. 

Ilyaliva tridentata Forskal, 1775=^ CavoHna telemus Linnseus. 

Infundibuluia, cf. Trocldta. 

Kcllla niiliaris Philippi =iaSc"Ea, cf. petitiana Recluz. 

Lamellar ia kerguelensis Studer = Marseniopsis padfica Bergh. 

Latlrus nassatulus Schubert and Wagner. Indo-Pacific. 

Latlrus spadiceus B,eeve, 1847 =i. concentricits Reeve. 

Latirus tuberculatus Broderip, 1833=L. ceratns Gray. 

Lavignon coarctata Orbigny = Cumingia lainellosa Sowerby. 

Leda inornata A. Adams =L. acuta Conrad. 

Leda lugubris Adams = Tindaria sulculaia Couthouy. 

Leda orangica Mabille= ymdarta sulculata Couthouj\ 

Lima orientcdls Adams =L. angulata Sowerby. 

Liotia cobijensis Reeve=L. cancellata Graj', not Kiener. 

Llthodomus, see Llthophaga. 

Littorliia costulata Souleyet=X. varia Sowerby. 

Littorina fasciata Gva,y=L. varia Sowerby. 

Littorina paytensis Philippi=X. araucana Orbigny. 

Littorina striata King, cf. L. peruviana Lamarck. 

Littorina variegata Souleyet=X. varia Sowerby. 

Littorina zebra Philippi = 1,. peruviana Lamarck. 

Lotorium Montiort= Cyrnatium Bolten. 

Lotlia conica Gould =»S'c«rr(« scurra Lesson. 

Loltia cymbiola Gomd=Scurria parasitica Orbigny. 

Lotlia pallida Sowerby =Scurr I a scurra Lesson. 

Lottia punctata (Gray) Orbigny, 1835, not of Lamarck, 1822. 

Lucina brasiliensis Mittre =Diplodonta punctata Say. 

Lucina cornea 'Reeye= Diptodonta sericata Reeve. 

Lucina guaraniana Orbigny =■ Dij)lodonta punctcda Say. 



286 I'ROCEEDiyati of the yATlOSAL MUSEUM. VOL. 37. 



Lucina jandrenns Reeve^Diplodonta punctata Say. 

Lucinanitens Ree\e=Diplodonta sericata Reeve. 

Lueina venezuelensis Dunker= Diplodonta punctata Say. 

Lucinopsis kroyeri Poulsen is not Cyclinella kroyeri Philippi. 

Lunatia Gray cf. Euspira Agassiz. 

Lyonsia brevifrons SoweTby=Entodesma cuneata Gray. 

Lyonsia cuneata Orhigny=Entodesma cuneata Gray. 

Lyonsia patdgonica Orhigny =^ Entodesma cuneata Gray. 

Lyonsia picta Sowerhy = Entodesma cuneata Gray. 

Macoma occidentalis Dall=J/. undulata Hanley. 

Mactra calbucana Philippi, 1893=MuUnia hyronensis (Tray. 

Mactra cibaria riiilippi, 1893= J/u/in/a edulis King. 

Mactra cuneola ijou\d = ^fultnia edulis King. 

Mactra epidermia Yh'iVipp'i, 1893= Midinia edulis King. 

Mactra jonasi Philippi, 1S9'3= 3Iulinia bicolor Gray. 

Mactra lotensis Philippi, 1893=MuZinia edulis King. 

Mactra marcida Gou\d= Mulinia edulis King. 

Mactra paitensis Philippi, 1893= J/, veluta Philippi, 1848. 

Mactra pcucana Philipjn, 1893=J/u^iHia hyronensis Gray. 

Marginella cijpricola So«erby=£r«/o srahriusrida Gray. 

Marginella granum Kiener, 1835 not of Philippi \8h{i=Erato scabriusvala Gray. 

Marimda calUwensis Petit, 1854=3/. marinella KiiKter. 

Meleagrina Lamarck, see Margaritiphora Megerle. 

il/efon^CTia Schumacher, 1817= Ga^eoc/es Bolten, 1798. 

Mesodesrna chilensis Orbigny=3/'. donaciuni Lamarck. 

Mitra cJdlensis Kiener, 1836=3/. orientalis Gray. 

Mitra forarninala Swainson, 1835=3/. lens Mawe. 

Mitrafuniculata lieeve, 1844=3/. sulcata Swainson. 

Mitra iuca Orbigny, 1841=3/. lens Mawe. 

Mitra lignaria Reeve, 1844=3/. lens Mawe. 

Mitra lineata Swainson, not Gmelin = 3/. sulcata Swainson. 

Mitra maura Swainson, 1835=3/. orientalis Gray. 

Mitra rupicola Reeve, 1844=3/. lens INIawe. 

Mitrularia, cf. Cheilea. 

Mitrularia cepacea Broderip= C/ieiZea equestris Linnfeus. 

Modiola caudlgera Lamarck = Li thophag a aristata Dillw3'n. 

Modiola ovalis C\essin= Mod i olus jmrj^uratus Lamarck. 

Modulus trochiformis Eydoux and Souleyet=3/. pcrlatus Dillwyn. 

3/o;(Ocn'os Lamarck, not B\och—Acanthina Fischer. 

Monoceros citrinum Sowerhy =Acant}iina calcarlongum Marty n. 

Monoceros eostatum Sovferhy = Acanildna calcarlongum Martyn. 

Monoceros crassilabrum Sowerby =Acanlliina calcarlongum Martyn. 

Monoceros cymcUum Sowerby =Acanthina lugubris Sowerby. 

Monoceros fusoides King= C/iorus giganleus Gray. 

Monoceros glabratum Deahayes= Acanthina calcarlongum Martyn. 

Monoceros globulus Sowerby = Acanthina calcarlongum Martyn. 

Monoceros imbricalum Sowerby = Acanthina calcarlongnin Martyn. 

Monoceros maculatum Gray = Acanthina brevidentata Mawe. 

Monoceros muricatum Iieeve=Acanthina muricata Broderip. 

Monoceros unicornc Gray=Acanthina calcarlongum "Slartyn. 

Monodonia carckidonivs Lamarck, cf. Modulus perlatus Dillwyn. 

Monodonta catenifera Potiez and Micliaud, 1838, not of Kiener, 1836=Tegula (juadri- 

coslala (Jray. 
Mouretiu reticulata Sowerby, lS35 = tiadiuiape^'uiiana Sovverbv. 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 287 

Mulhila angulata Carpenter, 1855— MuKnia pallida Broderip and Sowerby. 

3fulinia oistrigata Morch, 1862=^1/. pallida Broderip and Sowerby. 

MuUnia cartnidatu (Deshayes) Reeve =il/. pallida Broderip and Sowerby. 

Mulinia coquimbana Philippi, 1893=M. hyronensis Gray. 

Mulinia donaciformis Gray, not Reeve=3/. pallida Broderip and Sowerby. 

Mulinia exaibida Gray=Jlf. byronensin Gray. 

Mulinia typica Gray=M. edulis King. 

Murcx boivini Kiener—Trophon /iorndMS Broderip and Sowerby. 

Murcx crispus Broderip, 1832=3f. tortuosus Sowerby. 

Murex ducalis Broderip, 1833=3/. brassica Lamarck. 

Murex erinaceo ides \a\enciennes, 1846=3/. hamatus Hinds. 

Murex eryihrostomus ^\\auiaon= PJiyUonotus bicolor Valenciennes. 

Murex exiguus Kiener, Reeve, Garrett, not of Broderip. 

Murex liippocastanwn Philippi =P/i^ZZono<its bicolor Valenciennes. 

Murex incisus Carpenter, not Broderip=3/. gemma Sowerby. 

Murex labiosus see Tritonalia crassilabrum Gray. 

Murex labios^is Orbigny=3/. crassilabrum (irray. 

Murex lepidus Reeve, 1845 = 3/. vittatus Broderip. 

Murex lugubris Tryon, 1880, not of Broderip. 

Mnrex monoceros Orbigny, 1841, not Sowerby=3/. fontainei Tryon. 

Murex mtdticostatus Dunker, 1869=3/. tortuosus Sowerby. 

Murex midiicrispatus Dunker=3/. tortuosus Sowerby. 

Murex parthenopeus v. SaVis= Cymatium costatum Sowerby. 

3 fur ex peruvianus Sow erhy, 1840=3/. dipsaccus Hrqderip. 

Murex pliciferus Sowerby, 1840. West Africa, not Chile. 

Murex radicatus Hinds, 1844=3/. lappa Broderip. 

Murex rliodocheilus King, 1831=3/. brassica 'Lamarck. 

Murex tortuus Catlow, 1845=3/. tortuosus Sowerby. 

Murex tricolor Valenciennes, 1833=3/ regius Wood, 1828. 

Murex vifellus Sowerby, 1870=3/ vittatus Broderiii. 

Myfilus americanus Orbigny =3/ ater Molina. 

Mytilus augustanus Lamarck, cf. M. ater Molina. 

Mylilus biftircatus Conrad, part=3/. stearnsii Pilsbry. 

Mytilus bifurccdus Dautzenberg, 1896, Valparaiso. (=?) 

Mytilus cordatus Gould =3/ granulatus Hanley. 

Mytilus cuneiforrnis Reeve =3/ ater Molina. 

Mytilus curvatus Stempell=3/. magellanicus var. 

Mytilus dactyloides Philippi, 1860=3/ daciyliformis Hupe. 

Mytilus hupeanus Mabille=3/ chilensis Hupe. 

Mytilus orbignyanus Hupe=3/. ater Molina. 

Mytilus oralis Lianiarck= Modiolus purpuratus Lamarck. 

Mytilus pyriformis Gould = 3/ magellanicus Lamarck. 

Mytilus ungulatus Valenciennes, not Lamarck =3/ chorus Molina. 

Mytilus violaceus Clessin, 1889, cf. 3/ chilensis Hupe. 

Nassa Lamarck, 1799, not Bolten, 1798— Alectr ion Montfort. 

Nassa flammulata, Preston, 1909, cf. Alectrion, species. 

Nassa fontainei Orbigny =iVassa exilis Powys. 

Nassa gemma Philippic Alectrion complanatus. 

Nassa jmnamensis Adams =iV^. exilis Powys. 

Nassa panamensis C. B. Adams =A\ exilis Powys. 

Nassa rubricata Gou[d= Alectrion gayii Kiener. 

Nassa scabriuscula. Adams, \8b2 = Alectrion couiplanatus. 

k Nassa tschudii Troschel, cf. N. dentijera Powys. 
Nassa unidentata Powys =iV. dentijera junior, 
I 



288 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



Nassa xanthostoma Gray, n. n. for N. teleostoma Broderip and Sowerby. 

Natica atacamensis Fhilipin= Polinices dubius Recluz. 

Nalica bonplandi Valenciennes =PoZmjces glaums Humboldt. 

Natica chemnUzii Pfeffer=iS\ unifasciata junior. 

Natica elongata Tro^chel—Polinices cora Orbigny. 

Natica excavata Carpenter =N. elense Recluz. 

Natica galapagana 'Rec\uz=Polinic('s otis Broderip. 

Natica haneti Recluz— A^. elenxRecXm. 

Natica iostoma Menke=iV. broderipiana Recluz. 

Natica patula Sowerby =Polinices glaucus Humboldt. 

Natica perspicua Jiec\uz = Poliniccsotis Broderip. 

Natica prichardi Forbes=i\^ unifasciata junior. 

Natica rapulum Reeve=PoZmices dubius Recluz. ^ 

Natica salangoensis Reclnz= Polinices otis Broderip. 

Natica taslei Recluz =A^. broderipiana Recluz. 

Nerita bernhardi Recluz, cf. N. fulgurans Gmelin. 

Nerita deshayesii Recluz =i\\ scabricosta Lamarck. 

Nerita fuscata Menke=A^. scabricosta Lamarck. 

Nerila mtdtijugis ]Menke=i\^ scabricosta Lamarck. 

Nerita or nata Sowerby, 1823 = .V. scabricosta Lamarck. 

Nerita peruviana Philippi=x¥. yoldii Recluz. China. 

Neritliia fontaineaua Orbigny=A\ owenii Mawe. 

Neritina globosa Broderip=iV^. owenii Mawe. 

Neritina guayaquilensis Sowerby, cf. N. owenii Mawe. 

Neritina intermediaSowerby^N. owenii Mawe. 

Neritina latissima Broderip=i\^. oirenii Mawe. 

Neritina zebra Sowerby, not Lamarck = .V. sohrina Recluz. 

Nettastoma see Pholadidea. 

Nettastoinella see Pholadidea. 
Nitidella cribraria Lamarck =iV". ocellata Gmelin. 
Nucula cunenla Sowerby = Leda acuta Conrad. 
Nacula lyrata Hinds=Leda eburnea Sowerby. 

Nucula obliqua Gray, Sowerby, not of Lamarck=X grayi. 

Nucula semiornata Orbigny =iV^. p>isum Sowerby. 

Ocinebra (Leach) Gray, 18i7 =Tritonalia Fleming, 1828. 

Oliva hiatula Gmelin, S. Africa, cf. 0. testacea Lamarck. 

Oliva razamola Duclos, \SZb=Olivella volutella Lamarck. 

Orbicula lamellata Troschel=Disciriisca lamellosa Broderip. 

Orbicida strigata Broderip= Z)i.scmisca cumJngi Broderip. 

Orbicula tenuis Sowerbj% cf. Discinisca hevis Sower})y. 

Ostrea cliilocnsis Sowerby =^0. chilensis Philippi. 

Ostrea cibialis Hupe=C'. chilensis Philippi. 

Ovtda Bruguiere, cf. Simnia Risso. 

Patella atramentosa Reeve=P. magellanica Gmelin. 

Patella chiloensis Reeve=P. magellanica Gmelin. 

Patella concepcionis hesson^^Scurria zebrina Orbigny. 

Patella diaphana Ree\e=Scurria mesoleuca Menke. 

Patella goreensis Cimelin, cf. Crepidida crepidida Linnppus. 

Patella grammica VhiVippi =Acmiea variabilis Sowerby. 

Patella lepas GmeVm—Voncholepas concholepas Bruguiere. 

Patella leucophita Vhiiippi =Scurria parasitica Oi'bigny. 

Patella lineata Pliilippi=.4cm<Trt variabilis Sowerby. 

Patella maxima Orbigny^P. mexicana Broderip and Sowerby. 

Patella meridioi^aUs Rochebrune=P. magellanica Gmelin. 



I 



NO. 1704. A COLLEGTWN OF SHELLS FROM PERU^DALL. 289 

Patella metallica Rochebrune=P. magellanica Gmelin. 

Patella penicillata 'Reeye=Acinau variabilis Sowerby. 

Patella plana Reeve, not Philippi= J CTnaro araucana Orbigny. 

Patella pupillata Rochebrune=jP. magellanica Gmelin. 

Patella scuiellata Gray, Wood = CrudftitZitm inibricatum Sowerby. 

Patella striata Reeve=Scurria mesoleuca Menke. 

Patella venosa Reeve=P. magellanica Gmelin. 

Patella vesperiina B.eeve^Scurria mesoleuca Menke. 

Pecten aspersus Sowerby=P. tumhezensis Orbigny. 

Pecten inca Orbigny=P. ventricosus Sowerby. 

Pecten magnificus Sowerby =P. subnodosus var. 

Pecten pomatia Valenciennes cf. P. ventricosus Sowerby. 

Pecten sowerbii Reeve, 1852= P. iumbezensis Orbigny. 

Pecten tumidus Sowerby, 1835=P. ventricosus ^ovferhy. 

Pectuncidus Ijamarck = Glycymeris Da Costa. 

Pec.tunculus assimilis Sowerby = Glycymeris insequalis Sowerby. 

Pectunculus insequalis Sowerby, 1839, not 1832=P. bicolor Reeve. 

Pectunculus intermedins Broderip=P. ovatus Broderip. 

Pectunculus pecliniformis Wood, not Lamarck=P. insequalis Sowerby. 

Penitella conradi Valenciennes=P. peniia Conrad. 

Penilella ^vilson^ Conrad= Pholadidea, melanura Sowerby. 

Peraclis bispinosa Pelseneer, 1888=P. reticulata Orbigny. 

Perna Lamarck, see Melina Retzius. 

Peiricola clnloensis Philippi=P. rugosa Sowerby. 

Pelricola nvvea Gmelin. Indo-Pacific — Nicobar Islands. 

Petricola ovata Troschel=P. rugosa Sowerby. 

Peiricola solida Sowerby = P. elUptica Sowerby. 

Petricola tenuis Sowerby=P. rugosa Sowerby. 

Petricola ventricosa Deshayes=P. denticulata Sowerby. 

Philippina DaU, 1901 =£'n<0(?esma Philippi, 1845. 

Pholadopsis, see Jouannetia. 

Pholas beauiana 'Recluz= Martcsia curia, Sowerby. 

Pholas concamerata T)esh.ayes= Pholadidea peniia Conrad. 

Pholas crucifera Sowerby, Thes., see Barnea crucigera Sowerby. 

Pholas cucullata Gray = Pholadidea peniia Conrad. 

Pholas gibbosa Orhigny = Xylotomea globosa Sowerby. 

Pholas grayana Sowerby, cf. Mariesia curia Sowerby. 

Pholas lamellosa Orbigny =Pa?'?zea subtruncata Sowerby. 

Pholas laqueata Sowerby, 1849=P. chiloensis Molina. 

Pholas parva Sowerby, 1834= P. chiloensis Molina, var. 

Pholas pulcherrima Sowerby = Jouannetia pectinata Conrad. 

Pileopsis pilosus Deshayes= Hippoirix sp. 

Pileopsis subrufa Lamarck, see Hipponi.v. 

Pleurotoma, Lamarck, 1799= Twrris Bolten, 1798. 

Pleurotoma cincia Sowerby, not Lamarck=P. zontdata Reeve 

Pleurotoma cornuta Sowerby, 1833=P. nigerrima Sovverby. 

Pleurotoma corrugaia Sowerby, not Kiener=P. sowerbyi Reeve. 

Pleurotoma incrassaia Sowerby, \833^Drillia boUse Valenciennes. 

Pleurotoma turricula Sowerby, 1833=P. sowerbyi Reeve. 

Pneumodermon violaceum Boas, part = P. boasi Pelseneer. 

Pollia hiemastoma Gray = Caniharus sanguinolentvs Duclos. 

Psammobia crassa Hup6=P. solida (Gray) Philippi. 

Psammosolen Hupe, see Tagelus Gray. 

Proc.N.M.vol.ST— on 19 



290 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Purpura Lamarck, 1799, not of Martyn, 1784=Thais Bolten, 1798. 

Purpura Martyn, 1784, not Lamarck, 1799= Cerostoma Conrad, 1837. 

Purpura angulifera Duclos= Cj/mia tectum Wood. 

Purpura biscostalls Reeve, 1846= P. hiserialis Blainville, 1832. 

Purpura blainvillei Deshayes, 1846= T/kh's delesserliana Orbigny. 

Purpura callabensis Blainville=T/ia(.s delcssertiana Orbigny. 

Purpura callaoem^is Kiener=P. blscrialis Blainville. 

Purpura carolensis Reeve, 1846=T/ta/s triangularis Blainville. 

Purpura concholepas Orbigny = Concholepas Bruguiere. 

Purpura cornigera Blainville=^ican</ima brevidcntata Mawe. 

Purpura diaderna Reeve, 1846=r/Krts costata Blainville. 

Purpura fasciolar is Lamarck, Mediterranean, nut Peru. 

Purpura hsemastoma Tryon, Fer\i= Thais peruensis Dall, n. n. 

Purpura janelld Valenciennes =Can</ian<s sanguinolentus Duclos. 

Purpura lepas v. 'MaTtens = Concholepas concholepas Bruguiere. 

Purpura melo 'D\i(i\os= Thais crassa Blainville. 

Purpura occllala Kiener =Acant}dna breddentata Mawe. 

Purpura orbigniji Reeve, 18-iG=Solenosteira fusiform is Blainville. 

Purpura peruviana Blainville= Conc/ioZepas concholepas Bruguiere. 

Purpura peruviana Lesson, ci. = Trophon cassidifortiiis Blainville. 

Purpura peruviana Souleyet=T/irtis delesserliana Orbigny. 

Purpura iruncaia Duclos^ Acanthina muricata Broderip. 

Purpura xanihostoma Broderip, 18SS = Ti^ophon cassidiformis Blainville, 1832. 

Pyrula ochroleuca Philippi=7Vo/5/iou cassidiformis Blainville. 

Ranella kingi Orbigny = Argobuccinum vexiUuin Sowerby. 

Ranella tenuis Potiez and Michaud=i?ursa ventricosa Broderip. 

Ranella triquetra Riie\e= Eupleura muriciformis Broderip. 

Rissoina pulchraC. B. Adams = ii. cancellata Philippi. 

Saxicava antarctica Philippi =<S'. solida Sowerby. 

Saxicaia chilensis H.upe=S. solida Sow erhy. 

Saxicava solida Sowerby, cf. S. arctica Linnseus. 

Saxicava tenuis Sowerby, 1834=<S. solida Sowerby. 

Saxidomus squalidus Deshayes, not Carpenter =il/are/a rufa Lamarck. 

ScaJa {anonymous) =Epito)iiuin Bolten. 

Scalaria simillima Tapparone-Canefri, 1876=>S'. dncalis Morch. 

Sigaretus Lamarck, 1799, cf. Sinum Bolten, 1798. 

Sigarelus cginha Menke^Sinum concavmn Lamarck. 

Sigaretus grayi Deshayes=»SmitJn concavum Lamarck. 

Sigaretus maximus Philippi =/Suuf??i concavum Lamarck. 

Siphonaria sequilirata Carpenter, 1856=<S'. maura Sowerby. 

Siphonaria characteristica Reeve, 1842=»S'. gigas Sowerby. 

Siphonaria concinna Sowerby. Gambia and Mauritius. 

Siphonaria lecanium Philippi, 1846=>S'. maura Sowerby. 

Siphonaria palmata Carpenter, 1856 =»S'. maura Sowerby. 

Siphonaria scutellum Deshayes, 1841. New Zealand. 

Solecurtus coquimbends Sowerby =Tagelus dombeyi Lamarck. 

Solen gladiolus Gray, 1839=>S'. madia Molina, 1782. 

Solenella norrisii Sowerby =^falletia chilensis Desmoulins. 

Spondylus dubius Broderip=»S'. crassisquama Lamarck. 

Spondylus ducalis Lamarck. Philippines, not Peru. 

Spondylus leucacantha Broderip =>S. crassisquama Lamarck. 

Spondylus pictorum Sowerby ='S'. crassisquama Lamarck. 

Spondylus princeps Broderip=S. cr'assisquama Lamarck. 

Strombus gibberulus Linnxus, is Indo-Pacific (Peru, Tschudi). 



NO. 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 291 

Sfrmnbus lulmanus Linngeus, is Indo-Pacific (Peru, Tschudi). 

Shjliola recta Gray, 1850 =/S'. acicula Rang. 

Talena Gray, see Pholadidea. 

Tcctarms at[iphus Stearns=T'. galapagiensis Stearns. 

Tegula atra Lesson, var., cf. T. mcei^ta Jonas. 

Tellina coarctata Philippi=r. lacunosa Hanley. Vv'est Africa. 

Tell'ma sangninea Wood=Z'. invequistrlata Donovan. 

Terehra helcheri ^\mi\\, 1873, not of Philippi, 1851. 

Terehra chllensis Deshayes, 1859= T. gemrrmlata Kiener. 

Terehra elongata Wood, 1828== T. strigata Sowerby. 

Terehra flammea Lesson, 1830= T. strigata Sowerby. 

Terehra patagonica Orbigny, 1841; cf. T. gemmulata Kiener. 

Terehra zehra Kiener=T'. strigata Sowerby. 

Terehratula chilensis Orbigny, not Broderip=J/a(7e/Za;//a venosa Solander. 

Terebratula dllatata LamaTch=3fagelIania venosa Solander. 

Terehratula eximia Pliilippi = .1/a(7e//ama venosa Solander. 

Terehratula fontainenna Orhigny = Magellania venosa Solander. 

Terehratula gaudiehaudi B\n,[nvi[\e=]\rageUania venosa. Solander. 

Terehratula globosa 'Lamavck= 3fagelJ.anla venosa Solander. 

Terehratula kochii K.U8ter =3fagellania venosa Solander. 

Terehratida physema Y alenciennes = 3fagellania renosa Solander. 

Tivela radiata Sowerby, not Megerle=T'. hyronensis Gray. 

Tirela suffusa Sowerby^ T. planidata Broderip and Sowerby. 

Trigona hindsii Hanley =^ Tivela hyronensis Gray. 

Trigona semifulva Menke= jP/tWa hyronensis Gray. 

Triomphalia Sowerhy =Joua7inetia Desmoulins. 

Triton, auctorum, cf. Cymatium Bolten. 

Triton chemnitzii Gray = Cymatium wiegmanni Anton. 

Triton ranelliformis King, not Sisinonda= Argoh^(ccinv m vexillum Sowerby. 

Triton succinctus Lamarck =Q/moYmm costatum Born. 

Tritonium cancellatum Valenciennes=i)istorsio constriclus Broderip. 

Trivia costispunctata Gaskoin= Tnma radians Lamarck? 

Trochus araucanus Orhigny = 3Ionodonta nigerrima Gmelin. 

Trnchus hicarinatus Potiez and Michaud=T. luctuosus Orbigny. 

Trochus hrasilianus M^enke— Tegula reticulata Gray. 

Trochus buschii Philippi =a4s<ra?a huschii Philippi. 

Trochus carinatus Koch=r. luctuosus Orbigny. 

Trochus Meneri Hupe=T. euryomphalus Jonas. 

Trochus microstomus Orbigny =7. iridentatus Potiez and ]\Iichaud\ 

Trochus perlatus Dillwyn=T. tectum Gmelin, part. 

Trochus radians Lamarck =Troc/K'to trochiformis Gmelin. 

Trochus stenompJialus Jonas= T. tridentatus Potiez and Michaud. 

Trochus torxdosus Philippi= J", quadricostatus Gray. 

Trochus tridens Menke=T. tridentatus Potiez and Michaud. 

Trocltus unidens Chemnitz=T'. tectum Gmelin, part. 

Turhinella ardeola Valenciennes, 1833= Fasum cxstus Broderip. 

Turhinella muricata Born, 1780= Vasum csestus Broderip. 

Turho assimilis Kiener= T. Jluctuosus AVood. 

Turbo afrnin Kiener= Tegula atra Lesson. 

Turho brevispinosus Sowerby =^4s<rffa huschii Philippi. 

Turbo depressus CaTpenter^= T. fuctuosiis Wood. 

Turho fluctuatus Jieeve^T. ^fJuctuosus Wood. 

Turbo inermis Lamarck, not Kiener=..4s<ra2a buschii Philippi. 

Turbo luguhris King=r. niger Wood. 



292 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Turbo lugubris Philippi, not King, cf. Tegula atra junior. 

Turbo moUkeanus Reeve, not GmeYm=T. fluctuosus Wood. 

Turbo nigerrimus Philippic Monodonta araucana Orbigny. 

Turbo propinquus Hup^=T. elevatus Eydoux and Souleyet. 

Turbo quoyi Kiener =Monodonta araucana Orbigny. 

Turbo tessellatus Kiener= T. fluctuosus Wood. 

Turrifella banksii Reeve =T. goniostoma Valenciennes. 

Turritella broderipiana Reeve= T. goniostoma A'alenciennes. 

Turrilella leniiginosa Reeve=T'. goniostoma Valenciennes. 

Turritella marmorala Kiener=r. goniostoma Valenciennes. 

Turritella punctata Kiener= T. goniostoma Valenciennes. 

Turritella tricarinala King=T'. cingulata Sowerby. 

Turritella unguktta err. typ. pro 1\ cingulata Sowerby. 

Venerupis fernandeziana Stempell, cf. V. oblongaSo-weTby. 

Venernpis fimbriata Sowerby, cf. 1'. ohlonga Sowerby. 

Venus alternata Broderip=P('<ana circinata Born. 

Venus beaui 'Recluz^Chione subrostrata Lamarck. 

Venus bilineata Reeve, cf. Anomalocardia subimbricata Sowerby. 

Venus californica Carpenter =C/none cumpta Broderip. 

Venus cardioides Lamarck, cf. Chione asperrima Sowerby. 

Venus chilensis So'werhy = PapJda tluica Molina. 

Venus costellala Sowerby— C/Mone antiqua King. 

Venus crenifera Sow erhy— Chione subrostrata Lamarck. 

Venus cycloides Orbigny =^Dosinia ponderosa Gray. 

Venus ci/pria Sowerby, 1835, not Brocchi, 1814= T'. mari.r Orbigny. 

Venus discors Sowerhy = Paphia grata Say. 

Venus discrepans Philippi, not Sowerby, cf. Chione antiqua King. 

Venus dombeyi Lamarck = / 'ap/( /a tJiaca Molina. 

Venus entobapta Jonas =C7(/oHe undatella Sowerby. 

Venus excarata Carpenter= C7u'o?ie undatella Sowerby. 

Venus expallescens Philippi = il/araa rufa Lamarck. 

Venus histrionica Sowerhy=Paphia grata Say. 

Venus ignobilis Philippi =Pap/aa thaca Molina. 

Venus intersecta Sowerby, cf. Chione asperrima Sowerby. 

Venus lithoida Jonas=J/are("a rufa Lamarck. 

Venus rnodesta Sowerby=Pi<ffri"a cnmingi Orbigny. 

Venus neglecta Sowerby = Chione subrostrata. Lamarck. 

Ve7ms nuttalli Conrsi6.=^ Chione undatella Sowerby. 

Venus opaca Sow(}rhy = Mar cia rufa Lamarck. 

VerMs paytensis Orbigny=P/<ar(a concinna Sowerby. 

Venus jjectunculoides Valenciennes= Chione asperrima Sowerby. 

Venus perdix Valenciennes = C/no7!e undatella Sowerby. 

Venus portesiana Orbigny — Chione subrostrata Lamarck. 

Venus simillima Sowerby — Chione undatella Sowerby. 

]^enus solangensis Orbigny = Tivela byronensis Gray. 

]'enus subrostrata Reeve, not Lamarck = (7(io»e undatella Sowerby. 

]'enus thouarsi \ ■A\enc\ennes— Cytherea midticostata Sowerby. 

Venus triradiata Anton = Anomalocardia subrugosa Sowerby. 

Valuta coendea Hanley's Index Test. = Olivella rolutella Lamarck. 

Waklheimia, see Magellania. 

Xylophaga Turton, not Xylophagus Meuschen=A'y/otojnm Dall. 

Xylophaga dorsalis Stempell =A'i/^o<omea globosa Sowerby. 



NO, 1704. A COLLECTION OF SHELLS FROM PERU—DALL. 293 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 20. 

Page. 

Fig. 1. Polypus fontaineanus Orhigny, ]en^th 2n cm., nee 181 

Plate 2L 

Fig. 1. Lolujo gah I Orbigny, length 30 cm 181 

2. Endostyle of the same. 

Plate 22. 

Fig. 1. Conc/io?ep«.s co?ic/io?e;xrs Bruguiere, natural size 168 

2. Tliais chocolata Duolos, natural size 169 

3. Solenosieira fusiformis Blainville, natural size 167 

4. Thais kiosquiformis Duclos, natural size 170 

Plate 23. 

Fig. 1. Trochita frochiformis Gmelin, natural size, from above 175 

2, 5. Crepidula onyx Sowerb_v, natural size 174 

3. Bulimulus cokerianus Dall ; height 27 mm 164 

4. OHva peruviana Jjamarck, showing animal as contracted by alcohol, 

with the " pocket" at the posterior end of the foot turned inside 

out , 165 

6. Acanthopleura echinata Barnes, natural size, from above 180 

7. Littorina peruviana Lamarck, f natural size 172 

8. Enoplochiton niger Barnes, natural size, from above 181 

Plate 24. 

Fig. 1, 2. Acmxa viridula Lamarck, natural size 178 

3, 7. Megatehennus cokeri Dall, length 27.5 mm 178 

4. Tegula atra Lesson, natural size 176 

5, 6. Fissurella crassa Lamarck, interior and profile; length 50 mm 177 

Plate 25. 

Fig. 1. Mytilus chorus Molina, J natural size 151 

2. Palette of Xylotrya dryas, inside view, f 162 

3. Palette of Xylotrya dryas, outside view, f 162 

4. Mytilus magellanicus Lamarck, 5 natural size 151 

5,6,7. Xylotrya dryas DaW; 6, outside of left valve; 5, interior of the two 

valves conjoined; 7, interior of left valve, natural size 162 

8. Iphigenia alfior Sowerby, natural size 159 

9. Area (Anadara) grandis Broderip and Sowerby, umbonal view, 

natural size, of an adolescent specimen 154 

10. The same, in profile 154 

Plate 26. 

Fig. 1. Os^rea c/wZensis Philippi, interior of attached valve, i natural size... 148 

2. Ostrea columbiemls Hanley, interior of attached valve, natural size . . 149 

3. Anomalocardia subrugosa Sowerby, natural size 158 

4. Cyrena isocardioides Deshayes, natural size 159 

5. Pecten jnirpuratus Lamarck, ^ natural size 149 

6. Pecten purpuratus, part of the external sculpture, much enlarged... 149 



294 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Plate 27. 

Page. 

Fig. 1. Mesodesma donacium Lamarck, natural size 161 

2. Modiolus guyanensis Lamarck, natural size 152 

3. Tagelus {Mesopleura) dombei/i Lamarck, natural size 160 

4. Area {Scapharca) tuberculosa Sowerby, in profile, natural size 154 

Plate 28. 

Fig. 1. Pteria peruviana Reeve, h natural size 150 

2. Modiolus arciformis Dall, restored from fragments, length 65 mm . . . 152 

3. Tellina {Angulus) eburnea Hanley, natural size, view of interior of 

left valve 160 

4. Anomia peruviana Orbigny, natural size. Shell viewed from the base 

of attached valve 148 

5, 6. Aligena coleri Dall, umbonal view and profile, enlarged from 7.5 mm. 

long 155 

7. Donax aspera Hanley, natural size 159 

8. Diplodonta {Felaniella) arteinidls Dall, f natural size, length 12 mm, 156 

9. Tii^ela planulata Broderip and Sowerby, natural size 157 

10. Semele solida Gray, interior of left valve, natural size 160 



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Polypus fontaineanus Orbigny. 

For explanation of plate see page 181. 



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PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 21 





LOLIGO GAHl ORBIGNY. 
For explanation of plate see page 181. 



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Peruvian Gastropods. 

For explanation of plate see pases 167, 168, 169, 170. 



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Peruvian Gastropods. 

For explanation of plate see pages 164, 165, 172, 174, 175, 180, 181. 



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6 




Peruvian Gastropods. 

For explanation of plate see pages 176, 177, 178. 



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Peruvian Pelecypods. 

For explanation of plate see pages 151, 154, 159, 162. 



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Peruvian Pelecypods. 
For explanatiom of plate see pages 148, 149, 158, 159. 



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Peruvian Pelecypods. 

For explanation of plate see pages 152, 154 160, 161. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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Peruvian Pelecypods. 

For explanation of plate see paoes 148, 150, 152, 155, 156, 157, 159, 160. 



FOUK NEW LAND SHELLS FROM THE PHILIPPINE 

ISLANDS. 



By Paul Bartsch, 

Assistant curator, Division of MoUusks, U. S. National Museum. 



The Philippine Bureau of Science, through the honorable tlie Sec- 
retary of the Interior, Dean C. Worcester, has recently transmitted a 
large consignment of mollusks to the U.S. National Museum for report. 
Among these are a number of new forms, four of which are here 
described. 

COCHLOSTYLA WORCESTERI, new species. 
Plate 29, figs. 14, 16. 

Shell elongate-ovate. Nuclear whorls one and one-fourth, almost 
smooth. Post-nuclear whorls moderately rounded, with closely 
appressed summits. Sutures moderately impressed. Periphery of 
the last whorl with a faint angulation. Aperture quite oblique, 
oval, outer lip moderately expanded and reflected to form a some- 
what thickened peristome. Columella slender and twisted. Parietal 
wall glazed with a weak callus. Entire surface marked by retractive 
lines of growth and exceedingly fine spiral striations, the last con- 
fined to the very thin epidermis. 

Color. — Early whorls provided with a peripheral brown band 
which is strongest on the first and gradually weakens, being lost 
altogether on the fourth turn. The band renders the first one and 
one-half whorls of the spire almost brown, after which it appears as 
a mere suggestion above the sutures. A second brown band, vary- 
ing in strength in different individuals, is situated at the summits 
of the whorls. Ground color of early whorls bluish- white ; of the 
later ones straw-colored. Surface covered with irregular axial 
stripes of a thin opaque yellowish-white epidermis; stripes usually 
wider than the interspaces and extending from the summits to the 
umbilical area. These stripes obscure the brown band at the sum- 
mit, where they cross it and make it appear as an interrupted line 
of dots. Reflected tip and umbilical area dark chocolate brown; 
columellar edge pale rose color. Interior bluish-white. 

The type (Cat. No. 205213, U.S.N.M.) has six whorls, and meas- 
ures — length, 37 mm.; diameter, 23 mm.; aperture, length, 19.5 
mm.; diameter, 14.9 mm. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum. Vol. 37— No. 1705. 

295 



296 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOyAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



This species occurs upon the island of Bantayan, where 893 speci- 
mens were collected by Mr. R. C. McGregor of the Philippine Bureau 
of Science. 

There is quite a bit of variation among the members of the lot 
before us. In a few the dark band at the summit is indicated only 
on the early whorls. In several the peripheral band persists at 
maturity. 

The range of measurements can be best judged from the appended 
table, the twenty-five specimens being taken from the lot at random. 



I.ength. 


Diameter. 


Length. 


Diameter. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


38.6 


2.3.7 


32.6 


20.0 


30. 4 


22.7 


35.4 


21.5 


3.3.0 


19.8 


34.4 


19.5 


3G.0 


21.6 


30.5 


19.9 


35.0 


22.1 


39.7 


2.3.8 


34.0 


21.2 


32.4 


20.4 


31.7 


19.0 


3.3.0 


21.5 


3.5.0 


22.0 


33.0 


20.5 


34.0 


21.0 


34.5 


20.0 


35.0 


21.0 


30.5 


20.0 


3f'. 4 


21.7 


33.5 


20.9 


34.5 


22.3 







31.4 


19.0 


Avprage..34. 3 


21. 37 


31.0 


19.1 







Named for the Honorable Dean C. Worcester. 

COCHLOSTYLA ANNULATA FUGENSIS, new subspecies. 
Plate 29, figs. 2, 3, 8, 11, and 12. 

Shell similar to Coclilostyla annulata, but uniformly more broadly 
conic and less elevated. In color this form presents all the phases 
noted in annulata. In the })resent form the yellow phase pre- 
dominates (there are only six of the white phase in the lot). The 
umbilical area, too, is uniformly lighter in color thau in C. annulata. 

Specimens were collected by R. C. McGregor, of the Philippine 
Bureau of Science, on Fuga Island, one of the Babuyan group north 
of Luzon. C. annulata comes from northern Luzon. 

Twenty-four specimens of C. a. fugensis taken at random give the 
following measurements: 



Length. 


Diameter. 


Length. 


Diameter. 


mm. 


77177!. 


mm. 


mm. 


20.7 


19.1 


20.9 


19.0 


21.4 


19.4 


22.8 


20.2 


22.0 


19.0 


21.0 


18.0 


21.0 


20.0 


20.3 


19.1 


20.5 


19.0 


21.0 


19.5 


22.0 


19.8 


2.3.0 


20.0 


19.6 


17.8 


18.4 


17.5 


20.8 


18.5 


23.0 


20.9 


21.3 


19.2 


21.9 


20.0 


21.3 


19.0 


22.6 


.20.0 


21.4 


19.6 


22.2 


20.6 


18.1 


17.5 






21.8 


20.4 


Average.. 21. 12 


19.29 



NO. 1705. 



FOUR "S'EW PHILIPPINE LAND SHELLS— BART8CH. 



297 



Seven specimens of Cochlostyla annulata Sowerby, from von 
Mollendorff's collection (now Cat. No. 195389, IT.S.N.M.), collected 
at Ilocos, Luzon, measure: 



Height. 


Diameter. 


PInight. 


Diameter. 


mm. 


mm.. 


mm. 


mm. 


2f.. 3 


19.0 


24.0 


20.0 


24.0 


20.3 


21.7 


19.0 


27.0 


21.5 






23.7 


19.7 


Avefaffe..24. .^8 


20.07 


24.0 


21.0 







Five of these are figured on pi. 29, figs. 1, 4, 5, 10, 13. 



LEPTOPOMA FREERI, new spceies. 



Plate 29, fig.s. 6, 7, 9. 



Shell broadly conic, translucent, bluish-white. Nuclear whorls 
two and one-half, marked by five slender spiral lirations, which are 
promptly lost as the shell passes to the post-nuclear stage. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, marked by many (about 82 on the last 
whorl between the sutures) fine, subequal and subequally spaced, 
wavy, spiral striations. In addition to these, the whorls are marked 
between the sutures by four obsolete spiral keels. Sutures weakly 
impressed. Periphery of the last whorl marked by a strong, acutely 
compressed keel. The lines of growth on the spire are strongly 
retractively curved and vary somewhat in strength; the stronger 
appearing as subdiaphanous lines. Base of last whorl well rounded, 
narrowly openly umbilicated, marked by faint lines of growth and 
numerous subequal and subequally spaced fine wavy spiral stria- 
tions. Aperture very oblique, irregularly semi-oval, outer lip 
broadly expanded *nd slightly reflected, somewhat grooved on the 
flat surface and drawn out slightly into a claw at the peripheral keel; 
columella equaling the lip in strength; curved, excavated, and 
reflected; the junction with the basal lip forming an angle. Parietal 
wall covered b}^ a thin callus. Operculum thin, horny, multispiral, 
marked by many fine retractive, incremental lines. 

The type and fift3^-three specimens were collected b}^ Mr. R. C. 
McGregor, of the Philippine bureau of science, on Calayan Island, 
one of the Babuyan group. 

The type (Cat. No. 205215, U.S.N.AI.) has 7 whorls and measures- 
length 18 mm., diameter 19.6 mm.; aperture, length 11.8 mm., 
diameter 11 mm. 



298 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



Twenty-five of the remaining specimens, taken at random, measure: 



Length. 


Diameter. 


Length. 


Diameter. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


16.0 


19.0 


17.7 


17.8 


16. G 


19.4 


17.3 


18.7 


16.0 


19.8 


17.4 


19.3 


15.8 


18.5 


18.2 


19.6 


16.7 


18.2 


18.2 


19.3 


17.1 


18.8 


17.8 


19.4 


17.1 


19.0 


17.3 


18.7 


16.9 


19 


17.6 


19.5 


18.4 


20.0 


17.2 


18.7 


18.3 


19.0 


19.0 


19.6 


18.0 


18.8 


18.2 


19.0 


18.2 
18.6 


19.6 
20.3 






Average.. 17. 45 


19.05 


16.6 


18.2 







Named for Dr. Pavil C. Freer, Director of the PhiHppine Bureau 
of Science. 

COPTOCHEILUS McGREGORI, new species. 
Plate 29, %. 15. 

Shell pupiform, translucent, chocolate brown. Nuclear whorls 
two and one-half, dextral, smooth, coiled like the rest of the shell, 
but much lighter in color. Post-nuclear whorls strongly rounded 
and appressed at the summits, separated by decidedly constricted 
sutures, crossed by fine, retractive, incremental lines, which are 
strongest near the summit; the first three and one-half or four 
whorls are marked also by fine lightly impressed spiral striations. 
Periphery of^he last whorl faintly angulated. Base well rounded, 
narrowly umbilicated. Aperture subcircular, expanded and re- 
flected to form a thick, continuous peritreme, the parietal side of 
which is attached to the body wall. Peritreme double color, the 
inner separated from the outer by a strong deeply incised line, the 
notch in the inner being a little deeper than in the outer columellar 
wall. Operculum thin, horny multispiral. 

Thirty-one specimens were collected by Mr. R. C. McGregor, of the 
Philippine bureau of science, on Semerara Island. The type (Cat. 
No. 205181, U.S.N.M.) has 8 whorls, and measures— length 20.5 
mm., diameter 7.5 mm.; length of aperture 6.8 mm.; diameter of 
aperture 6.6 mm. 



NO. 1705. FOUR NEW PHILIPPINE LAND SHELLS— BARTSCH. 



299 



Twenty-five of the specimens measure: 



Length. 


Diameter. 


Length. 


Diameter. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


mm. 


21.4 


7.5 


21.3 


7.8 


20.8 


7.8 


20.0 


7.5 


20.7 


7.5 


19.1 


7.3 


19.5 


7.4 


20.0 


7.4 


20.2 


7.5 


20.6 


7.8 


19.3 


7.3 


20.4 


7.7 


20.5 


7.4 


21.0 


7.7 


21.6 


7.8 


20.9 


7.0 


19.8 


7.0 


20.4 


7.3 


20.5 


7.7 


20.2 


7.3 


19.6 
22.3 


7.3 
7.8 


20.5 


7. 5 type. 






20.4 


7.4 


Average.. 20. 42 


7.49 


19.6 


7.5 







Named for R. C. McGregor, of the Phihppine Bureau of Science. 



EXPLANATION OF PLATE 29. 

All figures natural size. 

Figs. 1, 4, 5, 10, 13. Cochlostyla annulata Sowerby. 

Figs. 2, 3, 8, 11, 12. Cochlostyla annulata fugensis Bartsch. 

Figs. 6, 7, 9. Leptopomafreeri Bartsch. 

Figs. 14, 16. Cochlostyla worcesteri Bartsch. 

Fig. 15. Cochlostyla mcgregori Bartsch 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 29 




New Land Shells from the Philippine Islands. 

For explanation of plate see page 299. 



CCELENTERATES FRO^I LABRADOR AND NEWFOUND- 
LAND, COLLECTED BY MR. OWEN BRYANT FROM JULY 
TO OCTOBER, 1908. 



By Henry B. Bigelow, 

Of the Museum of Co. nparat ire Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



The coelenterates described in the following pages were collected by- 
Mr. Owen Bryant at various points along the east coast of Labrador 
and the south and east coasts of Newfoundland during the summer of 
1908. The collection consists of twelve species of Craspedotse, one 
siphonophore, three Scyphomedusse, and three ctenophores. None of 
the species are new, but inasmuch as the medusa fauna of this region 
has not previously been studied, the records are of importance from 
the standpoint of geographical distribution. As might have been 
expected from our knowledge of other groups of animals, several of 
the species were previously known only from Greenland and from 
northern Europe. Such are Sarsia princeps and Ptychogastria polaris. 
Catablema vesicaria, Bougainvilleo^ superciliaris , Stauropliora lacini- 
ata, and Aglantha rosea were already known from both sides of the 
north Atlantic, so that the occurrence of these forms in the region in 
question, bridging over the gap in their known distribution, was to be 
expected. The capture of jEginopsis laurentii is of especial interest, 
since there was already good reason to believe that tliis species would 
be found to be of general boreal occurrence when the Arctic coasts 
of North America were more thoroughly explored from the faunistic 
standpoint. 

Although all the species are well known, two, Catablema vesicaria 
and jEginopsis laurentii, are of great systematic interest. For- 
tunately both are represented by such good series that, in the former, 
I have been able to make a study of the tentacles and of the gonads, 
and in the latter to verify many points of anatomy important in the 
general classification of the Narcomedusse. It has been a pleasure 
to work on specimens of Medusae so excellently preserved as those 
prepared by Mr. Bryant. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1706. 

301 



302 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

LIST OF SPECIES. 

CRASPEDOT^E. 

Page. 

Sarsia mirabilis L. Agassiz 302 

Sarsia princeps (Haeckel) 303 

Tiara pileata (Forskal) 303 

Catablema vesicaria (A. Agassiz) 304 

Bougainvillea superciliaris (L. Agassiz) 305 

Lizzia octopunctata (Sars) 306 

Staurophora laciniata L. Agassiz 307 

Milicertum campanula (Fabriciiis) 308 

Obelia geniculata (Linnaeus) 310 

Ptychogastria polaris Allman 310 

Aglantha rosea (Forbes) 312 

Mginopsis laurentii Brandt 314 

SIPHONOPHOR.^. 
Diphyopsis campanuiifera (Eschscholtz) 316 

SCYPHOMEDUS.^. 

Haliclystus auricula H. J. Clark 316 

Aurclia Jlavidula Peron and Lesueur 316 

Cyanea arctica Peron and Lesueur 316 

CTENOPHOR.^. 

Pleurobrachia pileus (Fabricius) 316 

Mertensia ovum (Fabricius) 316 

Beroe cucumis Fabricius 317 

DESCRIPTION OF SPECIES. 
CRASPEDOT.^. 

ANTHOMEDUSyE. 
SARSIA MIRABILIS L. Agassiz. 

Plate 30, fig. 2. 
Sarsia mirabilis L. Agassiz, '49, p. 228, pis. 4, 5. 

One specimen, about 10 mm. high, from St. Pierre, ofp Newfound- 
land, October 1, probably belongs to this well-known species, judging 
from its size and from the color of its tentacular bulbs and ocelli. 
Unfortunately, however, both manubrium and tentacles are so 
strongly contracted as to make positive identification impossible. 

S. mirabilis is known not only from the Atlantic coast of North 
America, Baffin's Bay, Greenland, and probably northern Europe 
(Hartlaub, :07, p. 39), but also from the Pacific coast of North 
America, a fact omitted in my summary of the Pacific Sarsiae. (:09). 
It is likewise recorded, though with reservation as to its true identity, 
from the coast of Chile, by Hartlaub (:07, p. 39). 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 303 

SARSIA PRINCEPS (Haeckel). 
Plate 30, fig. 1. 
Codonium princeps Hakckel, '79, p. 13, pi. 1, fig. 3. 

For the synonymy of this species, see Hartlaiib, :07, p. 47. 

One specimen, 14 mm. high, St. Pierre, off Newfoundland, October 1. 
I entirely agree with Browne (:03) and Hartlaub (:07) that this 
species is a typical Sarsia, and that the genus Codonium of Haeckel 
('79) is a synonym of Sarsia. For the history of the species, see 
Hartlaub, :67, p. 47. 

The single individual (pi. 30, fig. 1) is readily identified with S. 
Ijrinceys on account of its close resemblance to Hartlaub's figure. 
This species is one of the best defined in the difficult genus Sarsia, 
being distinguishable by its large size, the pronounced apical pro- 
jection of the gelatinous bell, the presence of a '^ stiel-canal," and 
especially by the jagged outlines of the radial canals. The latter are 
visible in the photograph (pi. 30, fig. 1); they seem, however, to have 
been overlooked by both Browne (:03) and Gronberg ('98), although 
recently mentioned and figured by Hartlaub (:07). In the single 
specimen both manubrium and tentacles are contracted, but in the 
former the distal gastric portion is sharply defined from the more 
proximal region which bears the sexual products. 

Color, — Manubrium and tentacles, after preservation mth form- 
alin, are reddish, the minute ocelli black. 

This species, known from various localities on the Arctic coasts of 
Europe, from Barents Sea, and from Spitzbergen, has also been 
recorded by Vanhoffen ('97) from the west coast of Greenland, so 
that its occurrence in Labrador and Newfoundland was to be expected. 

TIARA PILEATA (Forskal). 

Plate 30, -fig. 5; plate 31, fig. 7. 

Medusa pileata ForskAl, 1775, p. 110; 1776, pi. 33, fig. D. 
Tiara pileata L. Agassiz, '62, p. 347. 

This species is represented in the collection by nine specimens, 
taken 30 miles southeast of Nain, Labrador, August 18, ranging in 
diameter from 6-15 mm. The largest specimen is apparently 
sexually mature and has 37 tentacles. Differences in the shape of 
the basal bulbs of the tentacles offer a ready distinction between this 
species and Catahlema vesicaria, and are of much assistance in in- 
stances where both margin and gonads are damaged (compare pi. 30, 
fig. 5, with pi. 31, fig. 7). Tiara liileata is one of the most widely 
distributed of Atlantic Hydromedusse. On the coast of Europe it 
is common from Norway to the Mediterranean (Haeckel, '79; Bro^vne, 
:03) and in American waters it has been recorded from Maine to 
Rhode Island (Fewkes, Turris episcopalis) . 



304 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

CATABLEMA VESICARIA (A. Agassiz). 

Plate 30, figs. 3, 4; plate 31, fig. 6. 

Turris vesicaria A. Agassiz, '62a, p. 97. 
Catablema vesicaria JiAECKEL, '79, p. 64. 

This interesting boreal species is represented in the collection by 
27 specimens in various stages of development. The adult has been 
so well described and figured by A. Agassiz ('65), by Haeckel ('79 
" C. campanula") and by Maas (:04) that no extended account is nec- 
essary here. However, young stages have not previously been de- 
scribed, so far as I am aware. 

In general form the series agrees closely with the figures of A. 
Agassiz and of Maas, an extreme development of the apical gelatinous 
projection (pi. 30, figs. 3, 4) being an important characteristic of the 
species. 

Tentacles. — The largest specimen (19 mm. high by 17 mm. in diam- 
eter), which is in about the stage figured b}^ A. Agassiz ('65, fig. 262), 
has twenty-two well-developed tentacles and twenty rudimentary 
tentacular knobs rather irregularly distributed. In another speci- 
men of nearly as great size (18 by 14.5 mm.) the development of the 
tentacles has progressed somewhat further, there being thirty-seven 
large and only two rudimentary tentacles. According to Haeckel 
from thirty-six to forty-eight tentacles are finally formed. The 
smallest specmien, 3 mm. high by 3 mm. in diameter, has four large 
radial tentacles, four somewhat smaller interradial tentacles, and 
eight minute adradial tentacular knobs. This condition indicates 
that the order of development of tentacles is successively radial, in- 
terradial, adradial. In normal development subradial rudiments next 
appear. But in all the present specimens the development of addi- 
tional tentacles, after the first three series, is irregular, no two quad- 
rants of any specimen being precisely alike. Thus in an individual 
10 mm. high by 9 mm. in diameter, in which the first traces of gonads 
are visible, inter- and adradial tentacles have alone appeared in one 
quadrant, while in all the other quadrants subradial rudiments are 
also present. In still later stages the development of additional ten- 
tacles is so irregular that the normal succession is entirely masked. 

The tentacular bases are laterally compressed and bear spurs clasp- 
ing the exumbrella (pi. 31, fig. 6, T. Ra.). It is not unlikely that their 
outline, which appears constant, will prove to be of specific signifi- 
cance. Ocelli are recorded for this species by A. Agassiz ('65), and 
can be determined on a few specimens in the present series. In most 
cases, however, none are distinguishable. In all probability they have 
disappeared as the result of preservation, since neither Haeckel (79) 
nor Maas (:04) observed any such organs in the preserved specimens 
which they examined. 



NO. 1706. C(ELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 305 

Gonads. — The most important character which distinguishes 
Catahlema from the related genera Pandea, Tiara, and Clavula, '^ is 
the form of the gonads. In C. vesicaria these organs have been well 
figured both by A. Agassiz and by Maas, and the latter author has 
pointed out the importance of the gonads in the classification of the 
Tiaridse. The sexual organs, as in all Tiaridge, are purely interradial 
(though in adults this position is largely masked by their growth); 
and each gonad is primarily a horseshoe-shaped structure. The fea- 
ture in which Catahlema difi^ers from related genera is that the inter- 
radial portion of each gonad (connecting the two arms of the horse- 
shoe) consists of a series of distinct vertical folds (pi. 30, fig. 3, go). 

Maas has considered an extreme development of lateral diverticulse 
on the radial and circular canals as characteristic of Catahlema. In 
this respect, however, the genus is so closely approached by Clavula 
that it is impossible to draw any line between the two. In the larger 
specimens in the present series the diverticulae on the radial canals 
are well developed, some simple and some branched (pi. 31, fig. 6). 
On the circular canal, however, they are much less prominent, form- 
ing merely a jagged outline. This is a general condition no more com- 
plex than I have described and figured for the Pacific Clavula fontata 
(Bigelow, :09). 

Color. — After preservation with formalin, stomach, canals, and ten- 
tacles are pale orange, and the gonads a deeper shade of the same color. 

Catahlema vesicaria is a purely boreal species. On the American 
coast it has once been recorded from Massachusetts Bay, and never 
from south of Cape Cod. It is common along the Labrador coast. 
Haeckel (79) records it from Greenland, and Maas (:04) from the 
Arctic Ocean near Bear Island. 

BOUGAINVILLEA SUPERCILIARIS (L. Agassiz). 

Plate 31, fig. 2. 

Hippocrene superciliaris L. Agassiz, '49, p. 273, pis. 1-3. 

Bougainvillea superciliaris L. Agassiz, '62, pp. 289, 344, pi. 27, figs. 1-7. 

Labrador, 30 miles southeast of Nain, surface; 5 specimens, p11 
about 6.5 mm. high by 5 to 5.5 mm. in diameter. 

I can add little to the excellent accounts and figures of this species 
which we owe to L. Agassiz ('49) and to Hartlaub ('97). 

The specimens, though larger than any observed by L. Agassiz, 
are slightly smaller tlian the largest seen by Hartlaub, who records 
individuals 8 mm. in height. Haeckel ('79) has recorded specimens 
12 mm. in height, but Hartlaub questions whether these, in view of 

« For the medusan genus commonly known, since Lesson, as Turris, the name 
Clavula, applied by Strethill Wright (Proc. Edinburgh Phys. Soc, vol. 2, 1859) 
to the hydro id stage of Turris neglecta Lesson, must be used since the name " Turris" 
is preoccupied by Bolton for a genus of mollusca. 
Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 20 



306 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



their large size and small number (10-15) of tentacles in each bundle, 
do not belong to a distinct variety. 

The greatest number of tentacles in any bundle of the present series 
is fourteen; Agassiz figures 11-14, and Hartlaub has counted as many 
as twenty-two in larger individuals from Heligoland. 

The oral tentacles agree in their branching with L. Agassiz' 
figures. In most cases they branch dichotomously four times, 
occasionally, however, five times. But this is not their final condi- 
tion, since Hartlaub has observed instances in which branching took 
place six and seven times. 

In the short squarish outline of the manubrium and in the fact that 
this organ is situated on a short peduncle (pi. 31, fig. 2), as well as in 
the thickness of the gelatinous substance of the bell, and in the broad- 
ness of the radial canals, the specimens agree closely with the accounts 
and figures of previous students. 

The color is that recorded by Hartlaub, the entoderm of the manu- 
brium being reddish brown, the tentacular bulbs brownish red, the 
ocelli black. 

B. superciliaris is a species of wide distribution. On the Atlantic 
coast of America it is known to occur as far south as Woods Hole, 
Massachusetts, and it is a common species thence northward to 
Labrador, and perhaps to Greenland (Haeckel),and, as already noted, 
it is known from Heligoland (Hartlaub). 

LIZZIA OCTOPUNCTATA (Sars). 

Plate 31, figs. 3-5. 

Cytxis octopunctata Sars, '35, p. 28, pi. 6, fig. 14. 
Lizzia octo-punctata Forbes, '48, p. 64; pi. 12, fig. 13. 

The generic distinctions between the Bougainvilleidse with eight 
tentacle groups have been well drawn by Maas (:05), who recognizes 
two genera, Lizzia and BatJiJcea, separated by the structure of the 
labial arms, as well as by the number of marginal tentacles in each 
group. The various other genera founded by Haeckel, namely, 
Lizusa, Lizzella, and Margellium were, as shown by Vanhoffen ('89), 
founded upon young stages. 

Thanks to the studies of A. Agassiz ('65, "Lizzia grata") and 
Browne ('96, "Margellium octojmiictatum^') the stages in growth of L. 
octopunctata from the liberation of the medusa-bud to the adult, are 
now well known, and to the latter author I refer the reader for its 
complex synonymy ('96, p. 477). 

The collection contains a series of about 200 specimens of this 
species from Fogo Island, Newfoundland, July 28, including both 
budding and sexual phases, as well as numerous young stages. 

Sexual and budding phases are of about the same size, the largest 
specimens of each being about 4 mm. high by 3.5 mm. in diameter. 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETG.—BIGELOW. 307 

In most of the specimens the oral appendages are in the condition 
shown in the photograph (pi. 31, fig. 5), there being foursessile nemato- 
cyst knobs at each corner of the mouth. EarHer stages, such as are 
figured by A. Agassiz ('65, fig. 257) are to be seen in smaller spec- 
imens. In the adult condition, according to A. Agassiz, there are seven 
nematocyst organs in each cluster and the same condition is recorded 
by Browne ('96). This type of oral appendage, as has been pointed 
out by ^laas (:05) is entirely different from the branched oral ten- 
tacles of Ratlikea, and forms sufficient grounds for separating the 
two genera. 

The numbers recorded by A. Agassiz and b}^ Browne for the groups 
of tentacles, five for each radial, three for each interradial group, 
appear to be the final ones. At least, I have never seen them sur- 
passed. 

In the earliest stage in the development of tentacles which I have 
observed, the bud being still attached to the manubrium of the parent, 
there is one tentacle in each group, radial or interradial, the radials 
being much the largest. 

Young medusae, at hberation, have three tentacles in each radial 
group, the central one being much the largest, and one in each inter- 
radial group. The adult number of tentacles is usually attained, as 
described by A. Agassiz ('65), by the development of an additional 
pair of lateral tentacles in each group, radial or interradial, but the 
formation of additional tentacles is rather irregular, as Browne has 
observed. 

Color. — In the preserved specimens the manubrium in the budding 
phase is very pale reddish, in the sexual phase its entoderm is of a 
much deeper reddish brown tint. In both phases the tentacular 
bulbs are of a deep chocolate brown. These structures are recorded 
by Hargitt (:05) as being ''pinkish, tending to brown, and even 
blackish in rare cases." 

Tlus species was previously known to occur commonly in Massa- 
chusetts Ba}^ and south of Cape Cod in the Woods Hole region and 
at Newport, Rhode Island. It is not known from south of Long 
Island Sound. In European waters it is known from Norway south 
to the coast of France. 

LEPTOMEDUS^^. 
STAUROPHORA LACINIATA L. Agassiz. 

Staurophora laciniata L. Agassiz, '49, p. 308, pi. 7. 

One specimen, 70 mm. in diameter; Fogo Island, Newfoundland, 
July 28; surface. 

The single specimen, which has well-developed gonads, is of only 
medium size, since this species frequently attains a diameter of 
150 mm. 



308 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Staurofliora laciniata is a common boreal species. On the Ameri- 
can coast it occurs only occasionally south of Cape Cod. Hartlaub 
('97) has recorded what is probably the young of this species from 
Heligoland, and it is probable that the S. arctica of Haeckel ('79) 
from Spitzbergen is identical with S. laciniata. 

MELICERTUM CAMPANULA ( Fabricius). 

Plate 31, fig. 1; plate 32, fig. 1. 

Medusa campanula Fabricius, 1780, No. 360. 

Melicertum caynpanula A. Agassiz, '62a, p. 96; '65, p. 130, figs. 202-214. 

Haeckel ('79) has pointed out that the identity of Fabricius' spec- 
imens with those subsequently described by A. Agassiz ('65) under 
the name Melicertum campanula is doubtful, owing to the unsatis- 
factory nature of Fabricius' account. But since it is improbable 
that any better identification of Fabricius' material can ever be made, 
it will add to the stability of nomenclature to accept the identifica- 
tion of A. Agassiz, who has fully described and figured the species. 

This common northern form is represented in the collection as 
follows : 

Fogo Island, Newfoundland, July 19, nine specimens in early 
growth. 

St. Pierre, off Newfoundland, three specimens, all about 15 mm. 
high by 12 mm. in diameter, with mature sexual products. 

Although this species has been thoroughly figured and described 
by A. Agassiz ('65), the structure of the tentacular organs deserves 
fresh stud}^, since Maas (:05) has raised the question whether or not 
there are cirri and knobs as well as developed tentacles. Haeckel 
('79) has made the presence or absence of such secondary marginal 
organs the basis for generic distinction, Melicertidium having, Meli- 
certum lacldng them. Maas ('97, :05), however, has abandoned this 
criterion, and suggests, from A. Agassiz' figures, that on fresh exam- 
ination, cirri and knobs will be found in M. campanula. The evidence 
in the present series indicates, however, that there is only one class 
of marginal organ in this species, i. e., tentacles, though these develop 
continuously and it is probable that not all ever reach the final con- 
dition. 

In the earhest stage in the present series (specimen 1.75 mm. high 
by 2 mm. in diameter), there are eight large radial tentacles, eight 
well-developed, though smaller, interradial tentacles, and in each 
octant two adradial elements which show all stages from mere knobs 
to very small tentacles with basal bulbs and terminal filaments. 
Several of the smallest elements, moreover, closely resemble the cirrus- 
like structures figured by A. Agassiz. 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATE8 FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 309 

At a sliglitly later stage the adradials in seven octants have attained 
their definitive tentacular form, though they are still smaller tlian 
the interradials. In the eighth octant, however, one of the radials 
is still a mere knob. In seven octants a fourth series of marginal 
structures, subradials, ranging from minute knobs to fully formed, 
though small, tentacles, has Hkewise appeared. In the eighth octant, 
however, no subradials are yet present. 

From tliis stage onward new members of the tentacular series are 
formed in irregular succession. In an individual 5.5 mm. in diameter 
by 6 mm. high there ^ are, besides the radials, tliirty-six tentacles, 
respectively 5, 4, 4, 4, 4, 6, 4, 5, to the octant, and these show all stages 
in development. In a slightly larger individual (6.5 mm. in diameter 
by 6 mm. high) the six subradials in one octant have all attained 
tentacular form, although in other octants both knobs and cirri are 
present. 

In the most advanced specimen (15 mm. high by 12 mm. in diam- 
eter) there is a total of 129 tentacular structures, of which 72 have 
attained full tentacular form, the remainder showing early stages in 
growth. In one octant of this specimen (pi. 31, fig. 1) there are, 
between the two radial canals, nine large tentacles (T^), four small 
tentacles (T^), cirri (ci), and knobs. 

This series shows that there is no morphologic distinction in this 
species, between the various marginal structures, knobs and cirri 
being merely early stages, partly perhaps contraction phases, in the 
growth of tentacles. But, inasmuch as even in mature specimens 
many such early stages are present, and since additional members 
of the tentacular series are formed continuously, I doubt whether a 
stage is ever reached in which only fully developed tentacles are 
present. However, although we can draw no sound distinction 
between knobs and cirri on the one hand and tentacles on the other, 
I agree with Maas that the distinction between the two genera 
Melicertum and Melicertidium is invahd, though on a different ground, 
namely, that the knobs and cirri in Melicertidium and in Melicertum 
jyrohoscifera (Maas '97) are probably notliing more than early stages 
in the growth of tentacles, just- as they are in M. campanula. 

M. campanula is an abundant species in American waters from 
Labrador to Cape Cod, and it is known to occur as far south as 
Woods Hole, Massachusetts. A closely allied form, M. octocostata 
Sars, is known along the European coast from Norway to England. 
The latter was made by Haeckel ('79), the type of his genus Melicer- 
tidium, but from the brief account of Browne ('95) it is evident that 
the ''knobs" are notliing more than young tentacles. It is not 
improbable that M. octocostata. may finally prove identical with M. 
campanula, but until it is better known it is wisest to retain both 
species. 



310 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

OBELIA GENICULATA (Linnaeus). 

Sertularia geniculata Linn-EUS, 1776, No. 1312. 
Ohelia geniculata Allman, '64, p. 372. 

The collection contains many specimens of Ohelia from St. Pierre, 
off Newfoundland, October, and from Fogo Island, Ne\\'foundland, 
July 28. 

They are all far advanced in development. In the position of the 
gonads they resemble the figures of 0. geniculata given by Bohm 
('78, pi. 3, figs. 1-34). This species has already been recorded by 
Nutting ('99) from Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and on the coast of 
Europe is widely distributed. The identification can, however, be 
only provisional, inasmuch as a knowledge of the hydroid stages is 
essential for final determination. 

TRACHOMEDUS.^. 

The collection contains two species of Trachomedusae, one belong- 
ing to the remarkable and still obscure genus Ptychogastria, the other 
to Aglantha. 

PTYCHOGASTRIA POLARIS Allman. 
Ptychogastria polaris Allman, '78, p. 290, figs. 1-3. 

Four specimens, 13 to 21 mm. in diameter, from between Cape 
Mugford and Hebron, Labrador, August 23, in the dredge, from 60 
fathoms. Unfortunately, all of the specimens are in such poor con- 
dition that I can do little more than corroborate the excellent account 
of this species which we owe to Browne (:03), who has shown that the 
description by Haeckel ('79, '81, PectylUs arctica) is incorrect in several 
particulars. Its synonymy and history have recently been discussed 
by Maas (:06, p. 582). The most remarkable feature of Ptycho- 
gastria is the fact (demonstrated by Browne) that although the pres- 
ence of free club-like otocysts undoubtedly places it among the 
Trachomedusse, the gonads are situated not on the radial canals, but 
on folds of the walls of the manubrium. Maas, it is true, has doubted 
whether the sexual organs are truly stomachic. But my examination 
of the present specimens, in which the manubria were fairly well 
preserved, has convinced me that Browne is correct in maintaining 
that the gonads belong exclusively to the walls of the stomach and 
that no sexual products are developed on the radial canals. 

The question whether or not there are sixteen distinct gonads, as 
Browne maintains, or whether Maas (:06, p. 483) is correct in saying 
that there are only eight, but that " Jede der 8 Gonaden erscheint 
iibrigens durch die Ansatzlinie der Mesenteriums scharf zweigeteilt 
so dass man eigentlich von 16 Gonadenlamellen sprechen konnte" 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 311 

is one that can be answered only after a study of the development 
of these organs. It is certain, however, that in the adult the sexual 
organs are entirely discontinuous along the narrow line of attachment 
of the mesenteries to the manubrium, as well as in the interradii. 
In other words, in the adult the sixteen sexual masses are adradial. 
They may, however, be formed by the fission of eight primary gonads. 
Maas, in discussing the probable relationship of this genus, especially 
to Crossota, has suggested that possibly the eight radial ridges of the 
manubrium which bear the gonads are in reality basal dilations of 
the radial canals, so that ' ' die 8 Aussackungen die die Gonaden versor- 
gen, dem Boden der Radiarkanale entsprechen, auch wenn letztere 
selbst, wie die Schnittbilder Browne's lehren, davon ganz anabhiingig 
verlaufen" (:06, p. 483). But the conditions in the adult seem to me 
to lend no actual support to such a view, although a study of the 
development of the species may give a different result. 

No sense organs were to be found in the present specimens. 
Browne, however, observed them, and found that their number was 
probably sixteen. 

Tentacles. — I can add nothing to Browne's account except to note 
that in one specimen there is a single very large filiform tentacle about 
twice as long as the bell is high, arising from the tentacular scar be- 
tween two of the tentacle groups. Allman, in the original account 
of the species, figured these large tentacles, but in Browne's specimens 
they were all broken off. 

Ptychogastria yolaris is certainly not an abyssal form, since all 
recent records of its capture are from comparatively shoal water. 
It has never, however, been taken on the surface, so far as I know. 
Judging from the presence of sucking pads on certain of its tentacles, 
Browne is probably correct in suggesting that it attaches itself to 
the bottom, as its near relative, Pectanthis asteroides, was seen to do by 
Haeckel ('81). However, as Browne has pointed out, the high degree 
of muscular development suggests that the species may be an active 
swimmer. 

It is not worth while to speculate on the affinities of this remarkable 
genus until the young stages have been worked out, for only in that 
way can the nature of gonads and mesenteries be determined. In 
the meantime we may well follow Vanhoffen (:02) and Maas (:06) 
in associating it with Crossota, to which it is related by the arrange- 
ment of the several rows of tentacles. 

Genus AGLANTHA. 

Recent researches on this difficult genus have led most students 
to agree that in the North Atlantic two species are recognizable, 
A. digitale, with only four otocysts, of large size, and of Arctic clis- 



312 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL 3IU8EUM. vol.37. 



tribution, and A. rosea, with eight otocysts, of much smaller size 
and of somewhat more southerly occurrence. Up to the present 
time the greatest size attained by A. rosea was supposed to be about 

12 mm., whereas A. digitale, which has three or four well-marked 
geographical races, is known to grow to at least twice that height. 
Both species are known from both sides of the North Atlantic, but 
A. rosea has been recorded from the coast of America only once 
(Hargitt :05, A. conica, Woods Hole, Massachusetts). Inasmuch as 
A. digitale has been recorded from Massachusetts Bay and northward 
I expected the series in the present collection to belong to that species. 
But to my surprise all the specimens examined have eight otocysts, 
one in each octant, and must therefore be referred to A. rosea. 

AGLANTHA ROSEA (Forbes). 

Circe rosea Forbes, '48, p. 34, pi. 1, fig. 2. 
Aglantha rosea Browne, '97, p. 833. 

For the synonymy and history of this species, see Maas (:06). 

Between Cape Sable and Cape Race, July 19, about 700 specimens, 
1.5-8 mm. high; St. Pierre, off Newfoundland, October 1, about 100 
specimens, 2-10 mm. high; Fogo Island, off Newfoundland, July 29, 
about 275 specimens, 2-7 mm. high; Gready Harbor, Labrador, 

13 specimens, 13-25 mm. high; Cape Harrison, Labrador, August 13, 
1 specimen, 21 mm. high; 30 miles southeast of Nain, Labrador, 
August 15, 129 specimens, 8.5-29 mm. high. 

The series is extremely interesting, since it suggests that with 
regard to size and number of tentacles Aglantha rosea falls into two 
distinct races. The smaller of these agrees with A. rosea, as de- 
scribed by Browne ( :03) and by Maas ( :06) . In this form gonads are 
first visible in specimens 2-3 mm. high, and are well developed in 
individuals 6-8 mm. high with 75-80 tentacles. The second race, 
in dimensions and number of tentacles, closely resembles A. digitale, 
var. occidentalis Maas, from which it can be distinguished only by 
the number of otocysts. Fortunately the present specimens were 
so well preserved that I was able to count these organs in many of 
the large individuals; otherwise I would no doubt have recorded 
them under the latter name. In this race, as is shown in the table, 
gonads first appear in specimens 7-10 mm. high, and they are well 
developed in specimens 14 mm. or more high. The largest individual 
in the series is 29 mm. high, a size previously thought to be attained, 
in this genus, only by A. digitale. In this specimen there are 214 
tentacles. Such individuals, except for the number of otocysts, are 
indistinguishable from A. digitale as described by A. Agassiz ('65). 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATE^ FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 313 



Measurements of specimens. 



Locality. 



Between Cape Sable and Cape Race, 
Newfoundland 

Do 

Do 

Fogo Island, Newfoundland 

Do 

Between Cape Sable and Cape Race, 

Newfoundland 

Woods Hole, Massachusetts 

30 miles southeast of Nain Labrador... 

Do 

Do 

Do 

Gready Harbor, Labrador 

Do 

30 miles southeast of Nain, Labrador... 



Diame- 
ter. 


Height. 


Tenta- 
cles. 


Otocysts. 


mm. 


THTTl. 






1.5 


2.0 


23 


4 


2.0 


3.5 


34 


6 


3.0 


5.0 


57 


8 


3.5 


5.5 


62 


8 


4.0 


7.0 


71 


7 + 


4.5 


7.0 


73 


8 


5.0 


14.0 


108 


7 + 


6.0 


10.0 


115 


8 


1 . 


14.5 


131 


7 + 


8.0 


22.0 


163 


8 


9.5 


20.0 


184 


8 


11.0 


22.5 


167 


8 


13.0 


23.0 


173 


8 


13.0 


29.0 


214 


6 + 



Gonads. 



None. 

Do. 
Very minute. 
2 mm. long, male. 
2 mm. long; large ( 

Very small; sex? 
2 mm. long, male. 
Very minute. 
Large female. 

Do. 

Do. 
Large male. 
Large female. 
Large male. 



The localities of capture suggest that the occurrence of these two 
races may indicate a geographic separation, inasmuch as all the 
specimens (between 1,000 and 1,100) from the south and east coasts 
of Newfoundland belong to the smaller, while all the specimens from 
north of the straits of Belle Isle belong to the larger race. But this 
distinction may prove to be of less significance than now appears, 
since it is impossible to distinguish the youngest stages of the two races, 
and since among the southern specimens several are apparently the 
young of the larger race. So far as the present collection goes there 
is no evidence that the difference between the two races is a seasonal 
one, because the smaller was taken in October as well as in July. 
I may further point out that should the difference between the two 
prove to be a case of geographic variation the distribution of the 
two, as illustrated by this collection, would indicate an entirely 
unexpected division, because the oceanographic conditions on the 
south coast of Newfoundland, where the effect of the Gulf Stream 
is often felt, differ markedly from those on the east coast, whereas 
there is no surface temperature change of importance between the 
east coast of Newfoundland and that of Labrador. 

To settle definitely the question as to the relationship of the two 
races requires a more complete knowledge of their distribution than 
we now possess, and particularly a fresh study of their occurrence 
off the New England coast. In the meantime it is best not to burden 
the nomenclature of the genus with a fresh varietal name which may 
soon be found to be unwarranted. 



314 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



NARCOMEDUS^E. 

The collection contains only one species of this order, ^ginoj>sis 
laurentii Brandt. 

iEGINOPSIS LAURENTII Brandt. 
Plate 32, figs. 2-6. 
JEginopsis laurentii Brandt, '38, p. 363, pi. 6. 

Fogo Island, Newfoundland, July 28, 43 specimens, 1.5-7 mm. in 
diameter; Gready Harbor, Labrador, 1 specimen, 6 mm. in diameter; 
30 miles southeast of Nain, Labrador, 1 specimen, 4 mm. and 1 speci- 
men 13 mm. in diameter, the latter with well-developed gonads. 

Though often recorded, certain anatomical features of this species 
are still imperfectly known. Especially is it desirable to determine 
whether or not a canal system is present, inasmuch as this point has 
never been examined in serial sections, although Maas (:06) has 
noted that surface views give no indication of the presence of either 
ring or peronial canals. 

In general appearance the older specimens (pi. 3, fig. 2) closely 
resemble the figures given by Brandt ('38, pi. 6), the bell being of 
moderate height, and the tentacles arising fron the exumbral surface 
at a very high level. 

Tentacles. — The most important feature of this genus is the fact 
that while there are only four tentacles, there are eight peronise, a 
fact clearly shown in Brandt's figures and accepted by all later 
authors. 

Gastrovascular system. — The condition of the gastric pockets has 
been figured by Brandt ('38) and described by Maas (:06) (pi. 32, 
figs. 2, 3). 

The series shows strong evidence that the sixteen gastric pockets 
of the adult are derived by subdivision from eight primary perradial 
pockets, one opposite each peronia. In the youngest specimen in 
the series, 2 mm. in diameter (pi. 32, fig. 4), the condition is as follows: 
opposite each of the four tentacles the primary pockets are bifid, 
but opposite the four peronia^ without tentacles the pockets are 
undivided, exactly as they are in the Cunanthidse. At a slightly 
later stage (specimen 3 mm. in diameter) these latter pockets have 
become subdivided by shallow radial notches at their outer margins. 
Finally as growth proceeds a condition is reached (pi. 32, fig. 2) in 
which all eight primary gastric pockets are bifid to the same degree. 
Judging from these two stages it is reasonable to assume that there 
are originally four pockets opposite the tentacles, only that in their 
case the bifid condition is attained earlier than in the four pockets 
opposite the peronia? without tentacles. 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 315 

That the pockets are primarily radial in all the genera now grouped 
by Maas and by myself (:09) as ^ginidae is a generalization already 
proposed by Maas on theoretic grounds. But while it is no doubt 
true for jEginopsis, in view of the condition in jEgina alternans 
Bigelow (:09) in which there are only four interradial pockets, the 
question whether it holds for the entire family must remain open 
for the present. 

A study of serial sections of the marginal region shows that there 
is no peripheral canal system in this genus. This fact strengthens 
the view upheld by Maas (:09) and by myself (:09) that the presence 
or absence of canals is of little value in classification, for while 
jEginopsis and Solmundella lack them entirely, jEgina, to which 
they are closely allied by the conformation both of the gastric pockets 
and of the sense organs, has this system well developed (Maas :05; 
Vanhoffen :08). This conclusion is o])posed to the views of Van- 
hoffen (:08), who makes the presence or absence of canals a feature 
of prime importance in classification. 

The structure of the sense organs is of interest, since they have not 
been described previously in this' genus. The otocysts are of the 
ordinary teginid type (pi. 32, fig. 6), containing from 1 to 3 large 
otoliths'and situated on prominent pads of the marginal ring, without 
otoporpse. Since the latter organs do not occur, so far as known, in 
any of the ^ginidse, their absence is to be regarded as an important 
character. In the smallest individual there are sixteen otocysts, 
two in each octant. In older specimens octants were observed 
with three and with four otocysts, the latter number being the 
largest counted. The greatest number of otocysts in any one indi- 
vidual was twenty-six, in a specimen 7 mm. in diameter. Curiously 
enough in the largest specimen, 13 mm. in diameter, with mature 
gonads, there are only sixteen otocysts, two in each octant. 

Gonads. — In the mature specimen, the only individual in which 
gonads are present, the sexual products, various!}^ and irregularly 
lobed, occupy most of the surface of the gastric pockets (pi. 32, fig. 5). 
In the quadrant figured they overlap so much as to obscure in aboral 
views the septa separating the pockets, particidarly in the case of 
the one in the radius of the peronia between the two tentacles. 

The occurrence of this species on the coasts of Labrador and New- 
foundland was to be expected since it is no doubt of general boreal 
distribution. It has previously been recorded from various localities 
off the north coast of Europe and from Greenland, as well as from 
Bering Strait (Brandt). It is probable also that the record of JS". 
mertensii (Haeckel '79) from Japan belongs to this species. 



316 PROCEEDINGS OF THE yATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 



SIPHONOPHOR.^. 

DIPHYOPSIS CAMPANULIFERA ( Eschscholtz). 

Diphyes campanuliferd Eschscholtz, '29, p. 137. 
Diphyopsis campanulifera Chun, '88, p. 1159. 

A single characteristic anterior nectophore of this species was 
taken on the surface at Fogo Island, New'foundland, July 28. The 
record of this typical warm-water form is of interest as indicating 
the northward extent of the warm waters of the Gulf Stream. 

SCYPHOMEDUS^^. 
HALICLYSTUS AURICULA H. J. Clark. 
Ealiclystus auricula H. J. Clark, '63, p. 559. 

Six specimens, St. Pierre, off Newfoundland, October 1 ; 5 fathoms. 

There are also specimens of this species in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology, Cambridge, IMassachusetts, from Indian Harbor, 
Labrador. 

AURELIA FLAVIDULA Peron and Lesueur. 
Aurelia flavidula Peron and Lesueur, '09, p. 47. 

The collection contains five immature specimens from Oready 
Harbor, Labrador, and from Indian Harbor, Labrador. The smallest 
specimens show the earliest stages in the formation of the canal sys- 
tem, in which they agree closely with the figures of L. Agassiz ('62). 

CYANEA ARCTICA Peron and Lesueur. 

Cyanea arctica Peron and Lesueur, '09, p. 51. . 

The collection contains two young specimens of this common 
species from Indian Harbor, Labrador, August 12; surface. 

CTENOPHOR^^. 

PLEUROBRACHIA PILEUS (Fabricius). 

Beroe pileus Fabricius, 1780, p. 361. 
rieurobrachia pileus Vanhoffen, '95, p. 21. 

St. Pierre, Ne\\'foundland, October 1, 6 specimens, all about 14 mm. 
high. 

This species is common in both American and European waters, as 
well as in Greenland. (Chun, '98, p. 15.) 

MERTENSIA OVUM (Fabricius). 

Beroe ovum Fabricius, 1780, p. 362. 
Mertensia ovum Morch, '57, p. 97. 

This well-known boreal species is represented by three specimens 
from 30 miles southeast of Nain, Labrador, August 15, and two 
specimens from Gready Harbor, Labrador, August 8, all 8-10 mm. 



NO. 1706. CCELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR, ETC.—BIGELOW. 317 

in height. The voracity of this form is well illustrated by the fact 
that one individual had entirely engulfetl a young sculpin (Acantho- 
cottus grcenlandicus Fabricius) no less than 21 mm. long, the victim 
being doubled up so as to fit into the digestive cavity of its captor. 

M. ovum is a common species in the cold waters north of Cape Cod, 
whither it is swept by the Labrador current, but it is of only sporadic 
occurrence south of that dividing line. So far as known the Woods 
Hole region marks the extreme limit of its southward dispersal in 
American waters. It is known both from Greenland and from Spitz- 
bergen, and is probably of circumpolar occurrence (Chun, '98, p. 10). 

BEROE CUCUMIS Fabricius. 
Beroe cucumis Fabricius, 1780, p. 361. 

Between Cape Sable and Cape Race, July 19, about 100 small 
specimens, 3-14 mm. high; St. Pierre, off Newfoundland, October 1, 
1 specimen, 15 mm. high; Fogo Island, Newfoundland, July 29, 
5 specimens, 40-50 mm. high. 

Unfortunately the large specimens were all so fragmentary that it 
was impossible to trace the course of the stomachic canals with any 
accuracy. However, since these appear to end blindly, the speci- 
mens must be referred to B. cucumis rather than to B. ovata. In the 
small specimens the blind terminations of the canals were easily 
traced. B. cucumis was taken on the Plankton Expedition in the 
Labrador current (Chun, '98, p. 27), and is known to be widely dis- 
tributed throughout Arctic regions. On the coast of the United 
States it is known to occur as far south as Cape Cod, whither it is no 
doubt carried by the Labrador current. 



318 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 

Agassiz, a., '62a. On the Mode of Development of the Marginal Tentacles of the Free 

Medusae of some Hydroids. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 9, pp. 88-103, 31 figs. 

'62b. In Agassiz, L., '62. 

'65. North American Acalephse. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll., 

vol. 1, xiv + 334 pp., 360 figs. 
Agassiz, L., '49. Contributions to the Natural History of the Acalephse of North 

America. Pt. 1. On the Naked-eyed Medusae, etc. Mem. Am. Acad. (N. S.), 

vol. 4, pp. 221-316, 8 pis. 
'62. Contributions to the Natural History of the United States of America, 

Vol. 4, Monogr. 2, viii + 372 + (12) pp., pis. 20-35. 
Allman, G. J., '64. On the construction and limitation of genera among the Hydroida. 

Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 3, vol. 13, pp. 345-380. 
■ '78. Hydrozoa, in Capt. Sir G. S. Nares' Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar 

Sea during 1875-76, in H. M. Ships "Alert" and "Discovery." London, 1878, 

vol. 2, pp. 290-292, 3 figs. 
BiOELOw, H. B., : 09. Reports on the Scientific Results of the Expedition to Eastern 

Tropical Pacific, etc. XVI. The Medusae. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard 

Coll., vol. 37, 243 pp., 48 pis. 
BoHM, R., '78. Helgolander Leptomedusen. Jena. Zeit. f. Naturw., vol. 12, pp. 68- 

203, pis. 2-7. 
Brandt, J. F., '38. Ausfiihrliche Beschreibung der von C. H. Mertens auf seiner 

Weltumsegelung beobachteten Schirmquallen. . . . Mem. Acad. St. Peters- 

bourg, vol. 4, pt. 2, pp. 237-ill, pis. 1-31. 
Broch, H., : 05. Zur Medusenfauna von Norwegen. Bergens Mua. Aarbog, 1905, 

no. 11, 8 pp. 
Browne, E. T., '95. Report on the Medusae of the L. M. B. C. District. Trans. 

Liverpool Biol. Soc, vol. 9, pp. 243-286. 
'96. On British Hydroids and Medusae. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1896, pp. 

459-500, pis. 16, 17. 
'97. On British Medusse. Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1897, pp. 816-835, pis. 

48, 49. 

03. Report on some Medusse from Norway and Spitzbergen. Bergens Mus. 



Aarbog, 1903, no. 4, 36 pp., 5 pi. 
Chun, C, '88. Die Siphonophoren der kanarischen Inseln. Sitzungsber. Akad. 

Wiss. Berlin, vol. 44, pp. 1141-1173. 
'98. Die Ctenophoren der Plankton Expedition. . . . Ergebnisse der 

Plankton Exped. . . . vol. 2, K. a., 32 pp., 3 pis. 
Clark, H. James, '63. Prodromus of the History, Structure and Physiology of the 

Order Lucernariae. Journ. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., vol. 7, pp. 531-567. 
EscHSCHOLTz, Fr., '29. System der Acalephen, eine ausfiihrliche Beschreibung 

aller medusenartigen Strahlthiere. vi + 190 pp., 16 pis. Berlin, F. Dummler, 

1829. 
Fabricius, O., 1780. Fauna groenlandica. Hafnise et Lipsiae, xvi -f 452 pp., 1 pi., 

1780. 
Fewkes, J. W., '81. Studies of the Jelly-Fishes of Narragansett Bay. Bull. Mus. 

Comp. Zool., Harvard College, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 141-182, 10 pis. 
Forbes, E., '48. A Monograph of British Naked-eyed Medusae. 104 pp., 13 pis., 

Ray Soc, London, 1848. 
ForskAl, p., 1775. Descriptiones animalium . . . quae in itinere orientale 

observavit. Hauniae, edidit Carstem Niebulir, 1775, 20, xxxiv -|- 164 pp. 
1776. Icones rerum naturalium quas in itinere orientali depingi curavit Petrus 

Forsk&l . . . edidit Carstem Niebuhr. Hauniae, 1776, 15 pp., 43 pis. 



NO. 1706. CGELENTERATES FROM LABRADOR. ETC.— BIGELOW. 319 

Gronberg, G., '98. Die Hydroidmedusen des Arktischen Gebietes. Zool. Jahrb., 

Syst. Abt., vol. 11, pp. 451-467, pi. 27. 
Haeckel, E., '79. Das System derMedusen. Part 1: System derCraspedoten. Jena. 

Denkschr., vol. 1, xxv + 360 pp., atlas of 40 pis. 
'81. Report on the Deep Sea Medusae . . . Report on the scientific results 

of the voyage of H. M. S. "Challenger." Zoology, vol. 4, no. 2, cv + 154 pp., 

32 pis. 
Hargitt, C. W., :05. The Medusa3 of the Woods Hole Region. Bull. U. S. Bureau 

of Fisheries, vol. 24, pp. 21-79, pis. 1-7. 
Hartlaub, C, '97. Hydromedusen Helgolands. Zweiter Ber. Wissensch. Meeres- 

unters., (new ser.), vol. 2, pp. 49-516, pis. 14-23, Kiel und Leipzig, 1897. 

:07. Craspedote Medusen. 1. Theil, ILief. : Codoniden und Cladonemiden. 

In Nordisches Plankton, 12, Kiel, etc., 1907, 135 pp., 1 pi. 

LiNNE, K. VON, 1766-1768. Systema Naturae, etc. 12 ed. Holmia;, 1766-1768. 
Maas, O., '97. Die Medusen. Reports on an Exploration off the West Coasts of Mexico, 
etc. Mem. Mus. Comp. Zool., Harvard Coll., vol. 23, no. 1, 92 pp., 15 pis. 

:04. Meduses provenant des Campagnes des yachts " Hirondelle ' ' et "Prin- 

cesse-Alice" (1886-1903). Resultats des Camp. Sci., etc., par Albert P', Prince 
Souverain de Monaco, fasc. xxviii, 71 pp., 6 pis. 

:05. Die Craspedoten Medusen der Siboga-Expedition. Uitkom. op. Zool. 

Bot., Oceanogr. en Geol. Gebied. Siboga-Expeditie. Monogr. x, 84 pp., 14 pis. 

:06. Die Arktischen Medusen. Fauna Arctica. Vol. 4, pp. 480-526. 



MoRCH, O., '57. Nat. Bid. til en Beskr. af Gronland, 1857. 

Nutting, C. C, '99. The Hydroids of the Woods Hole Region. Bull. U. S. Bureau 

of Fisheries, vol. 19, pp. 325-386, 105 figs. 
Peron, F., and Lesueur, C. A., '09. Histoire Generale et Particuliere de tons les 

Animaux qui composent la Famille des Meduses. Ann. Mus. Hist. Nat., vol. 

14, pp. 218-228. 
Sars, M., '35. Beskrivelser og Jagttagelser, etc., Bergen, 1835, xii-|-82 pp., 15 pis. 
Vanhoffen, E., '89. Versuch einer Natiirlichen Gruppierung der Anthomedusen. 

Zool. Anz., vol. 14, pp. 439-446. 

'95. Die Gronlandischen Ctenophoren (Zool. Ergeb. der Gronland-Exped., 

vol. 2). Bibl. Zool., pt. 20, pp. 15-21. 

'97. Die Fauna und Flora Gronlands. "In Drygalski's Gronland-Expedition 

der Gesell. fiir Erdkunde zu Berlin, 1891-1893, vol. 2, pt. 1, 10+383 pp." [Medusae, 
pp. 272-274, pi. 2.] 

:02. Die Craspedoten Medusen der Deutschen Tiefsee-Expedition, 1898- 

1899. I. Trachymedusen. Wiss. Ergeb. Deutsch. Tiefsee-Expedition, vol. 3, 
pp. 53-88, pis. 9-12. 

:08. Die Narcomedusen. Wiss. Ergeb. Deutsch. Tiefsee-Expedition, vol. 



19, pp. 43-73, pis. 7-9. 



320 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

(All figures are from photographs of preserved specimens.) 

Plate 30. 

Fig. 1. Sarsia princeps, specimen 14 ram. high. The jagged outlines of the radial 
canals are visible, c. ap., apical canal. 

2. Sarsia viirabilis, specimen 10 mm. high, o, ocellus. 

3. Catablema vesicaria. A mature specimen 17 mm. in diameter. The bell is 

opened and its walls turned aside to show the manubrium and the vertical 
sexual folds (go.) in the interradii. c. ra., radial canal; L, \\p. 

4. Catablema vesicaria, young specimen 9 mm. in diameter. The radial canals 

(r. ra.) already bear glandular diverticula, but the margin of the circular 
canal (c. c.) is still smooth. 

5. Tiara pileata. Segment of bell-wall and margin. The radial canal (c. ra.) 

shows lateral diverticula, but the circular canal (c. c.) is smooth. 

Plate 31. 

Fig. 1. Melicertum campanula. One octant of bell margin of specimen 12 mm. in 
diameter showing fully developed tentacles (Z"'), small tentacles (T-), and 
rudimentary tentacles in the form of cirri (ci). go, gonad. 

2. Bougainvillea superciliaris . Side view of specimen 5.5 mm. in diameter. 

3. Lizzia octopunctata. Side view of a budding individual 3.5 mm. in diameter. 

4. Oral view of another individual of the same size. T. Ra., radial, T. ira., 

interradial tentacle-group. 

5. Lizzia octopunctata. Lip (L) showing nematocyst knobs (nem.). 

6. Catablema vesicaria. Segment of bell showing glandular diverticula on both 

radial canal (c. ra.) and circular canal (c. c), and the form of the basal tentacu- 
lar bulbs, especially in the case of the radial tentacle (J". Ra.), which is 
turned to one side, g, gelatinous substance of bell. 

7. Tiara pileata. Dissection of margin of bell to show lateral aspect of tentacular 

bulb. c. c, lumen of circular canal, g, gelatinous substance of bell. 

Plate 32. 

F^g 1. Melicertum campanula. One octant of margin of medium-sized individual 6 
mm. in diameter showing tentacles in various stages of development. 
go., gonad. 

2. Mginopsis laurentii. Side view of specimen 7 mm. in diameter, showing the 

conformation of the gastric pockets (g.p.) and their separation in the radii 
of the peronise (Per.). T, tentacle. 

3. Aboral view of another individual of about the same size. Per., peronia. 

4. Oral view of gastric wall of individual 1.5 mm. in diameter. Lettering as in 

fig. 2, L, lip. 

5. Oral view of gastric wall of specimen 13 mm. in diameter, to show sexual folds 

(go.). Per., peronia; g, gelatinous substance; L, lip; T, tentacle. 

6. Otocyst, with otolith (otl.). X 200. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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/7^J. 



Labrador and Newfoundland Medus/e. 

For explanation of plate see page 320. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 31 




fia. c/ 



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era. 




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Labrador and Newfoundland Medus/e. 

For explanation of plate see page 320. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 32 




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Labrador and Newfoundland Medus/e. 

For explanation of plate see page 320. 



THREE NEW LAND SHELLS FROM MEXICO AND 

GUATEMALA. 



By Paul Bartsch, 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum. 



Among the mollusks collected by Messrs. E. W. Nelson and E. A. 
Goldman in Mexico and H. Pittier in Guatemala are several new 
forms which are characterized below. 

EUGLANDINA NELSONI, new species. 
Plate 33, figs. 1, 3, 4, G. 

Shell elongate, ovate, semitranslucent, light horn yellow. Nuclear 
whorls, two and one-half, smooth. Post-nuclear whorls slightly 
rounded, appressed at the summit, marked by numerous slender, 
slightly retractive axial riblets which are about as wide as the shallow 
spaces that separate them. These riblets are strongest near the 
suture which they render feebly crenulate, and least developed on the 
base. There is no indication of spiral sculpture. Sutures well 
marked. Outer lip of aperture sigmoid in outline, the middle portion 
being built out; columella evenly, gently curved. 

There are four specimens of this species before me, cotypes (Cat. No. 
207784 U.S.N.M.), collected by Nelson and Goldman at Acaponeta, 
Tepic, Mexico. They vary considerably in size and outline. 

The following table gives their measurements : 



Number 

of 
whorls. 


Length. 


Diameter. 


Length of aperture.^ 


7 
6 
6 
6 


mm. 
39.0 
37.0 
31.7 
30.0 


mm. 
15.0 
15.5 
15.5 
14.0 


12.2 

19.6 

17.3. Apex deformed. 

16. 0. Not quite mature. 



a The length of aperture is taken from the posterior angle to the most anterior point of the outer lip. 

Named for E. W. Nelson. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1707. 
Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 21 



321 



322 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

OMPHALINA PITTIERI, new species. 
Plate 33, figs. 2, 7, 8. 

Shell with depressed broadly conic spire, thin, semitransparent, of 
lieht olive color. Nuclear whorls two and one-fourth, vitreous with 
a few feeble distant axial striations in the early portion. On the 
later they become gradually stronger and closer spaced until they 
assume the character of the sculpture of the succeeding turns. Post- 
nuclear whorls well rounded, marked by numerous quite regular, 
closely crowded, decidedly retractive, axial riblets. Sutures well 
impressed. Periphery of the last whorl well rounded, marked by the 
continuations of the axial riblets. Base broadly, openly, umbili- 
cated, well rounded, marked by the continuations of the axial riblets, 
which are less strong here than on the upper surface. In addition to 
these riblets the base is marked by quite evenly distributed, strongly 
impressed axial lines which lend it the appearance of being rather 
coarsely ribbed. These impressed lines are much more distantly 
spaced than the riblets on the spire and are strongest within the um- 
bilicus. Entire surface minutely spirally striated. Aperture sub- 
circular, its walls very thin. 

The type (Cat. No. 207783 U.S.N.M.) was collected by Prof. H. 
Pittier at Alta Vera Paz, in the vicinity of Secanquim, Guatemala, 
at an altitude of 550 meters. It has 6^ whorls and measures: Alti- 
tude 21.0 mm., greatest diameter 33.4 mm., lesser diameter 29.0 mm. 

The present species is related to 0. euryomphala Pfeffer, but is 
smaller and has the whorls more rounded. This difference in the 
whorls renders the aperture of euryomyhala oval, while that of 
pittieri is almost circular. 

Named for Henry Pittier. 

EUGLANDINA PILSBRYI, new species. 

Plate 33, fig. 5. 

Shell elongate ovate, chocolate brown. Nuclear whorls four, 
marked by fine retractive axial riblets, which have a tendency to 
form two series, one a little stronger than the other, the two alternat- 
ing. Succeeding whorls almost four, moderately rounded, shoul- 
dered at the summit, marked by irregular and irregularly slanting 
sinuous, strong axial riblets, which extend equally strong over the 
entire surface of the whorl. In addition to the axial sculpture the 
intercostal spaces show traces of spiral striation at irregular intervals. 
Sutures strongly marked. Periphery and base well rounded, the 
latter slightly produced. Aperture auriculate, chocolate brown with 
a bluish cast within; posterior angle acute; outer lip thin, sinuous. 



NO. 1707. SHELLS FROM MEXICO AND GUATEMALA— BARTSCH. 323 

somewhat produced at the periphery; columella short, curved, revo- 
lute, truncated anteriorly; parietal wall glazed with a thin callus. 

The type (Cat. No. 207776 U.S.N.M.) was collected by Nelson and 
Goldman near Bolanos, Jalisco, Mexico. It measures: Length 63.7 
mm., diameter 27.5 mm., length of aperture 31.0 mm. 

Named for Henry A. Pilsbry. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 33. 

All figures natural size. 

Figs. 1, 3, 4, and 6. Euglandina nelsoni Bartsch. 
Figs. 2, 7, and 8. Oryiphalina pittieri Bartsch. 
Fig. 5. Euglandina pilsbryi Bartsch. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



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.^^'^ 



'^^^ 





\\\ 







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Land Shells from Mexico and Guatemala. 

For explanation of plate see page 323. 



STUDIES OF NORTH A^IERICAN WEEVILS. 



By W. DwiGHT Pierce, 

Of the Bureau of Entomology, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 



While in Washington during the winter of 1908-9 it was my pleasure, 
through the courtesy of Dr. L. O. Howard and Mr. E. A. Schwarz, 
to study the collections of weevils in the U. S. National Museum. 
The following notes present the records of all determined specimens 
in the collections of North American weevils as they are at present 
arranged in those groups preceding the true Curculionidse. 

The most recent writers on the Rhynchophora seem to agree in 
the main in considering only four families — Curculionida?, Anthri- 
bidae, Brenthidse, and Ipidse (Scolytidae). This arrangement necessi- 
tates the subdivision of the Curculionidae into a very large number of 
subfamilies. In all probability each of these families will soon be 
raised to superfamily rank, and the tribes of LeConte and Horn 
will in many cases become families or subfamilies. 

Recognizing the Curculionidse as a family at present, I shall fol- 
low Sharp and Champion in the use of groups where LeConte and 
Horn used tribes. The order of these groups is kept practically as 
now recognized in America. 

Family CURCULIONID^. 

Subfai^ily R,H:iN"0]VXA.CKRIN"^E:. 

KEY TO GENERA. 

Maxillary palpi filiform and flexible Rhinomacer Fabricius. 

Maxillary palpi normal Diodyrrhynchus Schonherr. 

Genus RHINOMACER Fabricius. 

KEY TO SPECIES OP RHINOMACER. 

Pubescence long and coarse. 

Prothorax not longer than wide pilosus LeConte. 

Prothorax longer than wide elongatus LeConte. 

Pubescence short and fine. 

Prothorax evenly rounded from base, considerably narrower than elytra, 

comptus LeConte. 
Pubescence long and sparse, head very convex, eyes protuberant. 6om6i/rons LeConte. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1708. 

325 



326 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. a?. 

RHINOMACER PILOSUS LeConte. 

This is incluiled in the U. S. National Museum from Cambridge, 
Massachusetts; Washington, District of Columbia, May 9; Marquette, 
Michigan, June, July; Eagle Harbor, Lake Superior, June; all from 
the Hubbard and Schwarz collection; and from Agricultural College, 
Mississippi, November (Weed). 

RHINOMACER ELONGATUS LeConte. 

Durham, New Hampshire (Weed and Fiske); Washington, Dis- 
trict of Columbia, April, May; Marquette, Michigan, July (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin; Ontario (Wickham); 
Eufaula, Alabama, February, on pine trees; Meridian, Mississippi, 
February; Jackson, Mississippi, February (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Texas. 

RHINOMACER COMPTUS LeConte. 

Veta Pass, Colorado, June; Tenino, Washington (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 

RHINOMACER BOMBIFRONS LeConte. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus DIODYRRHYNCHUS Schonherr. 
DIODYRRHYNCHUS BYTUROIDES LeConte. 

Monterey County, California, January, on needles of Pinus radiata 
(Coleman); The Dalles, Oregon, May (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

SubfaiTiily A-LI^OCORYNIN^K. 

Genus ALLOCORYNUS Sharp. 

ALLOCORYNUS SLOSSONI SchaefFer. 

Biscayne Bay, Florida (Mrs. A. T. Slosson). 

Subfamily RHY^lSTCHITIN'^gE. 

Genus AULETES Schonherr. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF AULETES. 

Antennae inserted at middle of beak; last joint of club triangular, pointed, as wide 
as the preceding; body black, coarsely punctured, thinly pubescent, .ater LeConte. 
Antennae inserted at about basal third of beak. 

Body black, finely punctured, thinly pubescent; beak nearly as long as head 
and prothorax; last joint of antennae narrower than the preceding, obtuse, 

nasalis LeConte. 

Body pale yellowish throughout; pubescence sparse, short, semierect; beak 

twice as long as head; last joint of antennal club about as wide iaa tenth, slightly 

wider than long and obtusely rounded at apex; the tenth joint fully as long as 

wide •. laticollis Casey. 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 327 



b 



Body black, with disk of elytra red, finely punctured, sparsely pubescent; beak 
as long as prothorax and occiput; last joint of antennal club a little narrower 

than preceding, longer than wide, rounded at tip rufipennis, new species. 

Antennae inserted within basal fourth of beak. 

Body greenish, lustrous, rather coarsely punctured, thinly clad with short, semi- 
erect pubescence; beak as long as prothorax; last joint of antennal club slightly 
narrower than the preceding, as long as wide, obtusely rounded at apex, 

viridis, new species. 

Body bluish black, densely punctured, thinly pubescent congruus Walker. 

Very small, brown, irregularly pubescent cassandrx LeConte. 

AULETES ATER LeConte. 

Milton, Massachusetts, June; Warwick, Khode Island, May 
(E. S. Calder); New York (Linell); Toronto, Canada, May (R. J. 
Crew); Port Huron, ISIichigan, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); Cadet, 
Missouri (J. G. Barlow). 

AULETES NASALIS LeConte. 

This species is not represented. 

AULETES LATICOLLIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

AULETES RUFIPENNIS, new species. 

Described from one specimen collected by D. W. Coquillett, in 
Los Angeles County, California (922). 

Length 2 mm. Thi'ee-fourths longer than wdde, slightly convex; 
black, with elytra, except a wide band along the suture and lateral 
edges, reddish brown, and with antennal funicle, tip of beak and legs 
more or less piceous, or testaceous; punctuation fine; pubescence 
sparce, short, semierect, whitish. Head with occiput wider than 
long, convex; feebly convex between the eyes; occiput finely, trans- 
versely, lineolately rugose; punctuation between the eyes shallow, 
sparse, several of the median punctures open in front; eyes large, 
convex, and prominent. Beak as long as thorax and occiput, one- 
third as wide as head, slightly arcuate behind base of antennae, 
somewhat flattened above and below, medianly shallowly sulcate, 
laterally punctato-sulcate; scrobes deep, beginning in a point at 
above middle and almost as wide as depth of beak at base; antennae 
inserted just within the basal third of the beak, two basal joints 
stout, others small, becoming shorter; club large, very loosely jointed, 
first and second joints subquadrate and equal, third a little narrower 
and constricted at base, longer than wide and rounded at tip. Pro- 
thorax widest at basal third, barely one-third wider than long, sides 
strongly arcuate at base, more strongly convergent and straighter 
toward apex; apex straight, more than three-fourths as wide as base; 
base broadly and feebly arcuate; disk evenly and feebly convex. 



S28 PROCEEDINGfi OF THE XATIONAL MU8BVM. vol.3?. 



transversely impressed near base, finely, feebly, sparsely and unevenly 
punctate with traces of median sulc\is on impunctate line. Elytra 
broadly and separately rounded at apex, one-half longer than wide, 
two-thirds wider than prothorax, sides parallel and nearly straight; 
humeri narrowly rounded; disk convex, impressed along suture, 
feebly and irregularly punctate, rather finely and more coarsely so 
near suture. Claws armed with a large tooth. 
Type.— Cat. No. 12589, U.S.N.M. 

AULETES VIRIDIS, new species. 

Described from tliree specimens collected in July in Siskiyou 
County, California, by A. Koebele. Another specimen in the Hubbard 
and Schwarz collection is labeled from Colorado. 

Length 2 mm. Twice as long as wide, slightly convex; greenish, 
lustrous throughout, antennae piceous, beak violaceous; punctuation 
coarse and generally rather close; pubescence moderate, short, semi- 
erect, whitish. Head almost flat between the eyes; punctuation 
behind the eyes very minute, but between them close and coarse; 
front sulcate; eyes large, convex, and prominent. Beak short, 
stout, as long as prothorax, over one-third as wide as the head, 
evenly arcuate, cylindrical, rugosely punctate, finely above and 
more coarsely on the sides; scrobes deep, broad, anterior opening 
broad, rounded, not narrowed to a point as in rufj^ennis, beginning 
at basal third of beak; antenna? inserted at basal fourth, 11-jointed, 
scape and first funicular joint short and stout, second funicular 
longer than broad, last four becoming shorter and transverse; club 
three-jointed, as long as the preceding portion of the antennae and 
three times as broad, first two joints quadrate, third slightly nar- 
rower, as long as wide, obtusely rounded at apex. Prothorax 
widest at basal third, wider than long, sides strongly arcuate at base, 
more strongly convergent and straighter toward apex; apex straight, 
tlu-ee-fourths as wide as base; base broadly, feebly arcuate; disk 
evenly and feebly convex, transversely impressed near base, coarsely, 
closely, and unevenly punctate with a smooth impunctate line in 
front, becoming a sulcus behind the middle. Elytra separately 
rounded at apex, one-half longer than wide, two-thirds wider than 
the prothorax, sides nearly straight, humeri narrowly rounded; 
disk almost flat, somewhat impressed along suture, coarsely, closely, 
and unevenly punctate. Claws armed with a large tooth. 
Type.— C&t. No. 12588, U.S.N.M. 

AULETES CONGRUUS Walker. (SUBCCERULEUS LeConte.) 

Fort ^IcKenny, Wyoming; National Park, Wyoming, August 
(Hubbard and Schwarz); Leavenworth Valley, Colorado, June (Wick- 
ham); Moscow, Idaho (Aldrich). 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERtOAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 329 

AULETES CASSANDR.ffi LeConte. 

Durham, New Hampshire; Webster, New Hampshire; Notting- 
ham, New Hampshire (Fiske); Holderness, New Hampshire (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz); Marion, ^Massachusetts; Oswego, New York, 
July, August; Dundee, New York, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Water Gap, Pennsylvania; Detroit, Mchigan (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; 
Ba}'iield, Wisconsin (Wickham); Crescent City, Florida; Key West, 
Florida, April; Mobile, Alabama, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Mississippi (Soltau). 

Genus EUGNAMPTUS Schonherr. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF EUGNAMPTXTS. 

Elytral interspaces very narrow striatus LeConte. 

Elytral interspaces wider than the striae. 
Front not channeled. 

Head feebly punctured, narrowed behind angustatus Gyllenhal. 

Head feebly punctured, not narrowed behind 

fo/Zam Gyllenhal; pallidus Schaeffer. 

Head more strongly punctured, antennae stouter puncticeps LeConte. 

Front distinctly channeled. 

Head nearly smooth, slightly narrowed behind nigriventris Schaeffer. 

Head feebly punctured, narrowed behind sulcifrons Gyllenhal. 

EUGNAMPTUS STRIATUS LeConte. 

Hanover, Florida, March; Crescent City, Florida (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 

EUGNAMPTUS ANGUSTATUS Gyllenhal. 

Chicopee, Massachusetts, July; Lime Rock, Pennsylvania (Wick- 
ham); Washington, District of Columbia, June; Afton, Virginia; 
Harper's Ferry, West Virginia, May; St. Catherine Island, Georgia, 
April; Retreat, North Carolina, May; Port Huron, Michigan, June; 
Detroit, Michigan (Hubbard and Schwarz); Iowa City, Iowa, June 
(Wickham); Kansas; Kenosha, Nebraska (Shimek); West Point, 
Nebraska, June (Bruner). 

EUGNAMPTUS COLLARIS Gyllenhal. 

Marion, Massachusetts, July; ^lontgomery, ^lassachusetts (Wick- 
ham); Lime Rock, Pennsylvania; Washington, District of Columbia, 
June, July; Retreat, North Carolina; St. Catherine Island, Georgia, 
April; Jacksonville, Florida; Oak Grove, Alabama (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Iowa; Texas (Belfrage); Pinal Mountains, Arizona (Wick- 
ham). 

EUGNAMPTUS PALLIDUS Schaeffer. 

Not represented. 



330 PROCEEDIXa^ OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 



EUGNAMPTUS PUNCTICEPS LeConte. 



Washington, District of Columbia, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Arizona (Morrison). 

EUGNAMPTUS NIGRIVENTRIS Schaeffer. 

Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, June; Santa Rita Mountains, 
Arizona, May (Hubbard and Schwarz); Huachuca Mountains, Ari- 
zona, July (Schaeffer). 

EUGNAMPTUS SULCIFRONS Gyllenhal. 

Alexandria, Virginia, July (Palmer); Jacksonville, Florida; Oak 
Grove, Alabama, June (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Meridian, Mississippi, 
June (Soltau); Texas (Belfrage); Onaga, Kansas, June (Crevecoeur). 

Genus RHYNCHITES Herbst. 

KEY TO SPECIES OK RHYNCHITES. 

Pubescent species. 

Pubescence coarse, white, prostrate; thorax black, elytra violet coppery, 

velatus LeConte. 
Pubescence short. 

Black, prothorax red, elytral intervals very finely punctured, 

palmii Schaeffer. 

Entirely red above bicolor Fabricius. 

Pubescence long, erect. 

Beak bistriate and carinate at base. 
Striae distant, not very distinct. 

Color black bronzed; pubescence long xneus Boheman. 

Color blue ; pubescence long mexicanus Gyllenhal. 

Color golden, tinged with green; pubescence not so long, 

eximius LeConte. 
Striae composed of large deep punctures. 

Elytral intervals serially punctulate; beak narrow; color bluish- 
black hirtus Fabricius. 

Elytral intervals not serially punctulate; beak much longer; pro- 

notal punctuation denser; color greenish naso Casey. 

Beak flattened, not carinate at base; color green planifrons LeConte. 

Pubescence very fine, inconspicuous and decumbent, or absent. 

Legs yellow or reddish ; body coppery golden aureus LeConte. 

Legs dark colored . 

Bronzed ; frontal fovea deep .fossifrons LeConte. 

(This may have been an extreme variation. Rh. seratoides sometimes 
displays a frontal fovea, and may possibly be a synonym of this 
species). 
Frontal fovea usually obsolete. 

Blue bronzed; head strongly punctured cyanellus LeConte. 

jEneus or coppery; head more or less feebly punctured. 

First three ventral segments of male with median impressed line; 
elytra very feebly depressed behind base; beak medianly sul- 
cate; color greenish-aeneus xratoides Fall. 



NO. ITOS. .STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 331 

First three ventral segments of male smooth. 

Beak in both sexes longer than prothorax; elytra viewed in 
profile strongly depressed behind base, median line sinuate; 
beak opaque, longitudinally impressed, long and slender; 

color coppery seratus Say. 

Beak in male only three-quarters as long as prothorax, in 
female longer than the prothorax, more or less distinctly sul- 
cate, sulcus sometimes extending onto front; elytra viewed 
in profile slightly depressed behind base; hind femora of 
female more or less swollen; color ranging from l)lack 1o green 
or a^neus; size varies from 1.3 to 2.3 mm., 

inacrophthalmus Schaeffer. 

RHYNCHITES VELATUS LeConte. 

Not represented. 

RHYNCHITES PALMII Schaeffer. 

Arizona (Charles Palm). 

RHYNCHITES BICOLOR F-bricius. 

Mount Tom and Boston, Massachusetts; Durham, New Hamp- 
shire; Washington, District of Columbia; Iowa City, Index, Sioux 
City, and Spirit Lake, Iowa; Minnesota; Wisconsin; Winnipeg and 
Aweme, Manitoba; Volga and Brookings, South Dakota; University, 
North Dakota; Havre and Kalispell, Montana; Breckenridge, Berke- 
ley, and Ouray, Colorado; Cheyenne and National Park, Wyoming; 
American Fork, American Fork Canyon, and Fort Douglas, Utah; 
Pocatello, Idaho; Kaslo and North Bend, British Columbia; Victoria, 
Vancouver; Oregon; Everett, Easton, Seattle, and Takoma, Wash- 
ington; Eureka, Los Gatos, San Francisco, Kaweah, Dunsmuir, 
San Mateo County, San Diego County, and Los Angeles County, 
California; Williams and Prescott, Arizona; Santa Fe, New Mexico. 

RHYNCHITES -ENEUS Boheman. 

Lake City, Florida; Big Springs, Texas; Detroit, Michigan; Wis- 
consin; Chicago and Bloomington, Illinois; Arkansas; Iowa; Volga, 
South Dakota; West Point, Nebraska; Ottawa, Kansas; Brandon 
and Winnipeg, Manitoba; Oregon. 

RHYNCHITES MEXICANUS Gyllenhal. 

San Antonio, Texas, May, on Coreopsis cardaminefolia (Pierce) ; 
San Diego, Texas, October (Schwarz); Catalina Springs, Arizona, 
April, on Eucillia farinosa (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

RHYNCHITES EXIMIUS LeConte. 

Colorado Springs, Colorado, June, on Titelesperma gracilia (Wick- 
ham); Flagstaff, Arizona, July (Hubbard and Schwarz). 



332 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

RHYNCHITES HIRTUS Fabricius. 

Boston, Massachusetts, June (Ormonde); New York (Linell); 
Washington, District of Columbia, June, July; Haulover, Florida, 
March; Enterprise, Florida, May; Tampa, Florida, April; Michigan 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 

RHYNCHITES NASO Casey. 

Los Angeles County, California, April, on Juniperus calif ornicus; 
San Bernardino Count}^, California, May (Coquillett). 

RHYNCHITES PLANIFRONS LeConte. 

Los Gatos, California (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

RHYNCHITES AUREUS LeConte. 

Oregon; Lake Tahoe, California, September (Koebele); Los Angeles 
County, California, July (Coquillett) ; Ojai Valley, Colorado (Hubbard 
and Schwarz). 

RHYNCHITES CYANELLUS LeConte. 

Webster, New Hampshire (Fiske); Toronto, Ontario, May (R. J. 
Crew); Detroit, Michigan; Eagle Harbor, Lake Superior, July (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin (Wlckham); Iowa; West 
Point, Nebraska, June, on willow (Bruner); Bear Creek Canyon, 
Evans Peak Range, Colorado, July (E. J. Oslar). 

RHYNCHITES .ffiRATOIDES Fall. 

Redondo, California, April, May (Fall); Los Angeles County, Cal- 
ifornia (Coquillett). 

RHYNCHITES .ffiRATUS Say. 

Bladensburg, Maryland, June; Washington, District of Columbia, 
May, June; North Carolina; St. Catherine Island, Georgia, April; 
Stone Creek, Lee County, Virginia (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Missouri; 
Nebraska City, Nebraska, June. 

RHYNCHITES MACROPHTHALMUS SchaefFer. 

Ouray, Colorado, July; Colorado Springs, Colorado, June (Wick- 
ham); Brownsville, Texas, June (Townsend); Arizona (Morrison); 
Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, June (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Genus DEPORAUS Samouelle. 
DEPORAUS GLASTINUS LeConte. 

Arizona (Morrison); Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, June (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz); Williams, Arizona, June (Barber and Schwarz); 
Ouray, Colorado, July (Wickham); Redwood Creek, Humboldt 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 333 

County, California, June (Barber) ; Los Gatos, California (Hubbard 
and Schwarz); Los Angeles County, California, July (Coquillett); 
Santa Cruz Mountains, California (Koebele); American Fork Canyon, 
Utah, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); Washington (Morrison); 
Tenino, Washington (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Subfamily PTEROCOLIN^E;. 

Genus PTEROCOLUS Schonherr. 

PTEROCOLUS OVATUS Fabricius. 

Andover, Massachusetts; Dover, Massachusetts, June (Wickham); 
Atco, New Jersey, June; Lehigh Mountain, Pennsylvania, June; 
Washington, District of Columbia, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Maryland; St. Catherine, Georgia, April; Crescent City, Florida; 
Haulover, Florida, March (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Iowa City, Iowa 
(Wickham); Missouri (Riley); Texas. 

Siabfainily ^^TTEILiABHsT^E:. 

Genus ATTELABUS Linnaeus. 

ATTELABUS ANALIS Illiger. 

Toronto, Canada (R. J. Crew); Rawdon, Ontario, July (Hastings) 
Winton, New Hampshire, August; Springfield, Massachusetts, June 
Chicopee, Massachusetts, July; Wellesley, Massachusetts, July 
Melton, Massachusetts; Merchantville, New Jersey, June ; Allegheny, 
Peimsylvania ; Washington, District of Columbia, June; Pennington 
Gap, Virginia, June; Af ton, Virginia; Biscayne, Florida, May ; Haul- 
over, Florida, March (Hubbard and Schwarz); Archer, Florida; 
Columbus, Texas, June; Detroit, Michigan (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Indiana; Iowa City, Iowa (Wickham). 

ATTELABUS NIGRIPES LeConte. 

Marion, Massachusetts, July; Bladensburg, Maryland, July; Great 
Falls, Maryland, May (Hubbard and Schwarz); Virginia, June; 
Berkeley, West Virginia; Iowa City, Iowa (Wickham); St. Louis, 
Missouri (Riley); Kansas; Colorado. 

ATTELABUS BIPUSTULATUS Fabricius. 

West Springfield, Massachusetts, June; Boston, Massachusetts, 
June (Ormonde); Marion, Massachusetts, July; Atco, New Jersey, 
June; Allegheny, Pennsylvania; Washington, District of Columbia, 
June; Berkeley, West Virginia; Retreat, North Carolina, May; 
Marquette, Michigan, June; Detroit, Michigan (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin (Wickham); St. Louis, Missouri (M. 
Schuster); Arkansas; Texas. 



334 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

ATTELABUS GENALIS LeConte. 

This species is not represented in the collection. 

ATTELABUS RHOIS Boheman. 

Holderness, New Hampshire, September, on Alnus; Durham, New 
Hampshire (Weed and Fiske); Lewiston, Maine (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Springfield, Massachusetts, July; Lawrence, Massachu- 
setts; Marion, Massachusetts, July; Halifax, Nova Scotia (Wick- 
ham); Pennington, Virginia, July; Marquette, Michigan, July (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin (Wickham); Southern 
Illinois, on Corylus americana; Iowa City, Iowa (Wickham); Onaga, 
Kansas (Crevecoeur) ; Baldwin, Kansas (Baldwin); West Point, 
Nebraska, June (Bruner); Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, June 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 

SulDfaiTLily TIIE!CESTEI?,:sri]Sr^. 

Genus THECESTERNUS Say. 

This genus has long been left alone because of doubt as to the 
specific characters available. The majority of specimens in the col- 
lections are badly rubbed or else matted with dirt. It is not advisable 
to attempt a determination of rubbed specimens. There are, how- 
ever, several distinct species in the series of eighty-four specimens 
which I examined in the National Museum collection. I have some 
hesitation in describing them, because I realize that possibly one or 
two may be synonymous with LeConte's species. Valid descriptions 
are, however, necessary. How many of LeConte's species are good I 
can not say, although I consider that rectus is a synonym of humeralis, 
while rudis and erosus are possibly variations of affinis. The four 
species herein described as new are all from the extreme southwestern 
semiarid and arid portions of the country. 

KEY TO SPECIES OF THECESTERNUS. 

I. Elytra without clusters of erect black setae; prothorax at widest part as wide as, 

or wider than the elytra at humeri, not strongly narrowed on sides at front, very 
feebly elevated in front; humeral angles prominent, but never produced. 

Setae white, decumbent; prothorax very coarsely pitted; elytra" coarsely pitted 
and tuberculate foveolatus, new species. 

Setse brown and white, erect; prothorax coarsely punctured, tuberculate; elytra 
coarsely pitted and densely tuberculate; antire body bristling with erect 
seta? hirsutus, new species. 

(Prothorax unequal, less deeply impressed on sides, hardly transversely elevated 
at apex, elytra not produced at humeri morbillosus LeConte.) 

II. Elytra with clusters of erect black scales; prothorax at widest part rarely as wide 

as the elytra at humeri. 
Prothorax one-third longer than wide, very gradually narrowed at base and tip, 
with four dorsal impressions, and strong lateral impression; elytra only moder- 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF XORTU AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 335 

ately emarginate at base, with humeri only slightly produced, and somewhat 

*cut6 longior LeConte. 

Prothorax wider than long, strongly narrowed on sides at apex with elevated 
apical ridge; humeral angles more or less prominent, produced. 
Humeral angles very prominently produced to at least basal fourth of protho- 
rax; elytra in outline sinuate from tip of humeri; seta) brown and white 

suberect humeralis Say {rectus LeConte). 

Humeral angles only slightly produced forward. 

Elytra only slightly more than twice as long as prothorax, sides slightly 
convex; humeral angles very short; setse dark and white, more or less 

prominent maculosus, new species. 

Elytra at least two and a half times as long as prothorax, sides subparallel; 
humeral angles twice as long as in preceding species; setse dark and 

white, erect albidus, new species. 

Elytra not two and a half times as long as prothorax, sides convex ; humeral 
angles moderate, generally covering basal angles of prothorax; setse 
dark and white affinis LeConte (riidis LeConte) (crosus LeConte). 

THECESTERNUS FOVEOLATUS, new species. 

Described from a series of seven specimens in the collection of 
the Southern Field Crop Insect and Tick Investigations, collected 
by J. D. Mitchell and K. A. Cushman at Marfa, Texas, June 5, 1908. 

Length 8-10 mm. Black, densely clothed with white scales 
below, and on head; with scaly vestiture above mottled in distinct 
patterns ; without any clusters of erect black scales on elytra; sparsely 
clothed with white bristles, which are, however, never prominent. 

Large, robust, outline almost straight from anterior portion of 
thorax to posterior third of elytra, thence sinuate, apex broadly 
rounded. Head convex; densely clothed with narrow white scales 
radiating from center of occiput; punctuation in three series, largest 
punctures very shallow and ill defined, between these are sharp fine 
punctures, and finally the entire surface is exceedingly minutely 
punctulate; front sulcate. Prothorax very large, shghtly wider than 
long, widest at anterior third, where it is wider than the elytra at 
the humeri, rather abruptly narrowed in front of this point; base 
straight, apex arcuate; ocular lobes large, broadly rounded; a broad 
deep impression starts at the sides near the base, travels forward on 
the sides, upward at the apex, becomes very deep at sides of disk, 
just within the widest point and then crosses the disk, arching for- 
ward ; the punctuation of the thorax has become pitting in tliis species, 
with the pits irregular, sometimes connected, and the partitions very 
thin; scaly vestiture very dense in front and at sides. Elytra with 
humeri very shghtly prominent, more than twice as long as pro- 
thorax; striate, the first, tliird, and fifth and other alternate inter- 
spaces wider than the even series, with a double row of small tubercles; 
striae wider than intervals, pitted with very large quadrate pits, 
separated by high transverse tubercles, each pit with a distinct 
round puncture in its center; bristles are borne on these tubercles 



336 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

and on the interspaces; scaly vestiture condensed in transverse 
fasciae. Under surface of abdomen deeply, moderately, and rather 
sparcely punctured, with squamiform setae arising from each punc- 
ture; scaly vestiture dense except in punctures. Metathoracic side- 
pieces anteriorly prolonged obliquely upward and forward, causing 
a deep emargination of the elytra and sometimes extending over 
the elytral margin. 

The markings of this species are very plain, being composed of 
blotches of black and white. It may readily be separated from the 
other species by the characters given in the table. 

T^pe.— Cat. No. 12590, U.S.N.M. 

THECESTERNUS HIRSUTUS, new species. 

Described from a series of three specimens in the Hubbard and 
Schwarz collection, collected by E. A. Schwarz at San Diego, Texas, 
in April, May, and June. 

Length 4.5-8.5 mm. Black, densely mottled above and below 
with brown and pale scales, intermixed and bristling ^v^th erect 
brown and white setae, but with no patches of erect black scales. 

Variable in size, oblong, very much resembling Acalles in form 
and color. Head convex, closely clad with narrow, elongate, ap- 
pressed scales radiating from about the middle of the occiput in all 
directions, mixed with a few white setae; punctuation very shallow 
and sparse in largest series, very finely, minutely, and closely punc- 
tulate; front sulcate. Prothorax about as long as wide, widest a little 
beyond the middle, where it is slightly ^vider than the humeri; 
broadly rounded on sides, especially toward apex, not suddenly 
constricted; base straight, slightly angulate at suture of elytra; 
apex convex; ocular lobes broad, prominent; sides moderately im- 
pressed behind, anterior transverse impression evident on sides and 
shghtly so on disk; surface pitted with large, coarse, close pits, par- 
titions tuberculate; vestiture close, composed of both scales and 
bristles. Elytra shghtly emarginate at suture; humeri almost rec- 
tangular, very slightly enlarged ; elytra twice as long as prothorax ; 
striate as in preceding species, sometimes covered with many small 
tubercles; scaly vestiture close, mottled brown and light, surface 
bristling with brown and white setae. Metathoracic sidepieces 
causing a rounded emargination of the elytra. 

Type.— Ca,t. No. 12591, U.S.N.M. 

THECESTERNUS HUMERALIS Say. 

A series of sixteen specimens from Colorado, Nebraska, Kansas, 
and Missouri appear to answer to the description of this species. 

The humeral angles are very prominent, although produced in 
varying degrees, always directed outward and forward, causing a 
sinuation of the lateral margin of the elytra. The thorax is deeply 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 337 

emarginate on the sides in front, elevated into a broad rounded 
arcuate ridge in front, strongly depressed on the sides and in two 
spots on the disk behind the middle. The body is extremely densely 
clothed with a dull yellowish brown crust of closely appressed scales, 
with numerous semierect brown and white setae, and with clusters 
of close dark scales pushing up through the crust on the third inter- 
space especially. 

The following are the records assigned distinctly to this species: 
Canyon City, Colorado (Wickham); Denver, Colorado (Dyar and 
Caudell); Fort ColHns, Colorado, June 17; Colorado Springs, Colo- 
rado, June 15 (Wickham); Nebraska, Central Missouri, May (Riley), 
Kansas. 

There is no essential difference in the sexes, as two pairs are before 
me from Denver, the males being considerably smaller. 

THECESTERNUS MACULOSUS, new species. 

Described from one specimen in the collaction of the Southern Field 
Crop Insect and Tick Investigations, collected by J. D. Mtchell and 
R. A. Cushman at Marfa, Texas, June 6, 1908. 

Length 7.5 mm. Black, clothed with black and white scales, 
mainly white below, mottled but arranged in more or less distinct 
transverse fasciae with a black V on the base of the thorax; with black 
and white setse more or less erect, and with erect masses of black 
scales especially on the third interspace. 

Robust, outline broadly elliptic. Head convex, clothed with 
broad, flat scales, white on the front, and black on the occiput with 
three longitudinal lines of white and ochreous scales, setae sparse; 
front sulcate. Prothorax a little wider than long, widest in front 
of middle where it is almost as wide as the humeri, abruptly emar- 
ginate and narrowed in front of this point; base sHghtly arcuate due 
to humeral angles, apex arcuate; ocular lobes broad; impressions as 
in foveolatus; vestiture dense; punctuation deep, irregular, and 
rather coarse. Elytral base broadly roundingly emarginate with 
a small triangular emargination at the suture; a little more than 
twice as long as the prothorax; sides convex; striae deeply pitted, 
intervals more or less moderately tuberculate especially on the sides; 
scaly vestiture dense, with erect black and white setae, and with 
masses of black scales on third interspace. Metathoracic sidepieces 
causing a rather strong emargination of the elytra. 

This species is very differently colored from the next and has the 
elytra shorter in proportion and more convex on the sides. I have 
specimens at hand from Cotulla, Texas, May 11, 1906 (J. C. Craw- 
ford and F. C. Pratt) ; Beeville, Texas, October 22 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Big Springs, Texas (Wickham). 

Type.— Cat. No. 12592, U.S.N.M. 
Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 22 



338 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 



THECESTERNUS ALBIDUS, new species. 

Described from a series of four specimens in the U. S. National 
Museum, collected by H. Soltau at Albuquerque, New Mexico, 
February 20. 

Length 9-11 mm. Black, densely clothed above and below with 
yellowish white scales, which are so dense that they give a spongy 
appearance; two black lines at middle of sides unite to form a tri- 
angle; thorax and elytra with occasional clusters of closely placed 
erect black scales; sparsely clothed with erect white squamiform 
bristles. 

Large, robust, without continuous outline on thorax and elytra, 
generally elliptic, apex broadly rounded. Head spongily clothed 
with broad white and ochreous scales mixed with white bristles; 
front deeply sulcate. Prothorax large, slightly wider than long, 
widest at anterior third, not as wide as elytra at humeri; strongly 
narrowed in front with prpminent arcuate ridge just behind apex; 
a deep impression passes downward on sides between the widest 
portion and the lateral ends of the arcuate ridge and describes a 
downward and backward arc, ending just below the humeral pro- 
jections; two depressions also occur on the thoracic disk at the basal 
third; punctuation moderate, deep and course, but not nearly as 
large as in foveolatus; scaly vestiture spongy throughout, with a 
mass of black scales on each side of the median line at the base and 
two smaller masses more widely separated at middle of disk. Elytra 
with humeri prominent, more or less closely embracing prothorax, 
prolonged only one-sixth of the length of the prothorax; two and 
one-half times the length of the prothorax, sides impressed behind 
humeri; striate with alternate intervals elevated, but not as wide as 
striae; even intervals very narrow or obsolete, giving the striae the 
appearance of a double row of large punctures; scutellar angles promi- 
nently tuberculate, disk otherwise not tuberculate; scaly vestiture 
dense, spongy, white or ochreous, intermixed with scaly bristles 
and with raised spots of black erect scales on the alternate intervals. 
Under surface of abdomen deeply, moderately and rather sparsely 
punctured, with squamiform setae arising from each puncture; scaly 
vestiture dense. Metathoracic side-pieces anteriorly prolonged ob- 
liquely upward and forward, causing a deep emargination of the 
elytra. 

The markings of this species are distinct. The black Y formed 
by the two spots on the thorax and the scutellar spot, and the black 
triangles on the sides of the elytra are generally distinct. 
Type.— Cat. No. 12593, U.S.N.M. 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 339 

THECESTERNUS AFFINIS LeConte, RUDIS LeConte, EROSUS LeConte. 

In addition to the species heretofore mentioned, there are in the 
collection others more or less varying, but in the main possessing the 
characters ascribed to Liihodus ajfinis, rudis, and erosus LeConte. 
The following are the National Museum records: Kentucky; Nash- 
ville, Tennessee, August (Wickham); central Missouri (Riley); 
west Kansas; north Colorado (Wickham); Denver, Colorado, Novem- 
ber (E. J. Oslar) ; Dallas, Texas, May (A. W. Morrill) ; Texas (A. S. 
Fuller); Columbus, Texas, June (Hubbard and Schwarz); Alpine, 
Texas, July (Wickham). 

These specimens are all robust and agree fairly well with humeralis, 
except that the humeral angles are short. 

Subfamily OTIORHYNCHIN-^gE. 
Tribe EPICJERINI. 

Genus GRAPHORHINUS Schonherr. 

GRAPHORHINUS VADOSUS Say. 

Grosvenor, Texas, March; Texas (Belfrage); Denver, Colorado, 
November; Fort Collins, Colorado, April (Soltau). 

Genus EPICURUS Schonherr. 

EPICffiRUS LUCANUS Horn. 

San Jose del Cabo, Lower California (Fuchs). This species belongs 
in Casey's table next to texanus. 

EPICffiRUS MEXICANUS Sharp. 

Brownsville, Texas (Townsend). This species belongs in Casey's 
table near sulcatus, but has silky pubescence covering club. 

EPICffiRUS IMBRICATUS Say. 

Washington, District of Columbia; Atlanta, Georgia; St. Louis 
Missouri; Clay County, Kansas; Texas. 

EPICffiRUS TEXANUS Casey. 

Corpus Christi, Texas, April; Nueces, Texas, April (Marlatt); 
Victoria, Texas, June. 

EPICiERUS SULCATUS Casey. 

Columbus, Texas, May; New Braunfels, Texas, August (Schwarz); 
Kansas ; Colorado (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; New Mexico (WilUams) ; 
Wasatch, Utah, June (Hubbard and Schwarz). 



340 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

EPICURUS FORMIDOLOSUS Boheman. 

Lake Poinsett, Florida, May; Hillsboro County, Florida, May 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 

The species of Epicserus have generally been confused as one 
species under the name E. imhricaius. There are still one or more 
distinct species in the southwest undescribed. This genus becomes 
very complex in Mexico and Central America. 

Genus ANOMADUS Horn. 

ANOMADUS OBLIQUUS Horn. 

This species is not contained in the collection. 

Genus BARYNOTUS Germar. 

BARYNOTUS SCHCENHERRI Zetterstedt. 

St. Johns, New Brunswick, August (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Genus STAMODERES Casey. 

STAMODERES UNIFORMIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus HORMORUS Horn. 

HORMORUS UNDULATUS Uhler. 

Montreal, Canada, June; Chicopee, Massachusetts (Wickham); 
Berhn, Connecticut (N. Coleman); Flatbush, Long Island, New 
York, July (J. L. Zabriskie); Washington, District of Columbia, 
May, June; Pointe aux Pins, Lake Superior, July (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin; Iowa City, Iowa (Wickham). 

Genus AGASPH^^ROPS Horn. 
AGASPH.ffiROPS NIGRA Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus BRACHYDERES Schonherr. 

BRACHYDERES INCANUS Linnaeus. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus TRIGONOSCUTA Motschulsky. 

TRIGONOSCUTA PILOSA Motschulsky. 

Yuma, Arizona, May (Brown); San Diego, Cahfornia, June; Palm 
Springs, Cahfornia, March (Hubbard and Schwarz); Los Angeles, 
California; San Francisco, California, June, August (Wickham, 
Coquillett); Alameda County, Cahfornia; Newport, Oregon, July 
(Wickham). 



NO. 1708. f^TUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 341 

Genus CALYPTILLUS Horn. 

CALYPTILLUS CRYPTOPS Horn. 

McCook, Nebraska (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Tribe OPHRYASTINI. 

Group OPHRYASTES. 

KEY TO GENERA OF GROUP OPHRYASTES. 

Rostrum with ecrobes that are very deep and definite, even at their termination, 
passing rapidly inferior; eyes narrow and acute below. 

1. Third tarsal joint broadly bilobed, and much wider than second, pubescent 

beneath. 
a^. Rostral striae deep, the lateral ones strongly angulate at base of beak, meeting 
scrobes beneath eyes; second ventral segment nearly as long as third and 

fourth combined Sapotes Casey. 

o^. Rostral striae not so sharply outlined, straight; second ventral segment much 
shorter than third and fourth combined. 

6'. Mentum concealing palpi entirely Eupagoderes Horn. 

6^. Palpi projecting beyond apex of mentum Caccophryastes Sharp. 

2. Third tarsal joint not broadly bilobed, hardly wider than second, emarginate at 

apex, not pubescent beneath; rostral striae straight. 

a^. Prothorax more or less tuberculate at sides and very little narrower than 
elytra, if at all; corbels of posterior tibiae more or less imperfectly cavern- 
ous Ophryastes Schonherr. 

a^. Prothorax not tuberculate at sides, very much narrower than elytra; corbels 
of posterior tibiae with laminate tip Tosastes Sharp. 

Genus SAPOTES Casey. 

Specimens of this genus are at hand, and invariably show a well 
defined fimbriation of the ocular lobes, although the fimbriae are 
short. 

SAPOTES PUNCTICOLLIS Casey. 

Winslow, Arizona (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

This species is very variable in color, so that the color charac- 
terization given by Colonel Casey should not be considered. 

Specimens are at hand from Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 28 
(H. Soltau), uniformly larger, but can not be distinguished by any 
valid character. 

Genus EUPAGODERES Horn. 

EUPAGODERES SPECIOSUS LeConte. 

Yuma, Arizona, April 17 (Robert Brown), Phoenix, Arizona 
(J. S. Tait). 

EUPAGODERES DECIPIENS LeConte. 

Del Rio, Texas, July 13; El Paso, Texas (Wickham); Brewster 
County, Texas (Chisos Mountains), June 10 (Mitchell and Cushman); 
Tucson, Arizona, December 1 7 ; Catalina Springs, Arizona, May 1 (Hub- 



342 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

bard and Schwarz) ; Colorado Canyon, July 31 (Barber and Schwarz) ; 
Palm Springs, California, February 14 (Hubbard and Schwarz)? 
This series very possibly contains more than one species. 

EUPAGODERES LUCANUS Horn. 

This species not represented. 

EUPAGODERES DUNNIANUS Casey. 

This species not represented. 

EUPAGODERES SORDIDUS LeConte. 

El Paso, Texas, July 8; Deming, New Mexico, July 11 (Wickham) ; 
Mesilla, New Mexico on Larrea (Cockerell) ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 
January 28 (Soltau) ; Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona (Wickham) ; 
Winslow, Arizona (Soltau, Wickham); Los Angeles County, Cali- 
fornia; San Bernardino County, California (Coquillett). 

EUPAGODERES WICKHAMI Sharp. 

Tucson, Arizona (Wickham, Soltau); Utah (Soltau). 
This species belongs near speciosus, but has thorax coarsely punc- 
tate, and markings like leopard spots. 

EUPAGODERES ARGENTATUS LeConte. 

Yuma, Arizona, April 2 (Robert Browne). 

EUPAGODERES DESERTUS Horn. 

Yuma, Arizona, April 2 (Robert Browne) ; Winslow, Arizona 
(Wickham); Death Valley, California, April (Koebele). 

As far as I can make out these two species are synonymous. In a 
large series they vary considerably in size, color, and even the form 
of the corbels. 

EUPAGODERES VARIUS LeConte. 

Kern County, California (Hubbard and Schwarz); San Diego 
County, California (Coquillett); Indio, California. 

EUPAGODERES GEMINATUS Horn. 

Hawthorne, Nevada, July 27; Independence, California, July 17; 
Lancaster, California; Keeler, California, July 6 (Wickham); Los 
Angeles County, California (Coquillett); Panamint Valley, April 
(Koebele) . 

EUPAGODERES PLUMBEUS Horn. 

Death Valley, California, April (Koebele); Independence, Cali- 
fornia, July 17 (Wickham). 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 343 

Genus OPHRYASTES Schonherr. 

OPHRYASTES VITTATUS Say. 

Buffalo Gap, S. Dakota; New Castle, Wyoming; Wallace County, 
Kansas (Snow); Berkeley, Colorado, May 8 (E. J. Oslar); Greeley, 
Colorado; Colorado Springs, Colorado (Soltau); Holly, Colorado; 
Canyon City, Colorado (Wickham); Big Springs, Texas; Alpine, 
Texas (Wickham); Las Cruces, New Mexico (Cockerell); Deming, 
New Mexico, July 1 1 ; Gallup, New Mexico (Wickham) ; Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, March 14 (Soltau); Santa Fe, New Mexico; Winslow, 
Arizona; Globe, Arizona (Wickham). 

OPHRYASTES TUBEROSUS LeConte. 

Pocatello, Idaho; Canyon City, Colorado; Del Rio, Texas, June 22; 
Alpine, Texas, June 28; Deming, New Mexico, July 11 (Wickham). 

OPHRYASTES SHUFELDTI Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

OPHRYASTES SULCIPENNIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

OPHRYASTES LATIROSTRIS LeConte. 

Alpine, Texas, June 28 (Wickham) ; Albuquerque, New Mexico 
(Soltau); Gallup, New Mexico; Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona 
(Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Peach Springs, Arizona (Wickham) ; 
Winslow, Arizona, September 10; Holbrook, Arizona. 

OPHRYASTES SULCIROSTRIS Say. 

Bismarck, North Dakota (Wickham); .Wyoming; Assiniboine, 
Montana, August 29 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Helena, Montana 
(Hubbard and Schwarz, Wickham); American Fork, Utah, June 24 
(Hubbard and Schwarz); Cheyenne, Wyoming, April 21 (Soltau); 
Nebraska; Denver, Colorado, August 11; Greeley, Colorado, June 11; 
Colorado Springs, Colorado, April 4 (Soltau) ; Fort Collins, Colorado, 
May 22; Marfa, Texas, July 3; Alpine, Texas, July 20; Luna, New 
Mexico (Wickham) ; Albuquerque, New Mexico, January 28 (Soltau) ; 
Peach Springs, Arizona; Winslow, Arizona (Wickham); California 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 

OPHRYASTES POROSUS LeConte. 

This species is not represented. 

OPHRYASTES SYMMETRICUS Fall. 

This species is not represented. 



344 PROCEEDI?fGSf OP THE NATIONAL MUSEUM vol.37. 



OPHRYASTES BITUBEROSUS Sharp. 

San Diego, Texas, April 24 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Goliad, 
Texas; Beeville, Texas, October 22 (Schwarz); Deming, New Mexico, 
July 11 (Wickham). 

Genus TOSASTES Sharp. 

This genus can not be defined by the single row of spinules on the 
posterior tibial corbels, but may be distinguished by the characters 
given in the table and by the practically non-striate beak. 

The Cimbocera group of the next tribe resembles this genus in the 
form of the antennae and tarsi, and is mainly separated by the form 
of the scrobes. 

KEY TO SPECIES OP TOSASTES. 

Elytra with acute humeral angle ' humeralis Sharp. 

[Chihuahua City, Mexico.] 
Elytra with rounded humeri. 

Corbels of posterior tibiae with a single row of spines; elytra globular; thorax feebly 
sculptured. 

Elytra with very obsolete sculpture, consisting of vague large pits, arranged 

serially globipennis Sharp. 

[Guajuco, Nuevo Leon, Mexico.] 
Elytra with striae very fine, consisting of long, fine punctures; median line of 

thorax distinct globularis, new species. 

[Albuquerque, New Mexico.] 
Corbels of posterior tibiae with'a double row of spines; elytra globular with striae 
consisting of large ill-defined punctures; thorax distinctly and coarsely punc- 
tate oralis, new species. 

[Del Rio, and Marathon, Texas.] 

TOSASTES GLOBULARIS, new species. 

Described from a series of twenty-two specimens collected by H. 
Soltau at Albuquerque, New Mexico, March 12. 

This species resembles T. globipennis Sharp and T. ovalis, but 
differs in sculpture from both. 

Length 4.5-6.2 mm. Black; elytra very convex, inflated; humeri 
rounded; clothed with pale gray or violaceous scales below, and 
above more or less longitudinally vittate, pale scales alternating 
with vittae of dark-brown and black spots. 

Eyes narrow, acute beneath; rostrum longer than head, not 
impressed at base, front flat, rostral striae almost obsolete, very fine 
when present; scrobes dee]), strongly arcuate, rapidly inferior; scape 
and first six funicular joints clad with broad flat scales, scape dark 
except at tip, funicular joints light; last funicular without scales, 
dark like club, and so closely apphed as to appear a part of the club. 
Thorax strongly transverse; ocular lobes with very short fimbriae; 
convex on sides with rather deep emargination in front of base and a 
lighter one before apex; surface smooth, not deeply or strongly 



NO. 1708. .STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 345 

punctate, punctures very minute, median longitudinal impression 
sharp and distinct. Elytral strisB extremely fine, feebly impressed, 
punctures longitudinal and very fine, intervals feebly convex, with 
two series of setae; elytra twice as wide as prothorax, only one-half 
longer than wide, evenly rounded from base almost to apex, apex 
slightly obtusely produced, elytra conjointly rounded. Second 
ventral segment short, first suture almost straight, third and fourth 
segments very short, but together greater than second. Hind 
tibiae with a single row of spinules on apex of corbels, articular sur- 
face cavernous. Tarsi without pubescence on third joint, which is 
not broader than the second. 

Type.— C&t. No. 12594, U.S.N.M. 

TOSASTES OVALIS, new species. 

Described from one specimen collected by F. C. Bishopp at Devil's 
River, Texas, May 3, 1907. Four specimens which are rather rubbed 
are at hand, collected by J. D. Mitchell and R. A. Cushman at Mara- 
thon, Texas, June 7, 1908. 

This species resembles T. glohipennis Sharp of Mexico in form, size, 
and coloration, but differs by the sculpture of the thorax and elytra, 
and by the double row of spines on the posterior corbels. 

Length 6 mm. Black; elytra very convex, inflated; humeri 
rounded; clothed with thin grayish scales, polygonally crowded, 
and on the prothorax fused into a continuous indument, bearing 
numerous setae, scales not overlapping. 

Eyes narrow and acute beneath. Rostrum short, lightly trans- 
versely impressed at base, with very faint impressions at sides, but 
with no median groove; scrobes deep, strongly arcuate, rapidly 
inferior; scape and first six funicular joints clad with white scales, 
seventh dark like club without scales, and so closely applied thereto 
as to appear a part of it. Thorax strongly transverse; ocular lobes 
distinctly fimbriate; convex on sides with rather deep emargination 
in front of base and a lighter one before apex; sparsely but deeply 
and coarsely punctate, median impression vague. Elytral striae 
fine, punctures rather large and shallow. Elytra twice as wide as 
prothorax, and only one-half longer than wide. Second ventral 
segment short, first suture almost straight, third and fourth segments 
very short, but together greater than second. Hind tibiae with a 
double row of spinules on corbels, but apex hardly truncate. Tarsi 
without pubescence on third joint, which is not broader than the 
second. 

This species has a very different appearance from Ophryastes, 
because of the greatly inflated elytra, but difi^ers from Tosastes as 
defined by Sharp in the double row of spinules on the corbels of the 
posterior tibiae. This last character is not of generic value. 

Type.— Cat. No. 12595, U.S.N.M. 



346 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Group RHIGOPSES. 
Genus RHIGOPSIS LeConte. 

RHIGOPSIS EFFRACTA LeConte. 

California (Wickham) ; Southern California. 

RHIGOPSIS SCUTELLATA Casey. 

Los Angeles County, California, May (Coquillett) ; San Diego, 
California (Hubbard and Schwarz, Coquillett) ; Southern California. 

Group STRANGALIODES. 

KEY TO GENERA OF GROUP STRANGALIODES. 

Rostrum with scrobes feebly inferior, usually directed toward eyes, or visible from 
above and badly defined. 

I. Seventh joint of funicle contiguous to club. 

1. Third joint of tarsi feebly emarginate, scarcely broader than the preceding; 

tarsi sparsely setose beneath; beak distinctly separated from head by trans- 
verse depression Cimbocera Horn. 

2. Third joint of tarsi bilobed, distinctly wider than second; tarsi spinose be- 

neath; beak not separated from head by deep depression... MZorferes Casey. 

II. Seventh joint of funicle distant from club; third joint of tarsi broader than 

second, tarsi densely pubescent beneath. 

1. Scrobes deep, well defined, at least moderately arcuate, passing inferiorly. 
a^. Scrobes strongly arcuate, passing beneath at a distance from the eyes. 

b '. First suture of abdomen straight; second segment never longer than the 

two following united ; hind tibiae mutic Dirhnxenus Horn. 

6^. First suture of abdomen arcuate; second segment as long as and fre- 
quently longer than the two following united; hind tibia? mutic. 
c '. Support of deciduous piece of mandible not prominent. 
dK Anterior tibiae denticulate within; surface of body scaly without 

hairs; corbels of hind tibiae open Orimodema Horn. 

d'-. Anterior tibiae not denticulate, or indistinctly so; surface scaly or 
hairy. 

e ' . Corbels subcavernous Mimetes Schonherr . 

e '^. Corbels cavernous; alternate elytral intervals slightly more convex; 

ventral scales plumose Amotus Casey. 

c^. Support of deciduous piece prominent; anterior tibiae not denticulate; 
surface scaly, and with erect hairs. 
/'. Corbels of hind tibiae cavernous; humeri entirely obliterated, 

Diamimus Horn. 
/^. Corbels of hind tibiiie open; humeri rectangular.. J'en7aa;ia Horn. 
a ^. Scrobes moderately arcuate, passing immediately beneath the eyes, 

Anametis Horn. 

a'. Scrobes narrow, deep and well defined throughout, obliquely descending 

to lower angle of eye, beak not depressed at base Melbonus Casey. 

2. Scrobes evanescent posteriorly, badly defined, nearly straight or flexed grad- 

ually downward, directed toward lower angle of eye. 
a 1. Metasternal side pieces rather wide, suture distinct. 

b^. First ventral suture very deep and widely impressed, generally straight 
or only slightly arcuate in the middle; second segment not longer than 
the next two combined. 



NO. 1708. f^TUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 347 

c '. Scutellum very short and broad, not entering the elytral disk. 
dK Elytral intervals alternating in convexity throughout the length; 
serial punctures on elytra seldom squamigerous, usually setigerous; 
first ventral suture slightly arcuate at middle; hind tibiae mu- 

cronate Amnesia Horn. 

rf2. Elytral intervals not alternating in convexity; serial punctures on 
elytra each bearing a flat scale; first ventral suture straight or but 
slightly arcuate at middle; hind tibiae more or less feebly mucro- 

nate; corbels open Dyslobus LeConte. 

c^. Scutellum small, triangular; first ventral suture straight; hind tibiae dis- 
tinctly mucronate; corbels cavernous Melamomphus Horn. 

h'^. First ventral suture fine, not broadly impressed, broadly arcuate; body 
squamose and pubescent; scutellum distinct; second ventral segment 
much longer than the next two combined, 

Thricomigus Horn; Adaleres Casey, 
a^. Metasternal side pieces indistinct, suture obliterated. 

e '. First suture of abdomen deep and widely impressed, straight; sec- 
ond segment not longer than the two following united; hind 

tibiae not mucronate; corbels open Panscopus Schonherr. 

e^. First ventral sutui-e fine, not broadly impressed, broadly arcuate; 
second segment as long as and frequently longer than the two 
following imited; rostrum rather elongate. 
/^ Rostrum separated from head by transverse depression; body 
squamose, the elytra without erect hairs, the intervals alter- 
nating strongly in convexity and vestiture; scutellum ex- 
tremely small, acute; second ventral segment not longer than 
the next two combined, metepisternal suture completely 

obliterated Nomidus Casey. 

/-. Front flat, rostrum continuous on the same plane and iisually 
flattened above; metepisternal suture in great part obliterated. 
g^. Body above finely tuberculate, scales large, 

Phymatinus LeConte. 
g ^. Body not tuberculate, scales small and denser. . Nocheles Horn. 

Genus CIMBOCERA Horn. 

CIMBOCERA PAUPER Horn. 

Laramie, Wyoming, March 18, May 20 (Soltaii); Helena, Montana 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 
This species, Hke Amotus, has striate plumose scales beneath. 

CIMBOCERA CONSPERSA Fall. 

American Fork Canyon, Utah, June 25 ; Garland, Colorado, June 
23 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Canyon City, Colorado, May 14; Gallup, 
New Mexico; Albuquerque, New Mexico (Soltau); Winslow, Arizona 
(Wickham) ; Holbrook, Arizona; Bright Angel, Arizona, July 10 
(Barber and Schwarz) . 

The upper scales are striate, subplumose. 

Genus MILODERES Casey. 

MILODERES SETOSUS Casey. 

Panamint Valley, California, April (Koebele). 



348 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

MILODERES VIRIDIS, new species. 

Described from a series of twelve specimens collected by A. W. 
Barber at the Keams Copper Mine, Navajo Indian Reservation, 
Arizona, April 23. 

Length 4.5-6 mm. Black, covered with an indument of brilliant 
golden green scales; oblong-oval, much more slender than setosus 
Casey, convex; entire surface bristling with long erect golden setae, 
not regularly arranged, more erect, longer and finer than in setosus. 

This beautiful species may further be distinguished from setosus by 
the following characters: Beak slightly depressed at base. Elytra 
not greatly inflated, w^idest at basal fourth; sides thence very feebly 
convergent, abruptly and broadly rounded behind; posterior de- 
clivity perpendicular; humeri obsolete; disk convex, hardly one- 
quarter wider than the prothorax, at least one-half longer than wide, 
without a trace of serial punctuation, punctures very fine and incon- 
spicuous. • 

Type.— Cat. No. 12596, U.S.N.M. 

Genus DICHOXENUS Horn. 

DICHOXENUS SETIGER Horn. 

Columbus, Texas, May 22 (Schwarz) ; Tyler, Texas, June 9 and 28. 
Genus ORIMODEMA Horn. 

ORIMODEMA PROTRACTA Horn. 

Veta Pass, Colorado, June 27 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Las Vegas 
Hot Springs, New Mexico, August 5-14; Flagstaff, Arizona, July 7; 
Williams, Arizona, July 24 (Barber and Schwarz). 

Genus MIMETES Schonherr. 

MIMETES SENICULUS Horn. 

Scotia, California, May 20 (H. S. Barber). 

Genus AMOTUS Casey. 

AMOTUS LONGISTERNUS Casey. 

Ventura County, California, April (Coquillett). 

AMOTUS SETULOSUS LeConte (MIMETES SETULOSUS LeConte; AMOTUS 

GRACILIOR Casey). 

Los Angeles County, California, March, April; Ventura County, 
California, April (Coquillett). 

AMOTUS LONGIPENNIS, new species. 

Described from two specimens in the Hubbard and Schwarz col- 
lection from Kern County, California. 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 349 

This species differs from longisternus in the following particulars: 
Length 8 mm. Elongate oblong-oval, rather depressed above, 
densely clothed above with seneus, white and dark scales which are 
polygonally crowded and present a tessellate appearance. Head 
closely squamose; beak strongly medianly impressed in over apical 
half. Ocular lobes absent, vibrisssB long and conspicuous. Pro- 
thorax a little longer than wide, subcylindrical. • Elytra about twice 
as long as wide, and three times as long as the prothorax. 

Like the other two species in the genus, this species is clad with 
polygonal flat scales above, and with ogival, striate, plumose scales 
below. The alternate intervals of the elytra are slightly more promi- 
nent. The genus is also characterized in all three species by the 
short prosternum in front of the coxse, and by the absence of ocular 
lobes, but presence of ocular vibrissse. 

Type.— Ca,t. No. 12597, U.S.N.M. 

Geuus DIAMIMUS Horn. 

DIAMIMUS SUBSERICEUS Horn. 

Probably several species are now included in the museum material 
which is from Laramie, Wyoming, April 25 (Soltau); Cheyenne, 
iVyoming; Helena, Montana; American Fork Canyon, Utah, June 25; 
Glenwood, Colorado, May 15 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Berkeley, Colo- 
rado, May 8 (E. J. Oslar) ; Winslow, Arizona, July 18 (Wickham). 

Genus PERITAXIA Horn. 

PERITAXIA RUGICOLLIS Horn. 

Garland, Colorado, June 19 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Leadville, 
Colorado, July 7 (Wickham); Durango, Colorado, July 23; Tercio, 
New Mexico, May 9 (Hopkins) ; Dripping Springs, Organ Mountains, 
New Mexico, (Cockerell) ; Magdalena, New Mexico (Wickham) ; 
Arizona (Morrison). 

PERITAXIA HISPIDA Horn. 

Northern Colorado (Wickham) ; Colorado (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

PERITAXIA PERFORATA Casey. 

Big Springs, Texas (Wickham); Ranger, Texas, July 25. 

Genus ANAMETIS Horn. 

The species in this genus are clad beneath with broad, fan-shaped 
striate, plumose scales. 

ANAMETIS GRISEA Horn. 

Detroit, Michigan, June 25 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Independence, 
Iowa; Iowa City, Iowa, April 17, May 5 (Wickham); West Point, 
Nebraska, June (Bruner) ; Rock Bluff, Nebraska (Elliott) ; Kansas • 
Laramie, Wyoming (Wickham) ; Montana, 



350 PROCEEDiyGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



ANAMETIS SUBFUSCA Fall. 

Las Vegas Hot Springs, New Mexico, August 10-12 (Barber and 

Schwarz) . 

Genus MELBONUS Casey. 

MELBONUS SCAPALIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

MELBONUS DENTICULATUS, new species. 

One specimen collected in the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, 
May 10, by Hubbard and Schwarz. 

This species is essentially a member of the genus Melbonus because 
of the distinct scrobes reaching the lower edge of the eyes, the non- 
constricted beak, and all other important characters, except that 
very minute fimbriae are visible, and the anterior tibiae are strongly 
denticulate. 

The following specific characters will serve to distinguish it from 
scapalis Casey. Head at least half as wide as prothorax, eyes promi- 
nent, separated by one and one-half times their own width; beak over 
one-fourth longer than wide, but liardly more than one-half as long 
as the prothorax; broadly depressed along middle from base, and 
more narrowly so on the sides. Elytra two and one-quarter times as 
long as wide, three times as long as prothorax; sides almost parallel, 
evenly and broadly arcuate; base straight, humeri rectangular, 
minute. Length 10 mm.; width 3.5 mm. 

Type.— Cat. No. 12598, U.S.N.M. 

Genus AMNESIA Horn. 

AMNESIA SQUAMIPUNCTATA, new species. 

Described from two specimens collected by H. S. Barber at Eureka, 
California, June 7. 

Length 7 mm; width 2.7-3 mm. Elongate, ovoidal, widest at 
apical third of elytra, convex above, reddish or piceous throughout, 
undersides darkest; vestiture consisting of small rounded, striate 
scales densely covering the upper surface and disposed among the 
shining tubercles of the thorax, golden, brown or black in color, and 
intermingled with stiff suberect curved bristles especially on the 
elevated alternate intervals; scales on head both round and linear; 
elytral punctures each provided with oblong striate scales, almost as 
wide as, but longer than the interspace scales; scales mixed oval and 
oblong on the sides, but becoming long and very fine setae along the 
middle of the venter. 

The species is further separable from tumida Casey, the only other 
species with very elevated alternate intervals, by the following char- 
acters: Head two-thirds as wide as prothorax, the entire surface of 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 351 

head and beak coarsely and densely punctate ; beak tricarinate above ; 
eyes separated by much less than twice their own width; antennal 
scape not reaching posterior margin of eyes, first funicular slightly 
longer than second, second not as long as the two following. Pro- 
thorax as wide as long, sides strongly and evenly arcuate; ocular lobes 
not nearly as densely fimbriate as in tumida; disk broadly and rather 
deeply impressed along median line, also with three large round 
impressions on each side of the middle, the central pair closer together 
than the others, disk rather closely covered with strong polished 
tubercles. Elytra with sides subparallel, slightly the widest at 
apical third; disk with alternate intervals strongly elevated, tuber- 
culose, bristling with curved spines, most prominent at apical decliv- 
ity, which is almost vertical in profile; striae unimpressed, punctures 
moderate in size, each with a large scale, surface not conspicuously 
tuberculose. 

In all other respects the phraseology used in the description of 
tumida will fit this species. It differs from all other Amnesia by the 
squamigerous serial punctures, thus resembling Dyslohus. It is 
arranged with Amnesia because of the alternate elevated intervals. 

Type.—Qs^i. No. 12599, U.S.N.M. 

AMNESIA TUMIDA Casey. 

Santa Cruz Mountains, California. 

AMNESIA GRANICOLLIS LeConte. 

Victoria, Vancouver, June 1 ; Tenino, Washington (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Washington (Morrison); Astoria, Oregon, May 25; Port- 
land, Oregon, May 22 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Oregon (Koebele) ; 
Eureka, California, June 2; Fieldbrook, California, May 27 (Barber). 

AMNESIA DISCORS Casey. 

This is not represented. 

AMNESIA SCULPTILIS Casey. 

Washington. 

AMNESIA DEBILIS Casey. 

Oregon (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

AMNESIA DECORATA LeConte. 

Astoria, Oregon, May 25 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

AMNESIA GRANULATA Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

The following species referred to Amnesia do not have the alternate 
interspaces elevated: 



352 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

AMNESIA SORDIDA Horn. 

California (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Alameda County, California 
(Coquillett). 

AMNESIA URSINA Horn. 

Victoria, Vancouver, June 1 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Coeur 
d'Alene, Idaho (Wickham) ; Portland, Oregon, May 22 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 

AMNESIA RAUCA Horn. 

Alameda County, California, March (Coquillett) • San Francisca 
County, California, June. 

AMNESIA DECIDUA Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

AMNESIA ALTERNATA Horn. 

Montana (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

AMNESIA TESSELLATA Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

AMNESIA ELONGATA Horn. 

California. 

Genus DYSLOBUS LeConte. 

DYSLOBUS SEGNIS LeConte. 

Sisson, California (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Siskiyou County, Cali- 
fornia (Koebele). 

DYSLOBUS LECONTEI Casey. 

Tenino, Washington (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Easton, Washington 
(Koebele); Hood River, Oregon, May 20 (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Oregon (Koebele); Humboldt County, California (Barber). 

DYSLOBUS VERRUCIGER Casey. 

Victoria, Vancouver, June 2 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Kaslo, 
British Columbia, June 10 (Currie). 

Genus MELAMOMPHUS Horn. 

MELAMOMPHUS NIGER Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus ADALERES Casey. 

ADALERES OVIPENNIS Casey. 

'This species is not represented. 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 353 

ADALERES HUMERALIS Casey. 

Los T^ngeles, California (Coquillett) ; San Diego, California; Rain- 
bow, California. 

Genus THRICOMIGUS Horn. 

THRICOMIGUS LUTEUS Horn. 

Helena, Montana, April 26 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Genus PANSCOPUS Schonherr. 

PANSCOPUS ERINACEUS Say. 

Buffalo, New York; Washington, District of Columbia; Berkeley, 
West Virginia; Lee County, Virginia; Round Knob, North Carolina; 
Detroit, Michigan, June (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

PANSCOPUS ALTERNATUS Schaeffer. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus NOMIDUS Casey. 

NOMIDUS ABRUPTUS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus PHYMATINUS LeConte. 

PHYMATINUS GEMMATUS LeConte. 

Astoria, Oregon, May 25 ; Portland, Oregon, May 22 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 

Genus NOCHELES Horn. 

NOCHELES TORPIDUS LeConte. 

Portland, Oregon, May 22 ; Alta, Utah, June 29. 

NOCHELES ^QUALIS Horn. 

Montana; Green River, Wyoming; National Park, Wyoming, 
August 1 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Nevada. 

NOCHELES VESTITUS Casey. 

Not represented. 

Group PHYXELES. 
Genus PHYXELIS Schonherr. 

PHYXELIS RIGIDUS Say. 

Marion, Massachusetts, July; Deer Park, Maryland, July 4; Wash- 
ington, District of Columbia; Fort Pendleton, West Virginia, July 8 
(Hubbard and Schwarz); Round Knob, North Carolina, June 28; 
Toronto, Ontario (R.J. Crew); Detroit, Michigan (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Chicago, Illinois; Bloomington, Illinois, April 4; Iowa 
(Wickham). 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 23 



354 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Tribe OTIORHYNCHINI. 

Genus AGRAPHUS Schonherr. 

AGRAPHUS BELLICUS Say. 

Crescent City, Florida; Capron, Florida, April 11; Tampa,Florida, 
April 29 ; Cedar Keys, Florida, June 29. 

Genus OTIORHYNCHUS Germar. 

OTIORHYNCHUS SULCATUS Fabricius. 

Isle ail Haiit, Maine, August (Wickham) ; Cambridge, Massachu- 
setts, March, April; Peekskill, New York, April 20 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Toronto, Canada, August 25 (R. J. Crew); Departure Bay, 
Vancouver (Wickham). 

OTIORHYNCHUS OVATUS Linnaeus. 

Hampton, New Hampshire, February 28 (S. A. Shaw) ; Hanover, 
New Hampshire (C. M. Weed); Fitchburg, Massachusetts, June; 
Cambridge, Massachusetts (Hubbard and Schwarz); Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, June 5 (Ormonde); Marion, Massachusetts, July; Hartford, 
Connecticut; Buffalo, New York; Flatbush, New York, July 10 (J. L. 
Zabriskie) ; Long Island, New York; Illion, New York (A. H. Weeks) ; 
New Jersey; Toronto, Ontario (R. J. Crew); Port Hope, Ontario 
(Bethune); Detroit, Michigan, May 28, June 4 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Bloomington, Illinois, April 20; Independence, Iowa, 
August ; Iowa City, Iowa, April 29 (Wickham) ; Laramie, Wyoming, 
June 14; Santa Fe, New Mexico, July (Cockerell). 

OTIORHYNCHUS RUGIFRONS Gyllenhal. 

New Jersey; Fredericksburg, Virginia, July 19 (Richardson); 
Toronto, Ontario (Wickham) ; Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. 

OTIORHYNCHUS MAURUS Gyllenhal. 

This species is not represented from North America. 

OTIORHYNCHUS MONTICOLA Germar. 

This species is not represented from North America. 
Genus SCIOPITHES Horn. 
SCIOPITHES OBSCURUS Horn. 

I regard Colonel Casey's species signijicans ,^ hrumalis,^ arcuatus,^ 
and angustulus * as one species, synonymous with obscurus Horn. 
They can not be separated by distribution, as is shown by the follow- 
ing records: Victoria, ^,^ Vancouver (Wickham); Tenino,^,^,* Wash- 
ington; Ilwaco,^ Washington, May 26, (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Seattle,^ Washington (S. Bethel) ; Astoria,S^^ Oregon, May 24 (Hub- 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF ?<^ORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 355 

bard and Schwarz) ; Corvallis/ Oregon (Wickham) ; Portland/ Ore- 
gon, May 23 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Eureka/,^ California, June 4 
(H. S. Barber); Marin County,^ California, August; Sacramento 
County,^ California, February 12, on strawberry (M. Cook) ; San 
Mateo County,^ California, August; Little River,^,-' California, May 
31 (Barber); Fieldbrook,^ California, May 26 (Barber); Humboldt 
County,^ California, June 19 (Barber). Those collected in the same 
series seem to be all one species with but slight color variation, but 
differing sufficiently in the relative lengths of the antennal joints to 
run to the different species in Colonel Casey's table. 

SCIOPITHES SETOSUS Casey. 

I also doubt the wisdom of separating this form from the preceding 
species: Humboldt County, California, June 19; Eureka, California, 
May 24, June 7 (H. S. Barber). 

Genus AGRONUS Horn. 

AGRONUS CINERARIUS Horn. 

Lake Tahoe, California, July 8 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Siskiyou 
County, California, July; Tallac, California, July 11 (A. Fenyes). 

AGRONUS DECIDUUS Horn. 

Mount Shasta, California (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Genus NEOPTOCHUS Horn. 

NEOPTOCHUS ADSPERSUS Boheman. 

Lake Harney, Florida, May 7 ; Cedar Keys, Florida, June 5 ; Citrus 
County, Florida, July 25; Crescent City, Florida; Tampa, Florida, 
April 1 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Genus PARAPTOCHUS Seidlitz. 

PARAPTOCHUS SELLATUS Boheman. 

North Bend, British Columbia, June 6; Hood River, Oregon, May 
21 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Genus STENOPTOCHUS Casey. 

STENOPTOCHUS INCONSTANS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus ORTHOPTOCHUS Casey. 
ORTHOPTOCHUS SQUAMIGER Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus MYLACUS Schonherr. 

MYLACUS SACCATUS LeConte. 

Spokane Falls, Washington (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Easton, 
Washmgton (Koebele). 



356 PROCEEDINGS OF THE \AT10\AL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Genus THRICOLEPIS Horn. 

THRICOLEPIS INORNATA Horn. 

Mill Creek, Utah, June 16; Salt Lake, Utah, June 13-15; American 
Fork Canyon, Utah, June 21; Alta, Utah, June 28 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Wasatch Mountains, Utah, June 20; Provo, Utah (Wick- 
ham); Ojai Valley, Colorado; Veta Pass, Colorado, June 27 (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz) ; Ouray, Colorado, July 1 (Wickham) ; Pagosa 
Springs, Colorado (E. J. Oslar) ; Tenino, Washington; Los Gatos, 
California (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Santa Clara County, California, 
May; Los Angeles County, California; Arizona (Morrison); Wil- 
liams, Arizona, May 31, June 9; Flagstaff, Arizona, July 5; Prescott, 
Arizona, June 20 (Barber and Schwarz); Chiricahua Mountains, 
Arizona, June 24 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

THRICOLEPIS SIMULATOR Horn. 

California; Arizona. 

Genus PERITELOPSIS Horn. 
PERITELOPSIS GLOBIVENTRIS LeConte. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus PERITELODES Casey. 

PERITELODES OBTECTUS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus PERITELINUS Casey. 

PERITELINUS VARIEGATUS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus GEODERCES Horn. 
GEODERCES MELANOTHRIX Kirby. 

Michipicoten Island, Lake Superior, July; Gargantua, Lake 
Superior, August; White Fish Point, Lake Superior; Marquette, 
Michigan, July 10 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Bayfield, Wisconsin 
(Wickham); Departure Bay, Vancouver; Massett, Queen Charlotte 
Islands, British Columbia (J. H. Keen). 

GEODERCES INCOMPTUS Horn. 

North Bend, British Columbia, June; Victoria, Vancouver, June 2; 
Tenino, Washington; Ilwaco, Washington, May 26; Astoria, Oregon, 
May 25 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Alameda County, California, Janu- 
ary, April, October. 

GEODERCES PUNCTICOLLIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 



NO. 170S. .^TUDTES^ Of XORTTT AMERTCAX WEEVILS— PIERCE. 357 

Genus GEODERCODES Casey. 

GEODERCODES LATIPENNIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus ARAGNOMUS Horn. 
ARAGNOMUS GRISEUS Horn. 

Montana; Garland, Colorado, June 25; Salem, Oregon, on pear, 
May 19; Placer County, California, June, September, October; 
Sacramento County, California, February; Los Angeles County, 
California, April; Siskiyou County, California; Bright Angel, Ari- 
zona, Jul}^ 10 (Barber anil Schwarz). 

ARAGNOMUS HISPIDULUS Casey. 

Los Angeles Count}^ California, April, July. 

Genus DYSTICHEUS Horn. 

DYSTICHEUS INSIGNIS Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

Genus EUCYLLUS Horn. 

EUCYLLUS VAGANS Horn. 

Riverside, Arizona; Gila Bend, Arizona; Lancaster, California, 
August 10 (Wickham); Mojave, California (Soltau); Barstow, Cali- 
fornia. 

Genus THINOXENUS Horn. 

THINOXENUS SQUALENS Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

THINOXENUS NEVADENSIS Casey. 

Laramie, Wyoming, February 28 (Soltau). 

Genus RHYPODES Horn. 

RHYPODES DILATATUS Horn. 

Los Angeles County, California; Alameda County, California. 

RHYPODES BREVICOLLIS Horn. 

Garland, Colorado. 

Genus CERCOPEUS Schonherr. 

CERCOPEUS CHRYSORRHCEUS Say. 

New York; Washington, District of Columbia, April 10; Afton, 
Virginia; Ann Arbor, Michigan; Detroit, Michigan (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Cadet, Missouri, April 13 (J. G. Barlow). 



358 PROOEEDIXGS! OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. 



Genus CH./ETECHUS Horn. 

CHiETECHUS SETIGER Horn. 

Brookline, Massachusetts. 

Genus TRACHYPHLCEUS Germar. 
TRACHYPHLCEUS ASPERATUS Boheman. 

Cadet, Missouri, June 9 (Barlow); vSt. Louis, Missouri, May 16 
(Soltau); Ona^a, Kansas, A])ril 17 (Creveeoeur) ; Lincoln, Nebraska 
(Bruner). 

Genus PANORMUS Casey. 

PANORMUS SETOSUS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

Tribe DIROTOGNATHINI. 

Genus DIROTOGN ATHUS Horn. 

DIROTOGNATHUS SORDIDUS Horn. 

Tucson, Arizona, January 13 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Tribe TANYMECINI. 
Genus PACHN^^US Schonherr. 

PACHN.ffi;US OPALUS Olivier. 

Key West, Florida, April 6 (Schwarz) (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; 
June 17-July 1 (Wickham); Biscayne, Florida, May 11 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz); Florida (Ashmead). 

PACHN.iEUS DISTANS Horn. 

Southern Pines, North Carolina (R. W. Collett); Wilmington, 
North Carolina (W, F. Wenzel); Crescent City, Florida; Lake Poin- 
sett, Florida, May 1 ; Cedar Keys, Florida, June 6; Enterprise, Florida, 
June 9; Tampa, Florida, April 25; Bartow, Florida, July 16 (Hubbard 
and Schwarz). 

Genus TANYMECUS Schonherr. 

TANYMECUS LACffiNA Herbst. 

Biscayne, Florida, May 8; Indian River, Florida; Jupiter, Florida, 
April 24 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Enterprise, Florida, May 26 (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz, and Wickham); Miami, Florida; Capron, Florida. 

TANYMECUS CONFERTUS Gyllenhal. 

Washington, District of Columbia, June 6; Fort Monroe, Virginia, 
April 19 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Pennsylvania; Tennessee; Ken- 
tuck}^ (Sanborn); southern Illinois; Iowa City, Iowa (Wickham); 



NO. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 359 



Cadet, Missouri, June 9 (Barlow); Nebraska; Winnipeg, Manitoba; 
Williston, North Dakota, June 8; Glendive, Montana (Wickham); 
Eddyville, Idaho; South McAlester, Oklahoma, June 11 (Wickham); 
Bayou Sara, Louisiana (Hubbard and Schwarz); Columbus, Texas, 
May 22 (Hubbard and Schwarz, Wickham); Gainesville, Texas, 
April 1 1 on (Enothera; Brownsville, Texas, July, September 16 (Wick- 
ham, Townsend) ; Cameron County, Texas, September. 



Genus HADROMERUS Schonherr. 

HADROMERUS OPALINUS Horn. 



Arizona. 



Genus MINYOMERUS Horn (PSEUDELISSA Casey). 

MINYOMERUS INNOCUUS Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

MINYOMERUS LANGUIDUS Horn (PSEUDELISSA CINEREA Casey). 

El Paso, Texas, July 8; Deming, New Mexico, July 1 1 ; Gallup, New 
Mexico; Peach Springs, Arizona, August 25 (Wickham); Winslow, 
Arizona (Hubbard and Schwarz, Wickham). 

Genus ELISSA Casey. 

ELISSA LATICEPS Casey. 

El Paso, Texas, July 8 (Wickham); Tucson, Arizona, Januarj^ 13 
(Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Genus PANDELETEIUS Schonherr. 

PANDELETEIUS CAVIROSTRIS Schaeffer. 

Brownsville, Texas, May 10, 29, June 9 (Barber, Schwarz, Town- 
send) . 

PANDELETEIUS OVIPENNIS Schaeffer. 

Brownsville, Texas, Ma}^ 24 on Celtis (Barber). 

PANDELETEIUS ROTUNDICOLLIS Fall. 

Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, June 30 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

PANDELETEIUS SIMPLARIUS Fall. 

Fort Grant, Arizona, Juh^ 13; Oracle, Arizona, July 9-14 (Hubbard 
and Schwarz); Prescott, Arizona, June 19 (Barber and Schwarz). 

PANDELETEIUS HILARIS Herbst. 

Toronto, Ontario (Wickham); Boston, Massachusetts, June 4 
(Ormonde) ; Cambridge, Massachusetts (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; 
Staten Island, New York; Buffalo, New York; Pennsylvania (Riley); 
Washington, District of Columbia, June 27; Pemiington Gap, 



360 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Virginia; Ross County, Ohio (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Heyworth, Illi- 
nois, September 2 (Wolcott); Iowa City, Iowa, June 18 (Wickham); 
Missouri (Riley); Houston, Texas (Wickham); Enterprise, Florida, 
June 8, 11, 12, 15 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

PANDELETEIUS ROBUSTUS Schaeffer. 

Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona, May 27, June 5; Chiricahua Moun- 
tains, Arizona, June 2 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Las Vegas Hot 
Springs, Arizona, August 12; Williams, Arizona, May 31, June 2, 11, 
July 19 on Quercus gmnbelii; Colorado Springs, Colorado, June 15-30, 
June 15-30 (Wickham); American Fork Canyon, Utah, June 5 (Hub- 
bard and Schwarz). 

PANDELETEIUS CINEREUS Horn. 

Dallas, Texas (Boll) ; New Mexico (J. B. Smith) ; Arizona (Morrison). 

PANDELETEIUS SUBTROPICUS Fall. 

Key West, Florida, April 2 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

PANDELETEIUS SUBMETALLICUS Schaeffer. 

Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona, July 4 (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Walnut, Arizona (Wickham); Bright Angel, Arizona, July 12 (Barber 
and Schwarz); Los Angeles County, California, July (Coquillett). 

Tribe CYPHINI. 
Genus COMPSUS Schonherr. 

COMPSUS AURICEPHALUS Say. 

Natchez, Mississippi (Wickham); Arkansas; Brownsville, Texas, 
June 7 (Hubbard and Schwarz, Townsend); Columbus, Texas, July 
22; San Diego, Texas, April 3 (Hubbard and Schwarz, Schwarz); 
Uvalde, Texas, June 18; New Braunfels, Texas, July 25; Cameron 
County, Texas, August (Wickham). 

Genus CYPRUS Germar. 

CYPRUS LAUTUS LeConte. 

This species varies considerably in color, but I can find no other 
differences. Specimens with bluish hue are from New Mexico (Snow) ; 
Catalina Mountains, Arizona; Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona (Soltau). 
Specimens with a purplish hue come from Fort Grant, Arizona, July 
20 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Bright Angel, Arizona, July 12 (Barber 
and Schwarz), Those with brownish hue are from Peach Springs, 
Arizona (Wickham). Grayish specimens come from Yuma, Arizona, 
March (H. Brown); Arizona (Morrison). Some yellowish specimens 
are labeled Arizona (through C. V. Riley). Specimens from the same 
locality seem to be consistently colored. 



NO. 1708. .STUDIES! OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS—PIERCE. 361 

CYPHUS PLACIDUS Horn. 

Yuma, Arizona (H. Brown) . 

Genus PSEUDOCYPHUS Schaeffer. 
PSEUDOCYPHUS FLEXICAULIS Schaeffer. 

Brownsville, Texas (Wickham). 

Genus BRACHYSTYLUS Schonherr. 

BRACHYSTYLUS ACUTUS Say. 

New York; Washington, District of Columbia, May 22; Kentucky; 
Cadet, Missouri, June 11 on persimmon (J. G. Barlow). 

Genus ARTIPUS Schonherr. 

ARTIPUS FLORIDANUS Horn. 

St. Lucie, Florida, April 20; Jupiter, Florida, April 24; Indian 
River, Florida; Haulover, Florida, March 17; Lake Worth, Florida, 
June 4 (Hubbard and Schwarz); Key West, Florida, January 3, 4 
(Knab), June 17-July 1 (Wickham) ; Biscayne, Florida; Dry Tortugas, 
Florida, June 7 (Wickham) ; Florida (Ashmead) ; Palm Beach, Florida 
(Dyar). 

Genus ARAMIGUS Horn. 

ARAMIGUS TESSELATUS Say. 

Palm Beach, Florida; Texas (Hubbard and Schwarz); Atoka, Okla- 
homa, June 13 (Wickham); Albuquerque, New Mexico (Wickham); 
Clay County, Kansas; Gove County, Kansas (Snow); West Point, 
Nebraska, July (Bruner) . 

ARAMIGUS FULLERI Horn. 

Worcester, IMassachusetts, April 11 on Azalea and Cissus (C. W. 
Minot) ; Jersey City Heights, New^ Jersey, December 26, bad on roses 
(P. Henderson) ; Mount Airy, Georgia, September 2 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz) ; Iowa City, Iowa, December 22 (Wickham) ; Pasadena, 
California, July 21 (Fall); San Diego, California (Hubbard and 
Schwarz) . 

Genus PHACEPHOLIS Horn. 

PHACEPHOLIS ELEGANS Horn. 

This is another variable species in color which apparently can not 
be divided on a structural basis. Ph. viridis Chittenden is the most 
brilliant green form, (cotypes) San Antonio, Texas, May 21, on fruit 
trees (Hunter). Other green forms are from Onaga, Kansas, June 27 
(Crevecoeur) ; Lavaca County, Texas, June 2 1 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; 
San Diego, Texas, May 5 (wSchwarz). Forms varying from gray to 
brown are from Corpus Christi, Texas, May 12; San Diego, Texas, 



362 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

May 9 (Schwarz) ; Brownsville, Texas, April 12 (Townsend) ; Beeville, 
Texas, April 30 (Marlatt). 

PHACEPHOLIS OBSCURUS Horn. 

Kansas; Fort Collins, Colorado, April 24 (Soltau). 

PHACEPHOLIS CANDIDA Horn. 

West Kansas (Popenoe) ; Pueblo, Colorado (Hubbard and Schwarz). 
Genus ACHRASTENUS Horn. 
ACHRASTENUS GRISEUS Horn. 

Houston, Texas, March 29. 

Genus APHRASTUS Schonherr. 

APHRASTUS T-ffiNIATUS Gyllenhal. 

Fitchburg, Massachusetts, June (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Marion, 
Massachusetts, July (Wickham); Lawrence, Massachusetts (King); 
New York; New Jersey; Washington, District of Columbia, June 27 
(Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Pennington Gap, Virginia, July 2 (Hubbard 
and Schwarz); Heyworth, Illinois, June 14 (Wolcott). 

APHRASTUS UNICOLOR Horn. 

Laredo, Texas, May 28; San Diego, Texas, May 31. 

Tribe EVOTINI. 
Genus LACHNOPUS Schonherr. 

LACHNOPUS FLORIDANUS Horn. 

Key West, Florida, April (Hubbard and Schwarz), June 17 (Wick- 
ham). 

Genus OMILEUS Horn. 

OMILEUS EPICflEROIDES Horn. 

Columbus, Texas, June 17; Jacksonville, Texas, April 9. 

Genus EVOTUS LeConte. 
EVOTUS NASO LeConte. 

Dakota; Kalispell, Montana, June 13; Priest River, Idaho, June 21 
(Wickham); Washington (Morrison); Easton, Washington; Oregon 
(Koebele); Hood River, Oregon, May 20 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Tribe PHYLLOBIINI. 

Genus PHYLLOBIUS Germar. 
PHYLLOBIUS GLAUCUS Scopoli (CALCARATUS Fabricius). 

This is not represented from North America. 

Genus STROPHOSOMUS Stephens. 

STROPHOSOMUS CORYLI Fabricius. 

Montreal, Canada, August 10. 



N'o. 1708. STUDIES OF NORTH AMERICAN WEEVILS— PIERCE. 363 

Genus SCIAPHILUS Stephens. 

SCIAPHILUS MURICATUS Fabricius. 

Bangor, Maine (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Brattleboro, Vermont; 
Hanover, New Hampshire (Weed); West Roxbury, Massachusetts, 
June 17. 

Genus POLYDROSUS Germar (CYPHOMIMUS Horn). 
POLYDROSUS AMERICANUS Gyllenhal (CYPHOMIMUS DORSALIS Horn). 

Toronto, Ontario (R. J. Crew); Otsego County, New York; Buffalo, 
New York (Hubbard and Schwarz); Fort Pendleton, West Virginia, 
July 10; Oakland, Maryland, July 11; Cincinnati, Ohio; Ann Arbor, 
Michigan; Grand Ledge, Michigan, July 11 (Hubbard and Schwarz); 
Onaga, Kansas (Crevecoeur). 

POLYDROSUS OCHREUS Fall (CYPHOMIMUS). 

This species is not represented. 

POLYDROSUS DELICATULUS Horn (SCYTHROPUS). 

Cotypes, San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 

POLYDROSUS PENINSULARIS Horn. 

This species is not represented. 

POLYDROSUS IMPRESSIFRONS GyllenhaL 

Geneva, New York, June 18 (W. J. Schoene). 
Apparently accidentally introduced from Europe. 

Genus SCYTHROPUS Schonherr. 

SCYTHROPUS CALIFORNICUS Horn. 

Sacramento County, California, February (Koebele); Placer 
County, California, April (Van Dyke) ; Contra Costa County, Cali- 
fornia (Coquillett). 

SCYTHROPUS FERRUGINEUS Casey. 

Los Gatos, California (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; Humboldt County, 
California, June 13; Eureka, California (H. S. Barber); Oregon (Koe- 
bele). 

SCYTHROPUS CRASSICORNIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

SCYTHROPUS LATERALIS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

SCYTHROPUS ELEGANS Couper. 

Lawrence, Massachusetts; Charlemont, Massachusetts, April; Dur- 
ham, New Hampshire (Weed and Fiske); Trenton, Ontario (Evans); 
Canada (Pettit) ; Helena, Montana, April 26 (Hubbard and Schwarz) ; 
Tenino, Washington; Banff Spruigs, Alberta, June 10 (Hubbard and 
Schwarz). 



364 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

SCYTHROPUS CINEREUS Casey. 

This species is not represented. 

SCYTHROPUS ALBIDUS Fall. 

Portland, Oregon; Beaver Canyon, Idaho; Humboldt County, Cali- 
fornia, June 19; Eureka, California, June 4 (H. vS. Barber). 

SCYTHROPUS MISCIX Fall. 

Cotype, Sacramento County, California; Easton, Washington (Koe- 
bele); Helena, Montana, May 5 (Hubbard and Schwarz). 

Genus MITOSTYLUS Horn. 
MITOSTYLUS TENUIS Horn. 

Dallas, Texas; Wades, Texas, May 22; San Diego, Texas, June 13 
(Hubbard and Schwarz); Beeville, Texas, April 30 (Marlatt), April 22 
(Schwarz). 

MITOSTYLUS GRACILIS Horn. 

Cotypes, San Jose del Cabo, Lower California. 
Tribe PROMECOPINI. 
Genus COLEOCERUS Schonherr. 

COLEOCERUS DISPAR LeConte. 

Tucson, Arizona, July 21 (Hubbard and Schwarz, Wickham). 

COLEOCERUS MARMORATUS Horn. 

Dallas; San Diego; New Braunfels, June 16; Beeville; San Antonio; 
Brownsville; Uvalde, June 18; Point Isabel; and Sharpsburg, Texas. 

Genus ARACANTHUS Schonherr. 

ARACANTHUS PALLIDUS Say. 

Illinois (Wickham); Louisville, Kentucky, July 17; Memphis, 
Tennessee, ^farch 12 (Soltau); St. Louis, Missouri (Schuster). 

Genus EUDIAGOGUS Schonherr. 

EUDIAGOGUS PULCHER Fabricius. 

Orange County; Enterprise; Green Cove Springs and Crescent 
City, Florida; Columbus, May 19; Cuero and Brownsville, Texas. 

EUDIAGOGUS ROSENSCHCELDI Fahraeus. 

Mobile, Alabama; Pascagorda and Natchez, Mississippi; Bayou 
Sara, Louisiana; Columbus and Houston, Texas. 

Genus PROMECOPS Schonherr. 

PROMECOPS ARCUATA Fabricius (NUBIFERA Gyllenhal). 

This species is not represented. 



NOTES ON THE PHILIPPINE POND SNAILS OF THE GENUS 
VIVIPARA, WITH DESCRIPTIONS OF NEW SPECIES. 



By Paul Bartsch, 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mollushs, U. S. National Museum. 



During the recent expedition of the LT. S. Bureau of Fisheries 
steamer Albatross to the PhiHppine Islands every opportunity was 
used to make extensive collections of fresh-water as well as land and 
marine shells. Among the fresh-water forms VivijJara proved espe- 
cially interesting, particularly those of Lake Lanao, Mindanao, where 
we secured no less than 6 gallons of living shells. It was from this 
lake that I described Vivipara lanaonis Bartsch,*^ with forms alpha 
to lambda, of which I now figure a fully adult shell, pi. 34, fig. 1. The 
greater part of the material collected by me in Lanao falls under this 
species and will form the basis of a special report to be published 
later. 

We were unable to find Vivipara polyzonata Frauenfeld anywhere 
in the Philippines, which makes it appear as if the species did not 
occur in the islands. 

VIVIPARA BULUANENSIS SOLANA, new subspecies. 
Plate 34, fig. 2. 

Shell similar to T^ buluanensis proper, but more depressed, with 
much less inflated whorls and much narrower umbilicus; base less 
rounded, with a well-marked angle at edge of the umbilicus; in V. 
buluanensis this is well rounded. 

The type and another specimen (Cat. No. 207777, U.S.N.M.) 
comes from Rio Similao, Mindanao. They were donated to the U. S. 
National Museum by Father Sola, the director of the Museo Ateneo, 
Manila, for whom it is named. The type has six whorls and meas- 
ures: Length, 30 mm.; diameter, 23 mm. Four additional speci- 
mens (Cat. No. 207778, U.S.N.M.), also from the Museo Ateneo, were 
collected at Rio Talisayan, Mindanao. Considerable more material 
from both of these localities is in the Museo Ateneo. 

« Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., vol. 32, 1907, pp. 145-147, figs. 1-10. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1 709. 

365 



366 PROCEEDIXa^ OF THE yATlO^AL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

VIVIPARA CEBUENSIS, new species. 
Plate 34, fig. 3. 

Shell broadly conic, exterior dark olive with a brownish tinge, inte- 
rior purplish, lighter at the edge, peritreme with a black edge. Early 
nuclear wdiorls small and smooth, forming a decided mucro; later 
ones like the succeeding turns. Post-nuclear whorls inflated, round- 
edly shouldered and appressed at the summit; marked by a slender 
raised peripheral thread and numerous fine spiral lirations, of which 
those on the well-rounded base are better developed than those occur- 
ring between the sutures. Those of the base are also of more even 
development and spacing than those of the spire. Base narrowly 
umbilicated; edge of umbilicus scarcely angulated; aperture very 
broadly oval, outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture within 
by transmitted light; columella partly reflected over the umbilicus. 

The type (Cat. No. 207782, U.S.N.M.) and a lot of specimens were 
found living by the writer in a boggy, brush-covered field, which 
in the wet season must form a rather extensive lake, near Compostela, 
Cebu. 

The type has six whorls and measures: Length, 31.8 mm.; diame- 
ter, 24.6 mm. 

VIVIPARA MINDANENSIS MAMANUA, new subspecies. 
Plate 34. fig. 4. 

Shell similar to I', ndndanensis in outline, but more openly umbili- 
cated. In the present form the malleations are confined to the base, 
while in minda7iensis proper they extend over the entire surface. 
The coarse spiral threads of mindanensis are obsolete in mamanua, 
which has the entire surface marked by very fine, closely spaced 
spiral lirations. 

The type and another specimen of V. m. mamanua (Cat. No. 207779, 
U.S.N.M.) were donated to the U. S. National Museum by the Museo 
Ateneo of Manila, which contains additional material. They come 
from Lake Mainit, MiiKhiiiao. 

The type has five whorls remaining, which measure: Length, 30.5 
mm.; diameter, 29.5 mm. 

VIVIPARA PARTELLOI, new species. 
Plate 34, figs. 5, H. 

Shell thin, l)roadly conic, with a strong perij)heral keel made up 
of triangular segments which give it a stellate appearance; color 
greenish yellow. Nuclear whorls eroded. Post-nuclear turns rather 
inflated between the keel and the appressed summit and well rounded 
on the base. Peripheral keel compressed and smooth on the early 
whorls; on the last two it is composed of a series of hollow triangular 
projections, arranged in a cone in cone manner, twelve of which occur 
upon the last whorl and nine upon the preceding. Sutures well con- 



NO. 1709. PHILIPPINE POND SNAILS— BARTSCH. 367 

stricted. Entire surface of periphery and base marked by strong 
lines of growth and exceedingly fine closely spaced spiral striations. 
Aperture subcircular; posterior angle obtuse; outer lip rendered 
} shaped by the peripheral keel, thin, columella strongly curved; 
peritreme continuous, black edged; interior bluish white striated 
with smoky lines. 

The type (Cat. No. 207780, U.S.N.M.) and a good series of speci- 
mens were collected by myself in Lake Lanao, Mindanao. The type 
has five whorls and measures: Length, 39.0 mm.; diameter, 33.8 mm. 

It gives me pleasure to name this species for Maj. Joseph M. T. 
Partello, through whose kindness my trip to Lake Lanao was made 
possible. 

VIVIPARA CLEMENSI, new species. 
Plate 34, figs. 7, 8. 

Shell very broadly conic, strongly shouldered, marked by many 
spiral cords; greenish horn-colored externally, streaked with darker 
varices, dark brown within, excepting the edge, which is whitish. 
Nuclear whorls small. Post-nuclear whorls very strongly, almost 
tabulatedly, shouldered at the summit, marked by three strong spiral 
keels, the first of which is at the periphery and the third at the angle 
of the shoulder, which is about halfway between the periphery and 
the summit; the second keel falls a little anterior to the middle of 
the space between the two. In addition to these strong keels the 
whorls are marked by two strong cords on the shoulder, while another 
of equal strength divides the space between the three keels. Base 
well rounded, marked by many subequal and subequally spaced wavy 
spiral threads. Entire surface of the shell marked by many fine 
decidedly retractive lines of growth and numerous very fine spiral 
striations. Aperture very broadly obovate; outer lip thin, rendered 
slightly wavy by the spiral keels showing the external sculpture 
within, the spiral keels and cords appearing as dark brown bands; 
columella moderately curved; peritreme edged with black. 

Two specimens out of a large lot (Cat. No. 207781, U.S.N.M.) are 
selected and figured as cotypes. They show the range of variation in 
the strength of sculpture; they have five whorls and measure respec- 
tively: Length, 35.0 and 34.3 mm.; diameter, 29.0 and 26.5 mm. 

They were collected by Rev. Joseph Clemens, at Camp Keithley, 
north end of Lake Lanao, Mindanao, and the species is named for him. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATE 34. 

All figures natural size. 

Fig.l. Vivipara lanaonis Bartsch. 

2. Vivipara buluanensis solana Bartsch. 

3 . Vivipara cebuensis Bartsch . 

4. Vivipara mindanensis mamanua Bartsch. 
5, 6. Vivipara partelloi Bartsch. 

7, 8. Vivipara clemensi Bartsch, 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 34 











Philippine Pond Snails of the Genus Viviparia. 

For explanation of plate see page 367. 



THE NORTH MIERICAN DRAGONFLIES (ODONATA) OF 
THE GENUS MACROMIA. 



By Edward Bruce Williamson, 

Of Bluff ton, Indiana. 



All the North American dragonflies referred in the past to 
Macromia and Eyoplithalmia are congeneric and should be referred 
to Macromia. DidyTnoys is very close to Macromia, and adequate 
venational characters for separating the two genera have not been 
detected. At the same time Didymops seems distinct enough by 
other characters, and the well-known North American species, 
transversa, is not discussed in this paper. I have seen only males of 
Azuma and Epoplithalmia and of but one species of each. They 
are separated at once from Macromia, among other characters, by 
the greatly developed genital hamules in the male and by several 
venational characters, among which may be mentioned the abrupt 
apical curving of M3 and M4 in both front and hind wings, and the 
posterior widening of the hind wing from the anal angle to the ter- 
mination of M4. (See figs. 1, 2.) Venational differences between 
Azuma and EpopTithalmia are slight and are mainly to be found in 
the relations of Cu and A in the front wing proximal to the triangle. 
The crossed or uncrossed condition of triangles and subtriangles, 
which has been used in the past in distinguishing Macromia and 
EpopTithalmia has no value here as a generic character. 

The American species of Macromia are distributed generally over 
the United States and southern and eastern Canada. So far as I 
know, M. illinoiensis is the only species frequentmg lakes as well 
as streams. The four species other than illinoiensis which I have 
seen in life prefer the larger streams, along which they course with 
swift flight at slight elevation, though they not infrequently leave 
the streams and pass out of sight over the tallest trees. They are 
most active during bright days, from about 9 or 10 a. m. till 3 or 4 
p. m. At Sandusky, Ohio, where illinoiensis has been taken in 
large numbers, many collect toward evenmg in the cedars on 
Cedar Point, several individuals frecjuently choosing the same twig 
for a resting place. It is probable that during the day these indi- 

Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1710. 
Proc.N M. vol. 37— 09 24 ob9 



370 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



viduals seek insect food at a considerable elevation and hence escape 
observation. Mr. R. A. Muttkowski observed, at Milwaukee, sev- 
eral individuals of a species which he believed was not illinoiensis 
resting in close proximity to each other on a tree branch at a con- 
siderable elevation. 

The height of the season for the species of Macromia seems to 
lie between the spring and autumn dragonfly seasons, when any 
possible competition with members of the same order would be at 
a minimum. Along the Wabash River during a hot day in early 
August odonate life seems almost suspended. It is on such a day 
that the collector may hope to find the largest number of individuals 
of this genus. 

Macromias are reported to be eaten by birds. 1 have never 
observed examples of this myself. Once a pair in copulation 
(apparently imcijica) was repeatedly attacked by a kingbird, which 




Fig. 1.— Wings of male Azuma eleg.^NvS, kkom Miyazaki, Japan. 

drove the dragonflies back and forth across the Wabash River 
several times, but the dragonflies eventually came to rest about 30 
feet from the ground, clinging to the under side of an oak limb, and 
escaped without any damage. It is probable that any destruction 
by birds occurs during the teneral condition of the dragonflies. It 
is at this period, and onl}^ then, so far as I have observed, that king- 
birds attempt to capture Anax Junius. I have seen a yellow-billed 
cuckoo make repeated and unsuccessfid attacks on an adult Epi- 
stschna heros. On the other hand, I once saw a catbird catch an adult 
Gomphus, but the bird pounced on the dragonfl}^ just as it alighted 
on a clay bank, and did not take* it on the wing. 

No specimens of Macromia have been seen by me which were 
infested with the red mite which occurs so commonly on many 
dragonflies. In a large number of specimens examined, only two 
show abnormal wings which have resulted from apparent mechanical 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAG0NFLIE8— WILLIAMSON. 



371 



injury during their development. In these two cases the abnor- 
mality is slight and would interfere but little if at all with the normal 
functions of the insect. 

The nymph of illinoiensis has been described by Cabot and Need- 
ham. I have collected neither nymphs nor exuvia? which have been 
specifically identified. In Steuben County, Indiana, I collected 
a few nymphs among tree rootlets in deep pools in a small woodland 
stream between two lakes, but I was unable to rear these. This 
paper deals only with imagoes. 

Material for this paper has been collected during the past several 
years. In 1900 Mr. C. C. Deam collected a Macromia at Blount 
Springs, Alabama, which I was unable to identify. Since then I 
have had a revision of the North American Macromias in mind, and 
recently I have borrowed specimens from several sources. The 
result is that I have before me a comparatively large number of 




Fig. 2.— Wings of male Epophthalmia, species ? fkom Burma. 

individuals. At the same time, the total number is not large and 
too few localities are represented. Macromias, with the exception 
of illinoiensis, are rare in collections. This is to be explained by 
their comparative rarit}' in nature, by their occurrence during a 
season when collectors are generally not actively engaged in field work, 
and by the difficulty of their capture because of their flight over 
deeper water and their swiftness. In life few insects rival them in 
beauty, power, and individuality. The few females taken, as com- 
pared with the number of males, is also an unfortunate factor which 
adds to the incompleteness of this paper. 

In the following descriptions I have endeavored to indicate espe- 
cially those characters which will aid in the recognition of the species 
as far as I am able to do so with the material before me. More formal 
and detailed descriptions at this time would, it seems to me, serve 
rather to confuse than emphasize the purpose of this paper. Since 



372 rROVEEDIXGi-i OF THE XATfOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

the purpose of this study was the preparation of a means of readily 
identifying specimens, repeated examination of the individuals before 
me has been disappointing in its failure to discover striking specific 
characters, and I have been tempted to return the borrowed material 
and not publish these notes at all. It is probable, however, that 
unless some new interest is taken b}^ collectors in the North American 
^lacromias the present difficulties will confront students of North 
American dragonflies for an indefinite period of time. In the hope of 
awakening some interest in these beautiful insects I find an excuse for 
the publication of this incomplete paper. 

I am indebted to the following persons for the loan of material: 
Mr. C. C. Adams, Mr. C. S. Brimley, Dr. Philip P. Calvert (from his 
collection and the collection of the Academy of Natural Science, Phil- 
adelphia), ]\Ir. RoUa P. Currie (collection U. S. National Museum), 
Mr. Samuel Henshaw (collection Museum of Comparative Zoology), 
Prof. J. S. nine (collection Ohio State University), Mr. R. A. Mutt- 
kowski (collection Milwaukee Public Museum), and Prof. E. M.Walker. 
Unless otherwise indicated, specimens are in my collection. The 
total number of specimens examinoil in the preparation of this paper 
is 197 — 141 males, 56 females. Nearly one-half of this number is 
Macromia ilUnoiensis. The wings of Azuma were photographed by 
Newton Miller; the other wing photographs were made by Professor 
Needham. 

MACROMIA T.ffiNIOLATA Rambur. 

Length of abdomen : Male, 56-61 mm.; average, 59; female, 57-61 
mm.; average, 59.9. Length of front wing: Male, 50.5-56 mm.; 
average, 54.1; female, 56-61 mm.; average, 58.3. Length of hind 
wing: Male, 48-53.5 mm. ; average, 52.1 ; female, 53-59 mm. ; aver- 
age, 55.6. Length of first tibia, male, 9 mm.; hind femur, male, 13 
mm. Length of tibial keel in length of tibia, male: First tibia, ^; 
middle tibia, \ to {. 

Antehumeral stripe present, extending about half or slightly less 
across the mesepisternum. Latero-ventral metathoracic carina brown, 
with or without a narrow yellow stripe anteriorly. Yellow ring on 
abdominal segment 2 narrowly interrupted dorsally (interruption not 
distinct in one male), not interrupted laterally. Costa dark colored. 

Afale. — Postclypeus clear greenish, labrum obscure dull yellow; 
dorsal spots on frons minute to 1 mm. in diameter, lateral spots 
wanting or indistinct. 

Abdominal spots on 3-6 small, rounded, separated dorsally, isolated 
laterally from any inferior pale areas, about equal in size on all the 
segments and occupying one-half or less the distance from the trans- 
verse carina to the base of the segment; on 7 the large quadrangular 
spot is separated by a narrow black ring from the base of the segment, 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICA'S! DRAGONFTJES^—WILLTAMfiON. 



373 



and the yellow is produced very briefly posteriorly across the trans- 
verse carina in a small projection on either side of the middorsal line 
or as a small median squarish continuation; a short subbasal yellow 
ring on 8, narrowly or broadly interrupted dorsally, not reaching the 
lower edge of the segment on either side, and bounded posteriorly 
by the transverse carina (excepting in one male where it is produced 
dorsally a little beyond the transverse carina); ventrally the pale 
areas are generally indistinct, most definite on 2, 

Wings hyaline, rarely with the faintest yellowish tinges over limited 
areas, and with the extreme apices faintly fumose; one specimen has 
the crossveins very narrowly edged with brown; no trace of costal 
or subcostal basal brown areas; stigma very dark reddish brown or 
black. (See fig. 3.) 

Abdominal appendages'^ distinctly different fromillinoiensis,Sibout 
3.5 mm. long (2.5 in iUinoiensis), the apex more acute, and in profile 
more upturned, with the lower edge very slightly convex or straight 
subapically, and parallel with the upper edge, not converging as in 




Fig. 3— Wings of male Mackomia t^niolata, Bluffton, Indiana, August 6, 1905. 

iUinoiensis; basal lateral external carina always present, but the 
tooth at its apical termination is always small and may be entirely 
wanting; a more or less distinct basal external pale area; inferior 
appendage of usual form, very slightly shorter than the superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but lateral spots on frons generally 
present, though less distinct than dorsal spots. 

Abdominal spots similar, but spot on 7 may be divided or not in 



a Generally in the North American Macromias the appendages lack that strict uni- 
formity of shape whicli is so marked a specific character in certain groups. Thegreatest 
variation in the shape of the superior appendages noticed by me is in the form of the 
apex. It would seem that this is due to the delicate nature of the appendages, espe- 
cially probably during teneral life, when they may suffer mechanical injuries, or to 
post-mortem changes, since not infrequently the superior ap])endagesof an individual 
are not symmetrical. Corduliinse generally have the superior appendages weakly 
chitinized. 



374 PROCEEDIXGf^ OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

the middorsal line (never divided in male), and the basal spots on 8 
are reduced to a trace or, more usually, are wanting altogether. 

Wings hyaline or tinged with yellowish, most strongly in a teneral 
specimen; in one or two cases the faintest trace of basal brown areas 
in the costal spaces; stigma 3^ellow-brown to black, depending on age. 
The examination of the wings of 7 females shows the following: Tri- 
angle of front wing, free 2, crossed 12; subtriangle of front wing and 
triangle of hind wing, crossed 14. 

Vulvar lamina apparently a slight thickening of the median pos- 
terior edge of the sternum, with a slight folding into a shallow trough. 
Abdominal appendages as in illinoiensis. 

This species can be confused only with the next. Differences are 
indicated in that description. It is the largest of our Macromias. 
For living colors see note under next species. 

Material examined. — Rosslyn, Virginia, July 30, 1899, female, G. N. 
Collins (U.S.N.M.). Washington, District of Columbia, July 10, 1902, 
female, W. C. Weeden (U.S.N.M.). Toledo, Ohio, August 1, 1894, 
male, J. S. Hine (O. S. U.). Napoleon, Ohio, July 9, 1898, female, 
J. S. Hine. Elkhart, Indiana, May 31, 1896, teneral female, in thick 
woods, R. J. Weith (P. P. C). Fort Wayne, Indiana, July 18, 1901, 
5 males, E. B. WiUiamson (1 U.S.N.M.) ; August 3, 1902, female, E. B. 
Williamson. Bluff ton, Indiana, August 6, 1905, male; August 8, 
1905, male; August 11, 1907, male; August 1, 1908, 2 males, 1 fe- 
male, E. B. Williamson. Without data, female (O. S. U.). Total, 
11 males, 7 females. 

MACROMIA WABASHENSIS, new species. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 51-57 mm.; average, 54.4. Length of 
front wing: Male, 47.5-50 mm.; average, 49. Length of hind wing: 
Male, 46-48 mm.; average, 47.3. Length of first tibia, male, 8 mm.; 
hind femur, male, 12.6 mm. Length of tibial keel in length of tibia, 
male: First tibia, f ; middle tibia, J — to ^.^ 

Very similar to tseniolata, but may be recognized by the following 
characters: Costa (and antenodals and postnodals) yellow or yellowish 
as far as stigma or tip of wings; labrum less obscured, face paler and 
brighter colored; lateral spots on frons distinct (indistinct in two 
specimens) ; dorsal abdominal spot on 8 similar in shape and extent, 
relative to the transverse carina, to the spot on 7 (in two specimens a 
very narrow dorsal basal yellow ring on 9). (The spot on 8, relative to 
the area of the segment, is really more extensive than on 7, since on 
7 there is a wider basal ring of black, though, compared with each 
other, the spot on 7 is larger than the spot on 8.) 

Wings tinged with pale yellowish or hyaline (in about equal 
numbers), the extreme apex frequently slightly fumose; in 4 speci- 
mens a trace of brown spots in basal costal space. (See fig. 4.) 



" In one specimen, which otherwise seems to belong here, the tibial keel of mid- 
dle tibia is \. 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGONFLIEti— WILLIAMSON. 



375 



Abdominal appendages similar to those of txniolata, but seen in 
profile the apices of the superiors are less curved and upturned, the 
apical portion between the median external tooth and the apex less 
inflated, approaching the form of illinoiensis; median lateral external 
tooth present in every case. 

From j)acijica, which it resembles in color of costa, wahashensis is 
separated at a glance by the shorter antehumeral stripe, the smaller 
abdominal spots (on 3-6 scarcely one-third as large), and the ob- 
scurely colored ventral surface of the apical segments, especially of 8. 
Differences in the appendages exist, but are scarcely definable. 

From georgina it is separated at a glance by the obscure and 
scarcely evident ventral markings on 7 and 9, which are isolated from 
the dorsal spots. 

From both georgina and australensis it is separated by the brown 
latero-ventral metathoracic carina, and it lacks the distinct pale ven- 
tral basal areas on 8 and 9 of australensis. 




Fig. 4.— Wings of male Maceomia wabashensis, Bluffton, Indiana, August 6, 1905. 

Unfortunately I have been unable to take a female of this species. 
Its habits at Blufl^ton seem indistinguishable from those of tseniolata, 
with wdiich species and pacifica it is associated. The three species 
are discussed under jjacijica. On living colors of txniolata and 
wabashensis I have the following note: Eyes, Hooker's green above; 
below, in front up to vesicle, and behind up to tubercle, dark nile 
green; yellow markings, chrome yellow; thorax black, with metallic 
green reflections; abdomen dead black, velvety in appearance. 

Type. — A male, in author's collection, taken at Bluft"ton, Indiana, 
June 28, 1908. 

Material examined. — All collected by E. B. Williamson, Blufi'ton, 
Indiana, June 15, 1902, male; August 6, 1905, male; August 8, 1905, 
2 males; August 11, 1907, 2 males; June 28, 1908, male; July 10, 1908, 
male; August 1, 1908, 2 males (1 P. P. C); total, 10 males. 



376 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

MACROMIA ALLEGHANIENSIS, new species. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 51-54 mm.; average, 52.6; female, 56 
mm. Length of front wing: Male, 47.5-48 mm. ; average, 47.8 ; female, 
52 mm. Length of hind wing : Male, 45.5-46 mm. ; average, 45.8; fe- 
male, 50 mm. Length of first tibia, male, 8. ,3 mm.; hind femur, male, 
12.1 mm. Length of tibial keel in length of ti})ia, male: First tibia, f ; 
middle tibia, ^ to I. 

Without trace of antehumeral thoracic stripe. Latero-ventral 
metathoracic carina very narrowly yellow posteriorly. Yellow ring 
on abdominal segment 2 interrupted dorsally, not interrupted at 
the auricles. Costa dark colored. 

Male. — Postclypeus paler than labrum, usually divided by brown 
into a central and two extremital pale areas; dorsal spots on frons 
small or wanting. 

Abdominal spots similar to illinoiensis, with the striking difference 
that the yellow on 7 encircles the segment, so that segments 7-9 have 
the inferior basal margin of each segment yellow; small spots are 
present on 5 in 5 of 7 specimens, and are absent on 6 in 6 of 7 speci- 
mens. 

Wings hyaline, without trace of color; stigma very dark brown or 
black. 

Abdominal appendages seen in profile similar to illinoiensis, but the 
superiors are constricted ventrally beyond the base and are slightly 
widened near the apex; in dorsal view the median lateral external 
tooth is present, but minute in every case. 

Female. — Dorsal spots on frons larger than in male, about 1 mm. 
in diameter; postclypeus slightly paler than labrum, both obscured 
with dark brown and black. 

Abdominal spots present on 3-6, smaller posteriorly and scarcely 
evident on 6 ; large spot on 7 not encircling the segment as it does in 
the male; inferior lateral basal spots on 7-9 indistinct or wanting, 
excepting on 8 in 1 female, where they are conspicuous; dorsally 
8-10 are uniform black. 

Wings in 1 specimen hyaline; in the other slightly tinged with 
brown and with veins brown edged, and with a basal trace of brown 
in the costal space of front wings and in the costal and subcostal 
spaces of hind wings; stigma black. Two specimens show: Triangle 
of front wing free, 1; crossed, 3; subtriangle of front wing free, 1; 
crossed, 3; triangle of hind wing crossed, 4. 

Vulvar lamina similar to that of illinoiensis but apparently smaller, 
shorter, and with the emargination narrower and deeper. Abdominal 
appendages similar to those of illinoiensis. 

This species has been confused with illinoiensis. The length of 
the first tibia in the female is about 9, as compared with 7 in illi- 
noiensis. The male may be at once recognized bv characters of the 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAG0NFLIE8— WILLIAMSON. 377 



tibial keel of middle tibia and abdominal markings mentioned above. 

1 have collected all the specimens I have seen but two. Until this 
study was begun I confused this species with illinoiensis, and I recall 
nothing striking in its habits in life. 

Types. — Male and female in author's collection, taken at Ohiopyle, 
Pennsylvania, June 24 and June 25, 1900, respectively. 

Material ^xa/mw(Z.— Dunbrooke, Virginia, July 31, 1899, male, 
R. P. Currie (U.S.N.M.). Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania, June 24, 1900, 

2 males, E. B. Wilhamson. June 25, 1900, 2 males, 1 female, E. B. 
Williamson (1 male P. P. C). June 26, 1900, male, E. B. Wilhamson 
(U.S.N.M.— Insect Book, pi. 42, fig. 7). September 8, 1901, female, 
J, L. Graf. Livingston, Kentucky, June 23, 1904, male, E. B. Wil- 
liamson. A damaged female, collection C. C. Adams, Cleveland, Vir- 
ginia, August 4, 1899, probably is this species. Total, 7 males, 2 
females. 

MACROMIA ILLINOIENSIS Walsh. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 47-52 mm.; average, 48.8; female, 
47-51 mm.; average, 49. Length of front wing: Male, 42-45.5 mm.; 
average, 44.1; female, 46-50 mm.; average, 48.2. Length of hind 
wing: Male, 40-45 mm.; average, 42.4; female, 45-49 mm.; aver- 
age, 47. Length of first tibia, male, 7 mm.; hind femur, male, 10.7 
mm. Length of tibial keel in length of tibia, male: First tibia. ^; 
middle tibia, ^ — to ^." 

Without trace of antehumeral thoracic stripe. Latero-ventral 
metathoracic carina brown. Yellow ring on abdominal segment 2 
narrow and interrupted at the auricles and dorsum to form 4 spots. 
Costa dark. 

Male. — Postclypeus distinctly paler, clearer in color than the 
labrum; dorsal spots on frons variable in size, always small, about 
0.5 mm. in diameter, and about half as large as the lateral spots; in 
one specimen dorsal spots are entirely wanting. (There is consider- 
able variation in the coloring of the labrum, especially in the extent 
of marginal and central black or dark brown, but this seems inde- 
pendent of locality). 

Abdominal spots on 3-6 never meeting in the median line, growing 
smaller posteriorly, present in only 2 cases on 6, and frequently 
absent on 4-6; present on 7 as a large dorsal basal spot, posteriorly 
reaching the transverse carina on either side, produced briefly pos- 
teriorly in the mid-dorsal line, not encircling the segment, but limited 
beneath on the sides by black; segment 8 with a small, narrow, trian- 
gular basal spot on either side, the bases of the triangles narrowly 
separated by the middorsal black line, variable in size and often 
reduced to mere traces; 8 and 9 (rarely 7) ventrally each with a basal 
yellowish spot on either side. 

a Very rarely shorter; I have examined 2 specimens in which it is f . 



378 



PROCEEDINOS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



Wings hyaline, venation black, in teneral specimens more or less 
tinged with yellowash; basal costal and subcostal brown spots often 
present, in their maximum development reaching the first antenodal; 
wings sometimes fumose beyond the stigma, especially along the 
anterior margin; stigma yellowdsh brown to black, apparently 
depending on age. (See fig. 5.) 

Abdominal appendages seen in profile: The upper edge of superiors 
nearly flat, a slight postero-dorsal elevation at the extreme apex; 
lower edge beyond the enlarged base nearly parallel to the upper 
edge, very slightly converging posteriorly, the apex truncate; seen 
from above the superiors are lyre-shaped, a short basal lateral 
external carina terminating in a small tooth near the middle of each 
appendage; this tooth or projection is variable in size, always small, 
and sometimes not apparent; on the ventral surface distal to this 




Fig. 5.— Wings of male Macromia illinoiensis, Waterloo, Iowa, June 8, 1906. 

tooth the appendage is denticulated; inferior appendage triangular, 
curved, and equaling or slightly exceeding the superiors. 

Female. — Postclypeus more obscured than in the male, especially 
at either extremity; spots on frons larger. 

Abdominal spots larger than in male, excepting on 7 and 8 ; smallest 
on 5 and 6, where they may be lacking entirely; 7 similar to male; 
dorsal spots absent on 8, excepting in 2 teneral specimens; inferior 
lateral basal spots indistinct or absent on 8 and 9. 

Wings hyaline, yellowish brown in several teneral specimens, veins 
black, brown margined in 2 specimens; basal costal and subcostal 
brown areas reaching beyond the second antenodal as a maximum; 
apical fumose area sometimes present, variable in extent, in one case 
extending basally to nodus; as m the male, the darkest winged speci- 
mens are teneral; stigma as in male. The wings of 10 females show 
the following: Triangle of front wing, free 6, crossed 14; subtriangle 
of front wing, free 4, crossed 16; triangle of hind wing, free 7, crossed 
13 (compare with same parts in 10 males as tabulated; in rows of 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAOONFLIES— WILLIAMSON. 



379 



postrigonal cells, as well as other areas, female Macromias have a 
larger number of cross- veins than the males). (See fig. 6.) 

Vulvar lamina about |-i length of segment 9, deeply and widely 
emarginate in a semicircle or right angle. Abdominal appendages 
equal or very slightly shorter than segment 10. 

I refer to illinoiensis two very similar males, one from Great Falls, 
Maryland (U.S.N.M.), and the other from Pennsylvania (Acad. Nat. 
Sci., Phila.). These have abdomen 51 mm. in length and hind wing 
46. The Maryland specimen has the tibial keels as usual in illinoiensis, 
but in the Pennsylvania specimen the keels of the first and middle 
tibiae are J + and J in length of the respective tibiae. The abdominal 
spots on 3-6 are conspicuous, those on 6 in the Maryland specimen 
being about 1 mm. in diameter, and in the Pennsylvania specimen 
about half as large. It is possible that a larger series would reveal 
that these 2 specimens are specifically distinct. 




Fig. 6.— Wings of female Macromia illinoiensis, Sandusky, Ohio, July 12, 1903. 

M. illinoiensis is the best known and most widely distributed of the 
North American Macromias. Professor Walker, who has observed the 
species carefully, has written me with reference to its habits, and his 
remarks are quoted in full: 

I have taken the species in but two localities, De Grassi Point, Lake Simcoe, and 
Go Home Bay, Georgian Bay (both Ontario, Canada), but I have also seen it on the 
wing on the North River, Algonquin Park, where I have also found the exuviae. At 
De Grassi Point the nymphs inhabit the most exposed part of the shore, where the clay 
banks are about 2-5 feet high and are strewn thickly along the water's edge with boul- 
ders of various sizes, which are pushed up in the spring by the ice. The water is clear 
and practically free from vegetation, except microscopic forms, and is subject to con- 
siderable wave action. The lake is about 2 miles broad at this point, where it forms 
part of Cookes Bay, the main body of the lake lying farther to the north. 

The nymphs climb up the clay banks, crawling sometimes 20 feet or mox'e from the 
water's edge, and then climb a tree, sometimes to a height of 7 or 8 feet, before trans- 
forming. I have never been at De Grassi Point during the season of transformation, 
and have never seen the imagoes in the oak grove, but always in the glades and along 
the roads back in the woods, half a mile or so from the spot where the exuviae are 



380 PROCEEDIXaSi OF THE NATIONAL MTTf^EVM. vol.37. 

found. I have also seen them flying low over the water within 50 yards of the shore, 
and have once or twice noticed the female flying very close to the water, striking the 
surface with the tip of the abdomen at intervals of a few yards. 

In the glades and wood roads I have taken only the males and have found them 
most plentiful during July, although they fly till the second or third week of August. 
The later hours of the afternoon, before sundown, seem to be their favorite time for 
foraging. They fly very swiftly, in a more or less regular beat up and down a road 
or opening in a wood, usually about 4 or 5 feet from the ground, but sometimes 15 
to 20 feet. They are seldom seen to rest. They disappear before sundown. 

At Go Home Bay I have found them in much larger numbers. The shores of this 
bay are low, well-rounded masses of Laurentian gneiss, exceedingly irregular in con- 
tour, and the bay is studded with innumerable rocky islands, more or less sparsely 
clothed with stunted white pine, red and white oak, aspen, white birch, junipers, 
Vacciniums of several species, and many other plants, including a great variety of 
mosses and lichens. The Macromias breed about the rocky shores in all but the most 
exposed situations. They do not occur in the islands outside the limits of Go Home 
Bay, i. e., not upon the barren, wind-swept islands of Georgian Bay. The island 
upon which the biological station is built lies at the mouth of Go Home Bay, and the 
Macromias were found upon it in considerable numbers, the nymphs transforming 
most commonly upon the more sheltered parts of the island. The boathouse, which 
was one of the favorite spots for transformation, is built in a little cove a few yards 
wide, where the shore is somewhat marshy, a few reeds and pipeworts growing in the 
water here and there. The nymphs would climb up the sides of the boathouse, usually 
to the edge of the roof, about 7 feet, but sometimes only 2 or 3 feet. I have also found 
exuviae upon the dwelling house, which is built upon a rocky hummock about 12 feet 
high and 30 feet from the water's edge. 

The first imagoes seen in the season of 1907 appeared July 4, but in 1908 they began 
to transform on June 26, and were coming out in considerable numbers on the 28th 
and 29th. The usual time for transformation is in the morning between 7 and 8, but 
we found one individual transforming in the evening of a cloudy day. For the first 
two weeks or so in Jidy the imagoes are easily taken, as their flight is weak, and they 
are frequently found hanging from the branches of trees and shrubs, the two sexes in 
about equal numbers. Later in the season, i. e., during the latter half of July and in 
August, they became pretty well distributed through the woods and were seen only 
occasionally about the island. At this time the females are seldom seen. The woods 
are for the most part sparse, with numerous open, rocky places, and the Macromias fly 
back and forth in these openings, frequenting especially openings partly surrounded 
by a thick growth of trees. There are many depressions in the rocks, which are filled 
with sphagnum and many bog plants. The openings are surrounded by a zone of 
black spruce, white birch, and scattered red maples, with an undergrowth of moun- 
tain holly, Gaylussacia resinosa, Vaccinium canadensc, and a few other plants. The 
open central parts of these swampy depressions are favorite resorts for Macromia, Epi- 
cordulia, and Tetragoncuria. 

At Walnut Creek, Putnam County, Indiana, where I took this 
species along the stream, the flight was very swift, restless, and 
erratic, though each individual seemed to have a more or less definite 
range. 

Material examined. — Province of Quebec, July 20, 1895, female, 
Abbe Begin (P. P. C). De Grassi Point, Ontario, July 19 and 31, 
1901, 2 males, E. M. Walker (E. M. W.); July 25, 1902, male, E. M. 
Walker (E. M. W.). Go Home Bay, Georgian Bay, Ontario, July 4, 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGONFLIES—WILLIAMi^ON. 381 

6, and 13, 1907, 2 males, 1 female, E. M. Walker (E. M. W.); June 
26, 28, 29, 30, July 3, 8, 9, and 30, 1908, 9 males, 9 females, E. M. 
Walker (E. M. W.). Ontario, August 3, 1906, male, E. M. Walker (E. 
M. W.). Orono, Maine, June 16, 17, 18, and 27, and August 7, 1898, 
11 males, 3 females, F. L. Harvey (9 males, 1 female, C. C. A. ; 1 male, 
1 female, P. P. C; 1 male, 1 female, E. B. W.). Intervale, New 
Hampshire, June, 1899, teneral male (C. C. A.). Sherborn, Massa- 
chusetts, male, A. L. Babcock (P. P. C). Woods Hole, Massachu- 
setts, August, 1875, male, Hagen (M. C. Z.). Oswego, New York, 
June 26, 1896, teneral male (U.S.N.M.). Fayette County, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 18, 1899, male, E. B. Williamson. Rockwood, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 29, 1900, female, E. B. Williamson (U.S.N. M.). Penn- 
sylvania, male (Acad. Nat. Sci., Phila.). Great Falls, Maryland, 
July 4, 1899, male (U.S.N.M.). Abingdon, Virginia, August 13, 1901, 
female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Cedar Bluff, Virginia, August 1, 
1899, female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Cleveland, Virginia, August 1, 
2, and 4, 1899, 8 males, 1 female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Oden, 
Michigan, August 11, 1907, male, L. A. Williamson. Milwaukee 
River, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, July 25, 1903, male (Mil. Publ. Mus.). 
Waterloo, Iowa, June 8, 1906, 3 males, 1 female, Newton Miller. 
Kappa, Illinois, August 5, 1893, 2 males, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). 
Belvidere, Illinois, June 29, 1888, female (P. P. C). Elkhart, Indi- 
ana, June 1 1 and July 4, 1896, male and female, R. J. Weith (P. P. C.) ; 
May 28, 1900, teneral female, R. J. Weith (U.S.N.M.). Fort Wayne, 
Indiana, July 18, 1901, June 17, 1902, 2 males, 1 female, E. B.William- 
son. Bluffton, Indiana, June 20, 1901, male,E. B. WiUiamson. Wal- 
nut Creek, Putnam County, Indiana, June 27, 1908, 6 males, E. B, 
Williamson. Columbus, Ohio, July 13, 1898, female, J. S. Hine 
(O.S.U.). Sandusky, Ohio, July 12, 1903, 2 males, 1 female, E. B. Wil- 
liamson; July, 1896, July 20, 1899, 3 males, J. S. Hine. Livingston, 
Kentucky, June 23, 1904, male, E. B. Williamson. Knoxville, Ten- 
nessee, female, Dr. Josiah Curtis (M. C. Z.). Big Creek, Tennessee, 
female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Sneedsville, Tennessee, Clinch River, 
August 16, 1899, female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Without data, 4 
males, 1 female (2 males, 1 female, O. S. U.; 1 male, M. C. Z.; 1 
male, C. C. A.). Total, 68 males, 29 females. 

MACROMIA AUSTRALENSIS, new species. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 50-52.5 mm.; average, 51.1; female, 
50-52 mm. ; average, 50.7. Length of front wing: Male, 44.5-48 mm. ; 
average, 45.7 ; female, 48-50 mm. ; average, 49. Length of hind wing: 
Male, 43-47 mm.; average, 44.2; female, 46.5-49 mm.; average, 47.5. 
Length of first tibia, male, 7.25 mm.; hind femur, male, 12 mm. 
Length of tibial keel in length of tibia, male: First tibia ^ to J— ; 
middle tibia ^— to f . 



382 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

A very short antehumeral stripe, 1.5-2 mm. long on the mesepi- 
sternum. Latero-ventral metathoracic carina yellow. Yellow ring 
on abdominal segment 2 not interrupted dorsally or laterally. Costa 
dark colored. 

Male. — Postclypeus and labrum similar to illinoiensis; dorsal spots 
on frons rounded, in size from scarcely perceptible to nearly 1 mm. in 
diameter, and always larger than the lateral spots. 

Abdominal spots on 3-6 larger than in illinoiensis, growing suc- 
cessively smaller posteriorly, the spot on 3 extended ventrally on 
either side to meet a longitudinal stripe on the ventral edge of the 
segment (in illinoiensis the dorsal spot is widely separated from the 
ventral longitudinal stripe) ; on 3-5 the spots on each segment are sepa- 
rated dorsally by the faintest line of black or the black line may be 
wanting; in two cases the spots on 6 meet dorsally; the greatest va- 
riation in size of spots is on 6, where the spots may be widely sepa- 
rated and about 0.5 mm. long, or joined dorsally and 1 .5 mm. in length ; 
spots never wanting on 3-6 ; 7 similar to illinoiensis; spot on 8 ^ to f 
as long as on 7, divided dorsally in only one case, and then by the 
merest line of black. 

One male from Wister, Oklahoma, is very dark and may not belong 
here; the tibial keels are like australensis, but the coloration is more 
like illinoiensis. However, the head is like a very dark illinoiensis, 
while the abdomen has an unusual amount of yellow for illinoiensis; 
the antehumeral stripe seems to be wanting and the yellow ring on 2 
is narrowly interrupted dorsally and laterally; well developed spots 
are present on 6 and 8. In australensis 7 may be yellow or not on 
the ventral basal edge of the segment; in any case the yellow is less 
distinct than on 8 and 9. 

Wings hyaline, without trace of color anywhere even in teneral 
specimens; stigma black. 

Abdominal appendages indistinguishable from illinoiensis. 

Female. — Head similar to illinoiensis, but dorsal spots on frons 
apparently not larger than in male. Abdomen similar to male, but 
spots on 3-6 more nearly uniform in size, sliglitly smaller on 6, 1.5-2 
mm. long on 3-5 ; dorsal spot present on 7 ; inferior lateral basal spots 
present on 7-9. 

Wings hyaline, short brown basal streaks in the costal or costal 
and subcostal areas; apex of wings slightly fumose in two specimens; 
stigma yellowish brown to black. The wings of three females show 
the following: Triangle of front wing, free 1, crossed 5; subtriangle of 
front wing, free 1, crossed 5; triangle of hind wing, crossed 6. 

I can not be sure of the shape of the vulvar lamina; it seems to be a 
very short, scarcely emarginate plate; appendages similar to illinoi- 
ensis. 

Types. — Male and female, author's collection taken at Wister, Okla- 
homa, Poteau River, Frank Collins, August 3, 1907, 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAOONFLIES— WILLIAMSON. 383 

Material examined. — Wister, Oklahoma, Poteau River, August 3, 
5, and 6, 7 males, 2 females, Frank Collins. Dallas, Texas, male and 
female. Ball (M. C. Z.). Total, 8 males, 3 females. 

Under this name I have included 3 males, which future material 
and study may reveal are specifically distinct. 

Ijength of abdomen, 50.5-54 mm. Length of front wing, 46.5-48 
mm. Length of hind wing, 44-47 mm. Length of first tibia, 7-7.5 
mm. ; hind femur, 11-12 mm. Length of tibial keel in length of tibia: 
First tibia, ^ — to h; middle tibia, |. 

The yellow ring on 8 is narrowed laterally, widened dorsally and 
ventrally, and encircles the segment; in all the other material of 
australensis the dorsal and ventral yellow areas on 8 are separated by 
black, excepting in one individual where the abdominal spots are 
very large with the yellow spot on 6 not divided in the median dorsal 
line by black; in the 3 males under discussion the spots on 6 vary 
from 0.5-1 mm. in diameter and are distinctly to widely separated in 
the middorsal line. The stigma is yellow-brown to black. 

Material examined. — Hyattsville, Maryland, July 4, 1899, male, J. S. 
Hine. Gynn's Button Mill, Maryland, September 20, male (M. C. Z.). 
Blount Springs, Alabama, July 18, 1890, male, Charles C. Deam. 
Total, 3 males. 

MACROMIA GEORGINA de Selys. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 50.5-54 mm.; average, 51.8; female, 54 
mm. Length of front wing: Male, 47.5-50 mm.; average, 48.8; fe- 
male, 53 mm. Length of hind wing: Male, 46-48 mm.; Average, 
47; female, 51 mm. Length of first tibia, male, 8 mm.; hind femur, 
male, 12 mm. Length of keel in length of tibia, male: First tibia, |; 
middle tibia, j to f . 

Humeral stripe present, about 3 mm. long on the mesepisternum; 
otherwise similar to australensis. 

Male. — Very close to australensis; the abdominal spots on 3-6 
decreasing in size very slightly posteriorly ; spots on 7 and 8 encircling 
the segments. Abdominal appendages similar to australensis and 
illinoiensis, but the superiors have a small, distinct, basal, dorsal yel- 
low area, and the inferior appendage is distinctly paler than the 
superior appendages. 

Female. — Separated from australensis by the longer antehumeral 
thoracic stripe and the larger abdominal spots, especially on 3-5 
(1-2 mm. long in australensis; 1.5-2.5 in georgina). The vulvar 
lamina is a very short plate with converging sides, broadly and shal- 
lowly emarginate. 

This is the only species in the material before me to which, I be- 
lieve, EpophtJialmia georgina de Selys can be referred. In the female 
the stigma is yellow-browTi, the costa obscure yellowish brown (in 
the male the costa has the basal median area yellow, but this yellow 
disappears with the narrowing of the costa which beyond this point 



384 PROClJhJUIXdH OF THE XATIOXAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 



is dull brown). There is nothing in de Selys's description and Mar- 
tin's recent figure which conflicts with the specimen before me unless 
it be the form of the vulvar lamina. The triangles of all four wings 
and the subtriangles of the front wings are all crossed. 

To this species I refer a badly faded female in the Museum of Com- 
parative Zoology labeled ''Texas," though in this specimen all tri- 
angles and subtriangles are free. 

Material examined. — Raleigh, North Carolina, July 31 and August 
30, 1902, August 9, 1904, June 30, 1905, and September 12, 1907, 
4 males, 1 female, C. S. Brimley (C. S. B.) ; 1 male with last 5 ab- 
dominal segments gone. Texas, female (M. C. Z.). Total, 4 males, 
2 females. 

MACROMIA PACIFICA Hagen. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 48.5-53 mm.; average, 50.9; female, 
46.5-53.5 mm.; average, 50.6, Length of front wing: Male, 43.5-50 
mm.; average, 47.2; female, 46-53 mm.; average, 49.3, Length of 
hind wing: Male, 41.5-48 mm,;' average, 45.3; female, 44.5-49.5 mm.; 
average, 47.3, Length of first tibia, male, 7.5 mm.; hind femur, 
male, 11.8 mm. Length of tibial keel in length of tibia, male: First 
tibia, f to I — ; middle tibia, J to f . 

Antehumeral thoracic stripe well developed, separated at its upper 
end from the antealar sinus by about its own width, Latero-ventral 
m«tathoracic carina brown or rarely very narrowly yellow. Yellow 
ring on abdominal segment 2 very wide, narrowly interrupted dorsally 
by a posteriorly projected middorsal black line which in a few males 
does not completely traverse the yellow. Costa distinctly yellow to 
the wing tip. 

Male. — Postclypeus green-yellow, labrum dull yellow; dorsal spots 
on frons occupying the entire surface but the median sulcus, continu- 
ous just in front of the antennae with the lateral spots (rarely separated 
by brown, the separation narrowest posteriorly) ; lateral spots are 
about equal in size or smaller than the dorsal spots. 

Abdominal spots large, but on 3-6 divided dorsally by a narrow 
black line; the spots occupy the area anterior to the transverse carina 
on each segment but 7 and 8, where they are continued posteriorly, 
and in length of each segment are about as follows: On 3, ^ to 4 + ; 
on 4, h —to J; on 5, J + ; on 6, J; on 7, i to §; on 8, | to J; the dor- 
sal separation is widest on 3 and the spots on this segment are sepa- 
rated from the base of the segment by black about 1 mm. wide; on 
4-6 the spots are quadrangular and are separated from the base of 
each segment by about 0.5 mm.; on 7 and 8 the spots reach the base 
of each segment; spots on 7 and 8 have a triangular posterior projec- 
tion on either side of the middorsal line; spots on 3 and 7 are sepa- 
rated from the inferior spots on each segment or are narrowly con- 
nected just anterior to the transverse carina; spot on 8 encircles the 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGONFLIES— WILLIAMSON. 



385 



segment; 9 usually shows the vestige of a basal spot on either side of 
the middorsal line; beneath 8 is always spotted basally on either side, 
9 usually, and 7 obscurely, if at all. 

Wings hyaline to strongly tinged with yellowish, usually slightly 
tinged; rarely a minute basal brown spot in the costal space; stigma 
black. (See fig. 7.) 

Ai)pendages similar to illinoiensis but slightly straighter and longer 
(2.5 mm. in illinoiensis; 3 mm. in iKicijica) ; median external tooth 
small but always present; superiors and inferior about equal in 
length; the superiors with an external basal yellow spot, variable in 
size. 

Female. — Similar to male ; yellow ring on 2 always interrupted dor- 
sally; other spots as in the male bounded i)osteriorly by the trans- 
verse carina, excepting on 7 and 8, and sometimes 6, when they are 
I)roduced slightly posteriorly; the ventral spots on the posterior seg- 




FiG. 7.— Wings of male Maceomia pacifica, Bluffton, Indiana, August 19, 1906. 

ments are plainly present only on 8 and sometimes not there; dorsal 
and inferior lateral spots on 3, 7, and 8 separated. 

Wings hyaline to deeply yellowish tinged, the color most pro- 
nounced distal to the triangles; basal costal spots small, not reaching 
the first antenodal in any case. The wings of 7 females show the 
following: Triangle of front wing, free 7, crossed 7; subtriangle of 
front wing, free 1, crossed 13; triangle of liind wing, free 7, crossed 7. 
Vulvar lamina not exceeding the eighth segment, developed only as 
a short, troughlike fold at the apex of the sternum. Abdominal 
appendages similar to illinoiensis. 

I have been able to positively identify this species through the 
kindness of Mr. Henshaw, who loaned me Hagen's type as well as 
the types of annulata. The type of pacijica is a collection of frag- 
ments (about 20 in number) as stated by Hagen. These are carefully 
arranged and glued on a piece of cardboard and are sufficient to 
identify the species. 

Proc.N.M.vol.37— 09 25 



386 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MU8EJM. vol. .37. 

In pacifica, annulata, and magnifica the dorsal spots on 4-6 occupy 
all or nearly all the area between the base of each segment and the 
transverse carina. The only s])ecies with which annulata and iKicifica 
might be confused in length of antehumeral thoracic stripe is georgina, 
which has the abdomen with relatively much more black, the yellow 
on 4-6 widely separated from the base of each segment. Both mag- 
nifica and georgina have the antehumeral thoracic stripes shorter than 
in annulata and pacifica. Magmfica is, moreover, distinct by a number 
of characters (see description of magmfica), leaving annulata as the 
only species which might be confused with pacifica. In annulata and 
magnifica the dorsal stripes on 4-6 are not interrupted with black in 
the middorsal line, and the latero-ventral metathoracic carina is 
broadly yellow. For other characters, see descriptions of annulata 
and magnifica. There is no doubt that fiavipennis Walsh is a syno- 
nym of pacfica and not of annulata as Hagen supposed. In Walsh's 
descri])tions of illinoiensis and fiavipennis , each descrii)tion based on 
a single female, his descriptions of the vulvar lamina refer to another 
structure. 

M. pacifica is readily recognized at some distance on the wing at 
Bluffton, where it is associated with tseniolata and wahashensis (during 
recent years I have not taken illinoiensis here). In flight one gets 
the impression of an insect largely yellow in color. The yellow is 
conspicuous on the other 2 species, but to no such extent as on pacifica. 
M. illinoiensis gives one the impression of a black inject largely 
yellow at the apex of the abdomen. The same is undoubtedly true 
of allegJianiensis. 

The Wabash River at Bluffton during recent years has been over- 
run at the ri])ples by willow herb, so the river in summer is reduced 
to a succession of pools of greater or less length. On the banks 
Hibiscus militaris has become thoroughly established at the water's 
edge. These pools seem to l)e an itleal home for the Macromias. 
(See pis. 35 and 36.) 

The flight of pacfica is generally less swift than that of txniolata 
and wahashensis and it ranges less widely, patrolling possibly only 
one ])ool, while the others return to the same point only after longer 
intervals. Individuals of all 3 species follow the same track over 
and over, crossing the river at a certain point, returning over a certain 
patch of willow herb, turning out from the shore line at a certain 
clump of hibiscus, and going and coming over the same or nearly the 
same course and not following the pools in a circular manner. More- 
over, individuals of successive generations have followed the same 
course as their predecessors, as I have observed at the pools where I 
have found individuals most numerous and where I have collected 
for several years. The configuration of vegetation and water is a 
positive factor in determining the course of flight. Much of my sue- 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGON FLIES— WILLI AMBON. 387 

cess in collecting these dragonflies is due to a recognition of this fact, 
for the knowledge that one is waiting for the appearance of a dragon- 
fly at the particular point near which that insect will return, even 
though a great breadth of water and willow herb lies all about, 
instills in one that patience which is essential in collecting these 
insects. The use of the word success in the above sentence may be 
questioned ; many fruitless days have been spent wading the Wabash. 

Males capture the females over the water, sometimes chasing them 
to great heights. The i)airs come to rest in trees or bushes. The 
females oviposit unattended by the males, following the shore line 
ver}^ closely, ranging back and forth over a short distance, and hover- 
ing and striking the abdomen into the water. Fights between males 
are not rare, though I am not sure that males of the same species 
fight. In the few cases I have been able to determine certainly 2 
species have been involved. 

Under certain conditions specimens of Corduleg aster have been 
reported as being very easily taken with an insect net. The few Cor- 
dulegasters I have captured in flight have not been such easy prey, 
and at the present time I can not distinguish Macromias and Cordule- 
gasters on the wing. At the same time I have never taken Macro- 
mias at such small streams as I have found C'ordulegasters, nor have 
I taken Cordulegasters at such larger streams (see pis. 35, 36) as 
Macromias frequent. 

Material examined. — Hagen's type, Pacific Railroad survey, lat. 
38°, mafe (M. C. Z.). Waco, Texas, May 25, male and female (M. 
C. Z.), Milwaukee, Wisconsin, Milwaukee River, cement mills, July 
2, 1902, teneral female, V. Fernekes (Mil. Publ. Mus.). Mahomet, 
Illinois, June 10, 1898, teneral female, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Kappa, 
Illinois, July 13, 1895, male, C. C. Adams (C. C. A.). Bluffton, Indi- 
ana, June 15 and August 3, 1902, male, 2 females; August 8 and 13, 
1905, 2 males; August 19, 1906, male; August 11, 1907, 4 males; 
June 28, July 10, ami August 1, 1908, 14 males, 2 females. Total, 
25 males, 7 females. 

MACROMIA ANNULATA Hagen. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 52-54 mm.; average, 52.6; female, 
52-55 mm. Length of front wing: Male, 45-48.5 mm.; average, 
46.5; female, 50-52 mm. ; average, 51.3. Length of hind wing: Male, 
44-46 mm.; average, 45; female, 48-50 mm.; average, 49. Length 
of first tibia, male, 7.5; hind femur, male, 12. Length of tibial keel 
in length of tibia, male: First tibia, ^; middle tibia, |. 

Antehumeral thoracic stripe long, separated above from the ante- 
alar sinus by about its own width or slightly more. Latero-ventral 
metathoracic carina broadly 3^ellow. Yellow ring on abdominal seg- 
ment 2 very wide, uninterrupted (in one specimen there is a faint, 
middorsal, longitudinal pale-brown streak) ; apex of segment 1 laterally 



388 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUtiEUM. vol.37. 

with a yellow streak (the only North American Macromia in which 
segment 1 is not laterally concolorous). Costa distinctly yellow to 
the wing tip. Femora pale basally. 

Of this species I have seen only Hagen's 6 types, 3 of each sex, 
kindly loaned me by Mr. Henshaw. It is possible that the color of 
these specimens may be very different from the colors in life. How- 
ever, no other basis for description than these specimens is before me. 

Hale. — General color pale reddish brown, darkest on abdominal 
segments 3-6. Face very light yellow, nearly white, frons in front 
and anteclypeiis slightly darker; lips and rear of eyes, excepting the 
dorsal third, the same pale color; a very narrow brown streak in 
sulcus of frons; the lateral pale areas extensive and extending to 
postclypeus; vesicle pale (a character it shares only with magnifica). 

Abdominal spots large, not separated dorsally on 3-8, otherwise 
similar to 2>«ci^<"«, but less distinct (i.e., less sharply defined) and the 
merest trifle more separated b}^ dark color from the base of each seg- 
ment; beneath 7-10 are largely pale colored, especially basally; dorsal 
spot on 3 broadly connected posteriorly with the inferior pale longi- 
tudinal area, leaving only a basal ring and a posterior projection from 
this on either side dark colored; spots on 7 and 8 encircling the 
segments basally. 

Wings hyaline; stigma yellowish brown. 

Abdominal appendages distinctly diiTerent from those of other 
species ; seen from above the superiors are straighter and much wider 
beyond the median external tooth than in any other species; in 
facifica, for example, they taper continually from the tooth to the 
apex, while in annulata they widen from the tooth to before the apex, 
which is broadh^ rounded; seen in profile the same is true, and instead 
of the upper and lower edges converging slightly there is a distinct 
subapical inferior dilatation; there is an indistinct, pale, dorsal basal 
area; the inferior appendage is slightly but distinctly shorter than 
the superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male, but the dorsal spots on 4 are dis- 
tinctly and on 5 and 6 indistinctly connected just anterior to the 
transverse carina with extensive but indefinite and suffused inferior 
lateral longitudiiud stripes; there are faint traces of dorsal basal spots 
on 9 and 10. 

"Wings hyaline, the faintest trace of basal brown in the costal 
spaces. Three females show all triangles and subtriangles free. 

Vulvar lamina apparently much as in pacifica, not distinct, but 
there seems to be a slight projection posteriorly on either side of the 
trough. Abdominal appendages similar to illinoiensis. 

Material examined. — Pecos River, June 26, July 13, August 4, and 
1 female without date, 3 males, 3 females. Captain Pope (M. C. Z., all 
bearing Hagen's red and Mdiite card type labels). Total, 3 males, 3 
females. 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGONFLIE^— WILLIAMSON. 389 

MACROMIA MAGNIFICA McLachlan. 

Length of abdomen: Male, 46.5-49 mm.; female, 50-51.5 mm. 
Length of front wing: Male, 45-46 mm.; female, 48 mm. Length of 
hind wing: Male, 44 mm.; female, 46 mm. Length of first tibia, 
male, 7.5; hind femur, male, 12-12.5. Length of tibial keel in 
length of tibia, male: First tibia, |; middle tibia, keel wanting. 

Antehumeral thoracic stripe long and wide, shorter than in annu- 
lata and imcijica, and separated above by about 2 mm. from the an- 
tealar sinus. Latero-ventral metathoracic carina broadly yellow. 
Yellow ring on abdominal segment 2 w4de, interrupted in the mid- 
dorsal line (in one specimen narrowly continuous over middorsal line 
at the extreme apex of the ring), interrupted laterally at level of 
auricles and with little or no pale color ventral to the level of the 
auricles. Costa distinctly yellow to stigma or wing tip. 

Male. — Frons in front, sulcus above, anteclypeus, and base of 
labrum reddish brown; rear of eyes shining black, as usual in the 
genus; remainder of head pale, nearly white, including the vesicle; 
lateral spots on frons about the same size as dorsal spots with which 
they are continuous. 

Thorax rich reddish brown, apparently pruinose; dark area of 
abdomen darker colored. Dorsal abdominal spots large, excepting 
basal spots on 9-10, which are small and indistinct; on 3-8 separated 
from base of segment by little more than a line of black; on 7 and 8 
extended posteriorly beyond the transverse carina; not interrupted 
dorsally on 3-8; dorsal spot connected with inferior lateral stripe 
only on segment 8 and very narrowly there (segment 3 in magnijica 
is thus very differently patterned from the same segment in annulata) ; 
distinct ventral basal spots on 8 and 9. 

Wings hyaline; stigma very dark brown or black. 

Abdominal appendages distinctly different from those of all other 
American species; the superior appendages seen from above straighter, 
without trace of median external tooth, the apices less divergent; seen 
in profile they are heavier just beyond the base than in iUinoiensis and 
the upper and lower edges converge continuously to the apex; there 
is a distinct, pale, basal external area on each superior; the inferior is 
broad, triangular, and slightly shorter than the superiors. 

Female. — Similar to the male; dorsal pale spot on 3 produced pos- 
teriorly more or less beyond the transverse carina (the merest hint 
of this shows in the male; moreover, there is on 4-6 in both sexes a 
very slight, scarcely distinct, posterior projection of the dorsal spots 
beyond the transverse carina) ; dorsal spot on segment 3 narrowly in- 
terrupted in the middorsal line; all dorsal spots isolated from inferior 
lateral pale areas. 

Wings hyaline or slightly tinged with faint yellowish at base and 
anteriorly beyond the nodus; stigma colorless, yellowish brown or 



390 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

black, depending on age. Three females show all triangles and sub- 
triangles free; and 8 antenodals in 4 liind wings, and 9 in 2. 

Vulvar lamina forklike, about one-seventh length of 9; abdominal 
appendages as in illinoiensis. 

In its venational and accessory sexual characters, and the absence 
of a tibial keel on the middle tibia in the male, this species stands the 
most sharply defined of all North American Macromias. 

Material examined. — Fresno, California, June 11 and July 21, 1900, 
2 females, E. A. Schwarz (U.S.N.IM.). Tucson, Arizona, 2 males 
(M. C. Z.). Arizona, Cornell Univ. Lot 35, Morrison, female (M. C. Z.). 
Total, 2 males, 3 females. 

VENATIONAL CHARACTERS OF NORTH AMERICAN SPECIES OF 
MACROMIA (MALES). 

The tabulation below is based on the following material: 

M. tseniolata, 10 specimens; 1 Toledo, Ohio; 5 Fort Wayne, Indiana; 
4 Bluffton, Indiana. 

M. wahashensis, 10 specimens; all Bluffton, Indiana. 

M. aUeghaniensis, 5 specimens; 3 Ohiopyle, Pennsylvania; 1 Dun- 
brooke, Virginia; 1 Livingston, Kentucky. 

M. illinoiensis, 10 specimens; 2 De Grassi Point, Ontario; 1 Orono, 
Maine; 1 Fayette County, Pennsylvania; 1 Sandusky, Ohio; 1 Fort 
Wayne, Indiana; 1 Putnam County, Indiana; 1 Livingston, Ken- 
tucky, 1 Milwaukee, Wisconsin; 1 Waterloo, Iowa. 

M. australensis, 7 specimens; 6 Wister, Oklahoma; 1 Dallas, Texas. 

M. australensis?, 3 specimens; 2 Maryland; 1 Alabama, 

M. georgina, 4 specimens; Raleigh, North C^arolina. 

M. pacijica, 10 specimens; 8 Bluffton, Indiana; 1 Waco, Texas; 1 
Kappa, Illinois. 

M. annulata, 3 specimens; Pecos River. 

M. magnifica, 2 specimens; Tucson, Arizona. 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAOONFLIES— WILLIAMSON. 



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396 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Notes. — The variation in the number of cubito-anal cross- veins in the front wing 
is in the region distal to the level of the arculus in every case but 1 wing of tseniolata 
and 3 wings of wabashensis. 

The curving of the first cubito-anal cross-veins with the convex side distal is con- 
stant and is most marked in the hind wing. 

In one front wing of txniolata there is a basal antenodal of the second series. 

Every specimen studied has 3 cubito-anal cross- veins in the hind wings, excepting 
one wing of illinoiensis, which is evidently a freak. 

EXPLANATION OF PLATES. 

Plate 35. 

View looking up the Wabash River, 3 miles above Bluffton, Indiana. Six-Mile 
Creek empties into the river just above the patch of willow herb {Epilobium augusti- 
folium) in which man is standing. A short, narrow channel through the willow herb, 
which grows out from the river bank on either side, is shown. This channel connects 
two long pools, the lower of which is about 300 yards long, the upper about 150 yards. 
These pools are closed at their lower and upper ends, respectively, with dense and 
extensive growths of willow herb, through which the river flows in each case in a 
narrow tortuous channel. The flow of water through the channels is, as compared 
with the flow in the pools, relatively swift, and brooklike, and it is along the longer, 
narrower, and swifter channels that Hetserina americana occurs in greatest abundance, 
though it ranges over the entire river course. 

The pools are margined at the water's edge with military hibiscus, lizard tail, and 
willows, with frequent patches of willow herb, the last extending in some cases nearly 
to mid stream. All of these plants have become conspicuous in recent years. Willow 
herb was formerly confined to small areas along the banks and at ripples, and fifteen 
years ago the hibiscus was unknown here. Now it is next to the willow herb in con- 
spicuousness along the river. These two plants, finding a congenial habitat through 
profound changes in the river, due apparently to a lowered water level, have them- 
selves profoundly modified and are continuing to modify the nature of the stream. 
Lizard tail is less abundant. 

The bottom of the river where washed clean is limestone, and the depth of the pools 
is 3 to 3^- feet. The willow herbs break the current and form frequent mud flats over 
the river bed. 

The two pools are favorite Macromia haunts and the four species, tx-niolata, rrabash- 
ensis, illinoiensis, and pacifira, have been taken hero, illinoiensis, however, only once. 
The rare gomphine, Dromogomphus spoliatus, also finds these pools congenial and 
seems to be increasing in numbers. Associated with the Macromias and Dromogom- 
phus spoliatus as imagoes are Argia putrida, very abundant, Argia apicalis and tibialis 
and Enallagma exsulans, less numerous, and occasionally Libellula pulchella, and still 
more raroly Plathemis lydia."^ But the agrionines and libellulines are cosmopolitan 
in their hal)itats and occur also at the channels with Hetserina amerieana. 

Photograph taken on July 11, 1909, about 9 a. m., cloudy, slight breeze. Newton 
Miller and E. B. Williamson. 

Plate 3G. 

Camera placed where man stands in willow herbs in plate 35. View of the length of 
the lower pool, looking downstream. 

a The above plants and dragonfli&s are not offered as a complete list. Only the more numerous and 
conspicuous species are named. In this connection possibly Perithemis domitia and worn l^elated indi- 
viduals of Gomphus graslincllus as well as the very rare Stylurus spiniceps should he mentioned. 



NO. 1710. NORTH AMERICAN DRAGONFLIES— WILLIAMSON. 397 

SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES. 

Since the foregoing manuscript was prepared more collecting has 
been done at Bluffton, Indiana, and the following material has been 
taken along the Wabash River: 
Macro miatseniolata. August 1, 1909, 1 male. 
Macromia wahashensis. July 25, August 1 and 5, 1909, 10 males, 1 

female. 
Macromia illinoiensis. July 30, 1909, 1 male. 
Macromia pacijica. July 25 and 30, August 1, 5, and 8, 1909. 18 

males, 1 female. 

The association of the four above-named species along the Wabash 
River at Bluff ton during 1909 is thus established. 
Macrornia wahashensis. Female. 

Length of abdomen, 58 mm.; hind wing, 52 mm. 

Lateral and dorsal spots on frons distinct, all about equal, rounded, 
1 mm. in diameter. Dorsal thoracic stripes extending about two- 
thirds across the mesepisternum. Latero-ventral metathoracic carina 
with a narrow, interrupted, and obscured yellow line. 

Yellow ring on abdominal segment 2 narrowly interrupted dorsally, 
the interruption widest anteriorly. Dorsal spots present on 3-8, 
each spot divided longitudinally in the median line to form 2 spots, 
excepting on segment 7. As compared with the female of txniolata 
the following differences may be noted: In segment 3, in wahashensis, 
the spots extend anteriorly from the transverse carina more than one- 
half the distance to the base of the segment ; in tseniolata scarcely 
more than one-third. In segment 4, in wahashensis, the spots are 
about 4 mm. long and extend to within 1 mm. of base of segment; 
in tseniolata the spots are about one-half as long, and extend scarcely 
one-half the distance from transverse carina to base of segment. 
Segments 5 and G in wahashensis have spots relatively as large as on 
segment 4; tseniolata, in the same way, has the spots on these seg- 
ments relatively the same size as on segment 4 of tseniolafei. Seg- 
ment 7 in wahashensis not divided medianly, produced posteriorly 
beyond the transverse carina as a small triangle on either side of 
the median line; in tseniolata the spot is divided longitudinally in 
the median line and is not produced posteriorly beyond the trans- 
verse carina. On 8 in wahashensis there is a distinct subbasal spot, 
divided in the middorsal line, consisting on either side of 2 smaller 
spots, each about 1 mm. in its greatest diameter; the anterior and 
lateral one of these is the homologue of the spots on the other seg- 
ments, the posterior and more dorsal one is the homologue of the 
projection posteriorly beyond the transverse carina of the spot 
on 7; in fully adult tseniolata there seems to be no trace of this spot 
on 8. 



398 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Wings hyaline, with indistinct, indefinite and scattered fumose 
areas; scarcely a trace of faint basal brown. Costa yellow to the 
stigma; stigma black. Antenodals of front wing 18-19, hind wing 
12; postnodals of front wing 10; hind wing 11; triangle of front 
wing free, of hind wing crossed on one side, free on the other; sub- 
triangle of front wing crossed. 

Vulver lamina a short median thickening of the posterior edge of 
the sternum, slightly folded into a trough; on either side of the 
median line at the posterior end of the sternum is a small, rounded, 
triangular projection about 0.25 mm. long and twice as wide at its 
base, pale, slightly chitinized. These two projections very narrowly 
continuous basally in the median line. 

Described from a recently killed specimen taken along the Wabash 
River, just above the mouth of Six Mile Creek, Blufl^ton, August 1, 
1909. The spots on segment 8 have faded to black in drying. This 
type female is in the author's collection. 



U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 35 




U. S. NATIONAL MUSEUM 



PROCEEDINGS, VOL. 37 PL. 36 




A NEW SPECIES OF CERITHIOPSIS FROM ALASKA. 



By Paul Bartsch, 

Assistant Curator, Division of Mollusks, U. S. National Museum. 



Among a lot of shells recently received for determination from ]\Irs. 
Kate Stephens, of San Diego, California, collected by her in Alaska, 
are several new forms of Pyramidellids and a C'eritliioysis. 

The Pyramidellids have been described in the monograph upon this 
family now going through the press and the Cerithio'psis is character- 
ized below. All the types were kindly donated to the U. S. National 
Museum. 

CERITHIOPSIS STEPHENSI, new species. 

Shell elongate conic, chocolate brown. (Nuclear whorls decollated 
in all the specimens seen.) Post-nuclear whorls well rounded, orna- 
mented spirally by four keels between the sutures, of which the 
posterior three are strong and tuberculate, the fourth smooth and 
slender. Axially the whorls are marked by irregular ribs, 
the junctions of which with the spiral keels form tuber- 
cles. The posterior row of tubercles is at the summit 
and is the weakest, the individuals appearing as rounded 
knobs. The second is on the middle of the whorl. This 
and the first, which is immediately above the peripheral 
sulcus, have their tubercles of about equal strength. On 
these two keels the tubercles slope gently anteriorly and 
very abruptly posteriorly. The peripheral sulcus and 
the other two sulci are equally strong and wide. All 
are crossed by the ribs, which, however, do not extend 
over the base. Both spiral cords and ribs are crossed 
by strong incremental lines. Sutures constricted. Pe- 
riphery of the last whorl marked by a deep channel. 
Base well rounded, rather short, marked by strong incre- 
mental lines and a few very fine spiral striations. The 
summit of the succeeding whorl drops a little below the peripheral 
sulcus in all the whorls of the spire and allows a narrow margin of the 
smooth base to appear as a cord in the suture. Aperture ovate, with 
a strong anterior sinus, outer lip thin, showing the external sculpture 




Cekithiopsis 
stephensi. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1711. 



399 



400 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

within; columella stout, twisted and curved, having a weak basal 
fascioles at its insertion. 

Tyi)e.—C^t. No. 204008, U.S.N.M. It has 12 post-nuclear whorls 
and measures: Lengtli 9 mm., diameter 2.1 mm. It and two 
additional specimens in Mrs. Kate Stephens's collection were collected 
by her at Bear Bay, Peril Strait, Baranoff Island, Alaska. Four 
more were collected by her at Mole Harbor, Alaska, one of which is in 
the collection of the U. S. National Museum (Cat. No. 204009). 
Another in her collection comes from the head of Port Frederick, 
Chichagoff Island, Alaska. 

Named for Mrs. Kate vStephens. 



FRESH-WATER SPONGES IN THE COLLECTION OF THE 
UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM. — PART II. 
SPECIMENS FROM NORTH AND SOUTH MIERICA. 



By Nelson Annandale, 

Superintendent of the Indian Museum, Calcutta. 



With the possible exception of specimens from Peru which are 
unfortunately indeterminable, the American specimens in the col- 
lection do not include examples of any undescribed species. Several 
of them, however, are noteworthy in affording proof of the identity 
of certain Indian forms with species long known from North 
America, on account of their locality, or for other reasons, and others 
have enabled me to carry out a little piece of work much more 
interesting than the description of new species. 

Before proceeding to comment on the American specimens I would 
like to supplement a statement made in my description of Spongilla 
cleTnentis"' which, on reading the paper in print, I do not think quite 
clear. The membrane referred to as sending "branches or hollow 
root-like processes downward at intervals" is at the base of the 
sponge, and the root-like processes must have been in intimate con- 
tact with the object to which it was attached. 

Genus SPONGILLA Wierzejski. 

Subgenus EUSPONGILLA Vejdovsky. 

SPONGILLA LACUSTRIS of authors. 

There are in the collection specimens from Alaska of what ap})ears 
to l)e the typical form of this species, but devoid of gemmules. Tliey 
arc labeled "McDonald T^ake, Alaska. About 3 feet deep. Very 
abundant. Color bright green. J. S. Burcham. Sept. 11, 1905. 
Bureau of Fisheries. Ace. No. 46416." 

The Indian form of S. lacustris, of which I have now examined 
specimens from Bombay, Eastern and Lower Bengal, Orissa, and 
Madras, is distinguished from that of the Holarctic Region by the 

a Proc. U. S. Nat. Mas., vol. 36, p. 631. 



Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vou 37— No. 1712. 
Proc. N.M. vol. 37— 09 26 401 



402 PROCEEDIXaS or the national museum. vol.37. 

extreme tenuity of its skeleton fibers and by the fact that the 
branches are never cyHndrical but always compressed. Wlien well 
developed they anastomose. For this form, which I think should be 
regarded as a subspecies, the name reticulata "• is available. Young 
specimens are, however, difficult to distinguish from some European 
and North American forms of S. lacustris. S. jjroliferens, another 
common Indian species closely allied to S. lacustris, is easily dis- 
tinguished by the tubular character of the aperture of the gemmules. 
In the collection sent me for examination from the U. S. National 
Museum there is a bottle of specimens labeled "Lake Titicaca, Peru. 
R. E. Coker (506). VII. 31. 08. From Peruvian Government. Ace. 
No. 49549." Unfortunately, the sponges in the bottle are devoid of 
gemmules, and as there is nothing distinctive about their slender, 
smooth, amphioxous skeleton spicules, it is impossible to identify the 
species. There are no free microscleres. Probably this sponge 
belongs to the subgenus Euspongilla. 

Subgenus SPONGILLA Wierzejski. 

SPONGILLA FRAGILIS Leidy. 

Spongilla frngilis Leidy, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia, 1851, p. 278. — 
Potts, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., Philadelphia ("Monograph"), 1887, p. 197, 
pi. 5, fig. 2; pi. 8, figs. 1-4. 

Spongilla decipiens V^eber, Zool. Ergebn. Niederland. Ost. Ind., vol. 1, p. 40, 
pi. 4. 

There are specimens in the collection from the mouth of Echo 
River, Mammoth Cave, Kentucky (W. P. Hay), as well as from other 
North American localities. I have recently recorded this species 
from Japan;'' it also occurs in Calcutta, whence the large series of 
specimens now in the Indian Museum seems to afford a complete 
transition between S. fragilis and Weber's 8. dedpiens, which must 
therefore be regarded as a synonym. My S. crassissima, of which 
S. crassior is no more than a variety, is distinguished from S. fragilis 
mainly by its extremely hard and compact skeleton. It is sometimes 
found in the same pond as Leidy 's species. 

Genus EPHYDATIA Lamouroux. 

EPHYDATIA CRATERIFORMIS (Potts). 

Meyeniu cratcrij'ormiti Potts, Monogr., p. 228, ])!. 9, fig. G; pi. 10, fig. 5. 
Ephydntia indica Annandale, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 1907, p. 20; Rec. Ind 
Mils., vol. 1, p. 272. 
This species, wliich is well represented in the U. S. National Mu- 
seum collection, is interesting for two reasons: (a) its peculiar dis- 
tribution, and (?>) the fact that its varieties and phases afford an 
almost complete bridge between the genera Spongilla and Ephydatia. 

a Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. 1, p. 387, pi. 14, fig. 1. 
&Annot. Zool. Jap., vol. 2, j). 106, ])1. 2, fig. 1. 



No. 1712 



FRESH WATER SP0NGE8—ANNANDALE. 



403 



As regards its distribution, it has long been knowTi from the United 
States and was recorded doubtfully by Hanitsch "■ from Ireland some 
years ago. There is no doubt left in my mind, however, after exam- 
ining American specimens, that my E. indica is identical with E. 
cratenformis. In India it appears to be an extremely variable species 
and its skeleton spicules are sometimes quite blunt at the tips. 

As regards the different forms assumed by the gemmule spicules, 
the variation appears to be to some extent a seasonal one, but ex- 
amples from different localities and even individual sponges taken 
in the same pond at the same time often differ very much from one 
another. The extreme limit 
of variation in the direction 
of Spongilla is well illus- 
trated by the accompanying 
cut (fig. 1), which is the 
reproduction of a camera 
lucida sketch of some spic- 
ules of a specimen taken 
in Calcutta in June, 1907. 
This figure may be con- 
trasted with that published 
by Potts on plate 10 of his 
monograph, but every gra- 
dation is to be found be- 
tween the two forms of 
gemmule spicules. My fig- 
ure in the Journal of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal 
was badly reproduced and 
is not satisfactory. I have 
obtained E. crateriformis 
from the following Indian 
localities: Calcutta; Moulmein (Lower Burma) ; Madras, and Igatpuri, 
Western Ghats, Bombay Presidency. 




Fig. 1.— Skeleton and gemmule spicules of Spongilla- 

LIKE FORM OF EpHYDATIA CRATERIFOKMIS, X 240. 



Genus TUBELLA Carter. 

TUBELLA PENNSYLVANICA Potts. 

Tubclla peiinsiilvanlca Potts, Moiiogr., p. 251, pi. 'J, iig. 2; pi. 12, figs. 1, 2, 3. — 
Annandale, Rec. Ind. Mus., vol. 3, p. 102. 

As I liave said in the paper previously cited, this si)ecies occurs in 
Travancore near the west coast of southern India. It appears, 
wherever it occurs, to be averse to light and to be found as a rule 
under stones or roots. It has probably escaped observation for this 
reason in many places in which it occurs. (See fig. 2.) 



o Nature, vol. 51, p. 511, 



404 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



Genus TROCHOSPONGILLA Vejdovsky. 

TROCHOSPONGILLA LEIDYI (Bowerbank). 

Spongilla leidyi Bowerbank, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1863, p. 445. 
Meyenia leidyi Potts, Monogr., p. 212, pi. 5, fig. 3; pi. 10, fig. 1. 

In a recent note ^ I referred my Trochospongilla pliillottiana to 
the synonymy of this species, being of the opinion that I had found 
intermediate forms. I have now no doubt, however, that in this 
behef I was wrong, and that both the Indian species of TrocJio- 

spongilla (T. latouchiana and T. pliillot- 
tiana) are in reahty distinct both from T. 
leidyi and from one another. They often 
grow in close association, and microscopic 
preparations of the one are therefore hable 
to contain spicules of the other. Were it 
possible to unite them, it would be neces- 
sary to include T. leidyi also. 

Genus HETEROMEYENIA Potts. 

The species of the ''genus" Carterius 
should, in my opinion, be distributed be- 
tween tliis genus and Ephydatia. To Hete- 
romeyenia I would assign Mills' Carterius 
tuhisperrna and C. stepanowii (Dybowski), 
while Potts' C. latitenta and C. tenosperma 
should, if my views are correct, be relegated 
to Ephydatia. The one distinctive charac- 
ter of Carterius is the fact that the aperture 
of the gemmule is jjrovided with highly 
developed filaments or processes, which, 
however, differ greatly in the different spe- 
cies. This is undoubtedly a specific char- 
acter of importance, but it would be more 
convenient to base the generic diagnoses 
of the Spongillinse (the genera of which, it 
nnist be admittetl in view of the connecting 
links that occur, are largely artificial) on 
the nature of the gemmule spicules — a 
coiu'se to which tlu^ <^>iily objection that can be urged is that in some 
forms the gemmules are unknown. There can be little doubt, how- 
ever, that in many such cases gemmules will be found when speci- 
mens in the fully mature condition are examined ; while the right of 
certain other forms (as for instance, those genera characteristic of 
Lake Baikal) to occupy a position in the subfamily is more than 
doubtful. 




Fig. 2.— Skeleton and gemmule 
spicules of tubella pennsyl- 
vanica from s. india, x 240. 



» Records of the Indian Museum, vol. 3, p. 103. 



No. 1712 



FRESH WATER SPONGES— ANNANDALE. 



405 



HETEROMEYENIA PLUMOSA Weltner (Potts MS.)- 
Heteromeyenia plumosa Weltner, Archiv fiir Naturgesch., 1895, part 1, p. 127. 

Specimens from the U. S. National Museum are labeled ''These are 
fragments of a single specimen 3 inches in diameter." Weltner, who 
examined similar specimens, gives a short comparative description, 
noting those characters in which the form differs from //. radiospicu- 
lata Mills. As Mr. Potts apparently no longer intends to describe 
H. plumosa it ma^^ be as well to give a fuller description. 



E.X240 




D. X240 



C.X240. 



Fig. 3.— Gemmule and spicules of Heteromeyenia plumosa. A. Gemmule, x 70, showing aper- 
ture IN CENTER. B. Short birotulates, x 240. C. Long birotulates, x 240. D. Free micro- 
scleres, X 240. E. Skeleton spicule, X 240. 

The sponge appears to have been rather massive, although very 
brittle and friable. The radiating fibers, which have an obhque 
course, and some of the transverse ones, are easily visible to the 
naked eye. The color (dry) is a sooty black in the external parts, 
but becomes paler toward the base. 

A vertical section examined under the microscope shows that the 
radiating fibers, although not very slender, are loosely compacted. 
Apparently little if any spongin is present. 



406 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

The skeleton spicules are slender, smooth, sharply pointed at either 
end, and nearly straight. They measure on an average 0.384 mm. 
in length and 0.016 mm. in greatest transverse diameter. 

The long gemmule spicules (birotulates) are much longer than the 
short ones and have slender, straight, almost smooth shafts with only 
an occasional spine. Their rotulse consist of a circle of curved hooks 
joined together at their base. The short birotulates have stouter 
shafts, \vhich are profusely, irregularly, and somewhat strongly 
spined. Their rotidae are not so markedly convex when viewed in 
profile as those of the long birotulates; they are somewhat irregu- 
larly but narrowly and deeply serrated, the incisions being often 
arranged in groups. The long birotulates measure on an average 
0.188 mm. in length, their rotulse being 0.028 mm. in diameter. The 
corresponding measurements of the short birotulates are 0.06 and 
0.028 mm.; but spicules of intermediate lengths occur. 

Free spicules resembling those of Ephydatia plumosa are fairly 
abundant. They consist of a variable number of straight and irregu- 
larly roughened shafts meeting at a common center. The shafts are 
slender and often very numerous; tlieir tips are either pointed or 
blunt, sometimes minutely globular; often one axis is stouter than 
the others. 

The gemmules are large and spherical. Each has a single very 
small aperture, which is provided with a short, straight, foraminal 
tubule. 

Habitat. — Pinto Creek, Kinney County, Texas (Albert Turpe coll.). 

The free spicules of this species are as characteristic as those of 
Ephydatia plumosa, which they resemble in some respects. In both 
species they are very minute. 



DIACxNOSES OF NEW CEPHALOPODS FROM THE HAWAIIAN 

ISLANDS. 



By S. wStillman Berry, 

Of Stanford Univer.Kity, California. 



Prior to the publication of a final report on the ccphalopods col- 
lected by the U. S. Bureau of Fisheries steamer Albatross in the 
Hawaiian Islands it was deemed best to issue the present paper to 
contain preliminary diagnoses of such forms as are believed to be 
new, leaving more detailed and completely illustrated descriptions 
until the appearance of the main report. It is hoped, however, that 
the following observations will, in the meanwhile, prove useful to 
other students of the group and sufficient for the ready recognition 
of the species. 

The illustrations for this paper are from drawings by ^Ir. Henry V. 
Poor, excepting fig. 1, which is from a photograph by Mr. John H. 
Paine, of Stanford University. 

Genus POLYPUS Schneider, 1784. 
POLYPUS HOYLEI, new species. 

Body rounded, depressed above and below, about as long as 
broad, covered with a loose skin of a rather gelatinous consistency; 
an obscure longitudinal groove in the median ventral region. Man- 
tle-opening small and lunate, extending but little beyond the funnel 
on either side. 

Head broad ; neck slightly constricted ; eyes very large, with small 
openings, above which on either side are two prominent, nipple-like 
tubercles or cirri, each with a pore-like depression in its center. Near 
these are one or two fainter and smaller papillae, and a few others, 
equally or more obscure, are scattered over the dorsal surface of the 
body. 

Surface, except for the above-mentioned tubercles and papillae, 
smooth, very finely reticulated with extremely minute papilla or 
wrinkles, and very soft to the touch, which are apparently not due 
to the action of the preserving fluid. 

Siphon of moderate size, bluntly conical, connected above with 
the basal portion of the umbrella and extending forward for about 
one-third the length of the latter. 

Proceedings U. S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1 71 3. 

407 



408 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol. 37. 

Arms rather short and stout, nearly equal, the third pair the short- 
est (a character especially noticeable in the male) ; length about twice 
that of the head and body taken together; umbrella very wdde, extend- 
ing between all the arms in the adult (male) for nearly half their 
length; suckers rather large and closely set, in two rows save at the 
base, where there is but a single row; none of those of the male show- 
ing any appreciable enlargement. 

Ilectocotylization affecting only a small portion of the extremity 
of the arm of the male, its transverse ridges rendered obscure or obso- 
lete by the gelatinous consistency of the skin. 

Color of preserved specimens a brownish-red above, more pinkish 
below. Chromatophores minute and numerous, especially on the 
upper surface, where they are quite evenly distributed in veins, the 

interstices between which appear 
as pale reticulations upon a darker 
background. 

Length of body 65 mm.; of 
second arm-pair 161 mm.; width 
of body 45 mm. The type is a 
specimen obtained by the Alba- 
tross expedition, but preserved 
without any locality label. It is 
an adult male. 

Further specimens are in the 
collection as follows : station 4 11 , 
\ depth 449 fathoms, 1 young; sta- 

Ji tion 4130, depth 783 fathoms, 1 

FiG.i.-Poi.Yi,x iK.viKi. THIRD ARM OF EiRnr ^-,^10; statlou 4132, dcpth 257 

sum:. (Si Kuii'iY :ma(;nified.) pi pi 

rathoms, 1 remale. 

The present species is apparently close to P. januarii Steenstrup," 
from which it is readily distinguishable by the smaller mantle- 
opening, double cirri above the eyes, order of length of arms, their 
relative shortness, etc. 

Named in honor of Dr. William E. Iloyle, to wdiom we owe much 
of our knowledge of this fascinating group of animals, and whose 
masterly memoirs are among our most important classics in their 
study. 

STEPHANOTEUTHIS, new genus. 

Body sepioliform, short, saccular. Medio-dorsal margin of mantle 
free from head, but articulating therewith by a very rudimentary 
groove and cartilaginous ridge; ventral margin produced forward 
below the eyes, completely covering the funnel, with the base of 
wdiich it articulates on either side, by a prominent cartilaginous con- 
nective apparatus. 




iHoyle, Challenger Report, p. 97, pi. 7, figs. 



1-4. 



NO. 1713. NEW CEPHAL0P0D8 FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 



409 



Fins very large, semicircular, placed somewhat posteriorly. 

Head large and broad. Arms short and stout. Tentacles stout; 
club not expanded, but armed with a great number of very minute 
suckers. 

Gladius none. 

Ty])e of the genus. — The following species: 

STEPHANOTEUTHIS HAWAIIENSIS, new species. 

Body of moderate size, sepioliform, very firm and solid, divided 
posteriorly by a short horizontal groove, so that the dorsal portion 
projects backward over the ventral as though the two halves were 
slid upon one another. 

Mantle thick and fleshy, its anterior margin free all round and only 
connected with the head in the nuchal region by 
the merest rudiment of a cartilaginous articula- 
tion, comprising a narrow, inconspicuous, longi- 
tudinal ridge on the inner surface of the mantle 
and a corresponding groove or depression on the 
neck, without thickenings or raised edges; inner 
ventral surface articulated with the base of the 
funnel on either side by a long, prominent ridge 
and a corresponding heavy locking apparatus, 
consisting of a deep curved groove with thick- 
ened edges; anterior ventral margin of mantle 
produced forward beneath and past the eyes so 
as to conceal the funnel and the entire ventral 
surface of the head. 

Fins very large in proportion to bodj^ ; circular ; 
attached somewhat posteriorly and considerably 
above the median horizontal plane. 

Head large, slightly broader than the body, 
with large prominent eyes. Siphon rather large, 
obtusely conical; tip roimded, without any down- 
ward flexure. 

Arms very short, the dorsal pair the longest, 
the third pair shortest, connected at the base by a short fleshy 
umbrella, wliich is lacking between the ventral pair; tips of the four 
dorsal arms recurved. Suckers small, pedunculated, in two rows, 
extending nearly to the tips of all the arms save the second pair 
where they become obsolete for much of the distal portion. 

Tentacles stout, slightly tapering, with a flattened inner surface; 
tentacular club small, of less diameter than the stalk, and of a vel- 
vety appearance, owing to the great multitude of very minute suckers 
with wliich it is armed. 




Fig. 2.— STEPHANOTEUTHIS 

HAWAIIENSIS. Lateral 

ASPECT. (Xll) 



410 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Surface everywhere smooth. Color of preserved specimens a dirty 
buff, heavily dotted and reticulated with blackish chromatophores, 
which are most numerous on the dorsal surface of the head, but are 
also scattered thickly over the mantle (both above and below), on the 
ventral surface of the head and siphon, and at the base of all the arms 
except the third pair. 

Gladius apparently wanting. 

Total length, excludino; tentacles 38 mm. ; dorsal length of mantle 
22 mm.; ventral length of mantle 27 mm.; width of mantle near 
middle 14 mm.; width across fins 32.5 mm. 

The unique type, a gravid female, was dredged in about 733 fath- 
oms, station 39<S9, coral sanil and rock bottom, in the vicinity of the 
island of Kauai. 

This form can not, I think, be confounded with any other described 
species of the Sepiolidse. In the absence of other peculiar characters, 
the curious shape of the body and the ventral anterior extension of 
the mantle entirely covering the funnel would by themselves be very 
distinctive, but, none the less the present form is very closely related 
to Ileteroteuthis Gray (//. dispar (Riippell) Gray and //. weheri 
Joubin). The absence of the gladius and the lack of any save the most 
rudimentary connection between the mantle and the head woidd 
seem to ally Stephanoteuthis with Idiosepius Steenstrup, and there are 
other points of resemblance as well. Idiosepius, however, is stated to 
have no dorsal connective cartilages whatever, is of a very different 
shape and aspect, and with small, more posterior, fms. According 
to its external characters, therefore, Stephanoteuthis seems most easily 
referred to the Sepiolidae, but until an anatomical examination is 
possible, its exact position must be left unsettled. 

Genus STOLOTEUTHIS Verrill, 1881. 
STOLOTEUTHIS IRIS, new species. 

Body small, short, stout, laterally much compressed, rounded 
posteriorly; dorsal width and length about equal and much less than 
the depth. Mantle smooth, broadly continuous above with the 
head, from which it is separated only by a rather prominent cuta- 
neous line or fold; anterior ventral margin produced forward beneath 
the eyes and far past them to form a broad convex lobe, somewhat 
as is seen in Verrill' s Nectoteuthis pourtalesii, which almost entirely 
conceals the funnel and the ventral surface of the head. An inden- 
tation in the free anterior edge of the lobe permits the tip of the 
funnel to be seen. The central region of the lobe is sharply differ- 
entiated from the rest of the mantle surface as a large, slightly raised 
and flattened, heart-shaped area. 

Fins relatively enormous, subcircular, narrowed at the base; 
attached considerably above the median horizontal plane of the 



NO. 1713. NEW CEPHAL0P0D8 FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 



411 



body, thin, slightly broader and longer than the body; anterior mar- 
gin rounded and reaching to the eyes; posterior margin obtusely 
pointed, extending beyond the body. 

Head very large, short and wide. Eyes large, situated in the angle 
of the mantle-margin above the anterior ventral lobe. 

Sessile arms short, connected by a well-developed basal web reach- 
ing beyond the middle of the dorsal arms, but entirely absent between 
the ventral pair; order of length .3, 4, 2, 1, the third pair much the 
stoutest and longest and with the largest suckers; suckers small, 
pedunculated, in two rows. 

Tentacles longer than the body, slightly thickened at the base, 
very slender and tapering; tentacular club but little, if any, wider 
than the stalk, armed with 



of 



very 




numerous rows 
minute suckers. 

Gladius not observed ; 
probably absent as in S. 
leucoptera. 

Color in alcohol a dirty 
white ; fins unmarked ; man- 
tle closely speckled above 
and below with small 
brownish chromatopliores 
of two main sizes, which 
decrease in number later- 
ally and posteriorly; chro- 
matophores evenly and 
thickly distributed over the 
ventral heart-shaped area 
and its immediate vicinity ; 
ventral surface further 
marked by a dark bluish- 
gray band bordering the heart-shaped area, 
white; arms uniformly of a dirty white. 

Upon the reverse of the label accompanying the specimen appear 
the following notes in the handwriting of Dr. W. K. Fisher, as to the 
color of the animal when taken (colors according to Ridgway's 
"Nomenclature of Color"): 

Tentacles, chromatophores burnt sienna, yellow ochre, and light red. Eye: pupil 
transparent, ii-idescent purple, blue, and emerald green; iris reddish burnt sienna. 
Body (except wings and outer test) iridescent orange, yellow, solferino, green, 
crimson, purple. Chromatophores of outer test burnt sienna and sepia. 

The unique type was taken in 153 fathoms, from a bottom of 
brown mud and sand, at station 3832, off the south coast of the island 
of Molokai. Its measurements are: Length of body, excluding ten- 
tacles 16 mm.; length of tentacles 21 mm.; width across fins 18 mm. 



Fig. 3.— Stoloteuthis IRIS. Dorsal aspect. (x3) 



Eyes dark gray, pupils 



412 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



This is an extremely distinct species, although bearing evident rela- 
tionship to the S. leucoptera of Verrill and the NectoteutMs pourtalesii 
of the same author, both of which are Atlantic forms. The superficial 
resemblance which the latter species bears to the Hawaiian form is 
very great, but the broad dorsal commissure uniting the head and 
mantle at once distinguishes S. iris. 




Genus ABRALIA Gray, 1849. 



ABRALIA ASTROSTICTA, new species. 



'51 



•9 



Mantle firm, fleshy, cylindrical in shape, taper- 
ing, at first gradvially, then more abruptly, to a 
bhmtish point; anterior edge smooth, emargi- 
nate below the funnel. Inner surface of the 
edge of the mantle articulating with the head 
in the nuchal region and with 
the sides of the siphon at the 
base, as usual in the genus. The 
dorsal apparatus consists of a 
simple longitudinal ridge on the 
mantle and a corresponding plate 
of. cartilage on the neck. The 
ventral cartilages comprise a 
slender linear ridge on either 
side of the inner surface of the 
mantle, and grooves with thick- 
ened edges on the base of the 
funnel. 

Fins moderately large, subter- 
minal, triangular, each about as 
broad as long; attached along 
most of their inner margin. 

Head rather large, squarish, 
flattened above and below; four 
oblique, fleshy folds behind the 
Eyes large; orbit with a small 
rounded sinus in front. Funnel large, subtriangular, 
its center rounded and protruding ventrally, so that 
it has a ventrally swollen appearance. 

Sessile arms rather short, the second and fourth 
pairs the longest; first and third pairs about equal 
in length ; outer edge of arms furnished with a membranous or fleshy 
keel, which reaches its maximum development on the ventral arms. 
Armature consisting mainly of hooks in two alternating rows; suckers 
minute, appearing only at the extreme tips of the arms. 



Fig. 4. — ABRALIA ASTRO- 
STICTA. Ventral aspect. 
(xlH.) 

eye on either side. 



Fig. 5.— Abralia as- 
TRosTicTA. Left 

VENTRAL ARM. 



NO. ]713. NEW CEPHAL0P0D8 FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 



413 



i^'« 
>««: 



Tentacles slender, half as long again as the arms; tentacular club 
armed with four rows of suckers arranged as follows: (7) two dorsal 
rows of small suckers, largest at the middle of the club, but extending 
for its entire length; (2) two ventral rows of similar suckers on the 
distal portion of the club, replaced proximally by (3) a single row of 
five or six rather large hooks; (4) at the base of the 
club, upon the carpus, a fiixing apparatus consisting of 
four or five extremely minute suckers and a few pads. 
Buccal membrane seven-pointed, coarsely papillose 
within; color uniformly pale, with a few slightly darker 
spots (chromatophores) scattered over the outer sur- 
face. 

Photophores numerous, quite symmetrically distrib- 
uted in about ten ill defined longitudinal rows on the 
ventral surface of the mantle; upon the ventral surface 
of the head five rows, one of them median; upon the 
funnel four rows, each comprising a single large organ 
and several smaller ones; upon each of the ventral 
arms three rows, two of them upon the body of the 
arm, the third extending along the marginal keel for 
over half its length; upon the ventral 
periphery of the right eyeball a very 
prominent row of five large, reddish, 
bead-like organs conspicuously dif- 
ferent from the others. (The left eye 
was so retracted as to render exam- 
ination impossible without mutilation 
of the specimen.) 

Color of preserved specimen a dirty bufi^, the 
gladius showing through the dorsal integument as 
a very prominent median dark line; photophores 
bluish, with whitish centers; chromatophores nu- 
merous, especially on the dorsal aspect, but largely 
replaced ventrally by the photophores. 

Length, excluding tentacles 56.5 mm.; length of 
mantle 34 mm. ; maximum width of mantle 10 mm. ; 
width across fins 22 mm. 

The type, which was the only specimen obtained, 

was dredged in about 192 fathoms, coarse coral sand 

and shell bottom— station 4122, oft' the southwest 

coast of the island of Oahu. 

This species agrees with Pfeffer's "^o^Z^i-group," of the genus 

Abralia, as defined by that author," in that "die Leuchtorgane 

der Ventralflache lassen in ihrer Anordnung bilateral-symmetrische 

Reihenziige erkennen" and "auf der Ventralflache dcs 4. Arm- 




FiG. 6.— Akkalia 
astrosticta. 
Club of eight 

tentacle. 



Fig. 7. — Abralia as- 
TROSTiCTA. Infe- 
rior SURFACE OF 
right eye AND SUR- 
ROUNDING REGION, 
SHOWING DISTRIBU- 
TION OF LUMINOUS 
ORGANS. 



aPfeffer, Teuthologische Bemerkungen, p. 289, Hamburg, 1908. 



414 



PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. 



VOL. 37. 



paares drei Reihen von Leuchtorganen, davon eine auf dem Schutz- 
saum, zwei auf der eigentlichen Armflache." On the other hand, 
it differs from the "/loyZei-group," and agrees with the "veranyi- 
group" {Asteroteuthis Pfeffer) in that the tentacidar club possesses but 
one row of hooks and two rows of suckers, and also in that there is no 
evidence of \aolet coloration on the buccal membrane, although 
the lack of this character may be due to the 
bleaching action of the preserving fluid. Doc- 
tor Pfeffer has suggested that the present 
form may represent a new genus standing mid- 
way between Ahralia and Asteroteuthis, but I 
do not at present feel justified in adopting 
this view. 

Genus CHIROTEUTHIS d'Orbigny, 1839. 

CHIROTEUTraS FAMELICA, new species. 

Mantle cylindrical, extremely long and slen- 
der, gradually tapering for a little more than 
half its length, then becoming suddenly con- 
stricted to continue as an extremely slender 
and delicate rod between the fins, somewhat 
exceeding them posteriorly, and forming in 
this region only a thin membrane over the 
even more slender gladius; anterior margin 
sinuous, inflated; mantle connectives three in 
number — a longitudinal cartilage in the nuchal 
region, and an ear-shaped pit on either side of 
the base of the funnel, with corresponding car- 
tilaginous ridges on the inner surface of the 
mantle. 

Fins enormous, leaf-like, relatively thick 
and fleshy, extending for about three-fifths of 
/ the length of the mantle; about three times as 
long as wide; separated only by the posterior 
spit-like continuation of the mantle except 
in front, where the attached margin extends 
well forward on the dorso-lateral surface of the 
main body. 

Head small, slightly narrower than the body. 

Eyes prominent. Funnel small. 
(X ^o 

Arms extremely short, except the ventral 

pair, which are enormously developed, being about three times as 

long as the rest, and half as long as the body; order of length, 4, 

2, 3, 1 ; umbrella and lateral membrane wanting. Suckers extremely 

minute, in two rows, rather widely spaced, especially those of the 

ventral arms; horny rings well-developed, minutely toothed. 



-CHIROTEUTHIS FA- 
. DOESAL ASPECT. 



NO. 1713. NEW CEPHALOPODA FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 



415 



Both tentacles unfortunately missing. 

Color of the preserved specimen a grayish buff, with a few scat- 
tered pale-brown chromatophores ; gladius showing as a dark line 
through the integument. 

Length, excluding arms 44 mm. ; length of mantle 39 mm. ; width 
across fins 14.5 mm.; length of ventral arms 20 mm. 

The single known specimen was taken at station 3989, 733 fathoms 
depth, from a bottom of coral sand and rock, in the vicinity of the 
island of Kauai. 

C. famelica appears to differ widely from all other kno^\^l species 
of the genus in the extreme length and 
slenderness of the body and the very 
lanceolate fins, the smallness of the 
head, and the possession of relatively 
shorter arms than usual. 

Genus CRANCHIA Leach, 1817. 

CRANCHIA (LIOCRANCHIA) GLOBULA, new 
species. 

Body subglobular, short and round- 
ed, the diameter almost equal to the 
length, truncate anteriorly, poste- 
riorly suddenly constricted, thence 
tapering rapidly to an acute point 
which forms the basis of attachment 
of the fins. Mantle smooth, mem- 
branous; its anterior margin passing 
in three even, nearly equal, curves 
from each point of attachment to the 
next. These points of attachment 
are three in number and about equi- 
distant, one being dorsal and median, 
the other two on either side of the 
funnel. From the dorsal point of 
attachment there extends posteriorly fig. 9.— liocranchia globula. dorsal 
on the outer surface of the mantle ^^''^'''^- ^"^"'^ 

a narrow cartilaginous ridge composed of a succession of acutely 
conical tubercles placed close together in a single longitudinal 
series along the anterior two-thirds of the medic-dorsal line. From 
each of the ventral points of attachment two similar ridges extend 
back for about one-third of the length of the mantle, diverging at 
an angle of somewhat less than 90 degrees; the tubercles minute, 
of two sizes, irregularly alternating, each line comprising about 
twenty, arranged in a single series and flanked near the anterior end 
by parallel rows of two or three smaller tubercles on either side. 




416 PROCEEDING!^ OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

Head very short and broad, projecting but slightly beyond the 
mantle. Eyes prominent, with a protruding lens. Funnel short, 
broad, projecting considerably beyond the mantle, ventrally flexed 
near the tip. 

Sessile arms short, very unequal; order of length, 3, 4, 2, 1; the 
third pair much the longest, the second and fourth nearly equal; 
suckers extremely minute, pedunculated, arranged in two series of 
six (dorsal arms) to thirteen (third pair) each; horny rings appa- 
rently smooth; arms webbed, the umbrella extending for about 
one-half the length of the dorsal arms, but absent between the ven- 
tral arms and between these and the third pair. 

Tentacles rather stout, much thicker than the sessile arms, almost 
equal in length to the mantle; club little thickened, tapering to a 
rather blunt point, furnished with a narrow lateral membrane, and 
bearing four rows of minute, closely crowded, pedunculate suckers, 
largest at the center of the club and becoming exceedingly minute 
toward either end; suckers of two of the rows much reduced j)roxi- 
mally and continuing down the stalk for about two-thirds of its 
length in two widely-spaced alternating rows; aperture of suckers 
small, with a smooth horny ring. 

Gladius not examined. 

Color of preserved specimens a semitranslucent grayish white. 
Chromatophores distributed over the anterior portion of the mantle 
and extending in two rows along each tentacle, largest and most 
prominent on the anterior ventral surface of the mantle, where they 
are grouj)ed in irregular rows to form a rough semicircle. 

Length, excluding tentacles 26 mm.; length of mantle 22 nun.; 
width of mantle 19 mm.; length of tentacles 19 mm. 

The type was taken from the plankton at station 3878, south of 
the island of Lanai, and west of the island of Kahoolawc. 

A second smaller specimen was obtained at the same station, and a 
third, also from the plankton, is from station 4009, between the islands 
of Kauai and Onhu. These agree in all essentials with tiie type. 

The present form undoubtedly exhibits close relationship to C. rein- 
lianJtii Steenstrup, but a number of characters above noted, chief of 
which, perhaps, is the extreme rotundity of the body, serve to dis- 
tinguish them. Lonnberg'' has considered rotundity to be merely an 
immatiu'c condition of C. reinhardtii, the latter being quite loligini- 
form wlien adult. However, the largest Albatross specimen is no 
less spherical than the smallest, and all are vastly more globular than 
any figures of C. reinhardtii, immature or otherwise, which I have 
seen. Nevertheless it is possible that a larger amount of material 
and a more extended knowledg-e of the limits of variation of these 
rare forms may indicate that the two are but extremes of one species. 

"Lounberg, Notes on some rare Ceplialopods, p. 611, Stockholm, 1896. 



NO. 1713. NEW CEPHAL0P0D8 FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 417 

HELICOCRANCHIA Massy, 1907 
HELICOCRANCHIA FISHERI, new species. 

Body rather barrel-shaped, inflated. Mantle membranous, saccu- 
lar, thin, colorless; attached firmly at either side of the funnel, and by 
a cartilaginous semiarticulation in the nuchal region, very much 
inflated, largest at a point nearly midway between the head and fins, 
somewhat tapering anteriorly and also posteriorly, where it becomes 
suddenly constricted and continues to a sharp point, extending as a 
short, slender, spit-like process between the fins; integument much 
wrinkled and ventrally contracted, doubtless largely due to the action 
of the preservative used. 

Fins small, thin, circular, almost continuous posteriorly and sepa- 
rated in the median line only by the integument covering the slender 
gladius. 

Head rather large, concave above and below. Funnel moderately 
large and with a ventral flexion. Eyes very large, globular, sessile; 
openings of eyelids small. 

Arms short, fleshy; order of length, 4, 3, 2, 1; umbrella wanting; 
lateral membrane or keel well developed, heavy, fleshy, Avithout trans- 
verse supports or commissures save on the third pair of arms; third 
pair of arms differing much from the others, being larger, with larger 
suckers and a better developed marginal membrane, strengthened by 
fleshy transverse supports; horny rings well developed, without teeth. 

Tentacles larger and heavier than the arms, about half as long as the 
body; tentacular club large, expanded, tapering to an acute point, 
with four closely placed rows of minute suckers which extend down 
on to the stalk, two of them soon becoming obsolete, the remaining 
two continuing down the arm for about two-thirds of its length, the 
suckers becoming much reduced in size; suckers of the club extending 
distally to the extreme tip, largest near the center; club furnished with 
a well-developed lateral keel, inner margin of tip being supplied with 
a second wider membrane, parallel to and above the keel. 

Gladius not examined. 

Color of preserved specimen whitish, semitranslucent. Chromato- 
phores exceedingly minute and few in number. 

Ventral length of mantle 46.5 mm.;* width of mantle 23 mm.; 
width across fins 12.5 mm.; length of tentacles 25 mm. 

The unique type was dredged in 280 fathoms, ooze bottom, at 
station 3883, in the Pailolo channel. 

Named for Dr. Walter K. Fisher, of Stanford University, to whom 
the author is much indebted for many helpful suggestions and other 
kindnesses, and in whose laboratory this work has been carried on. 

a The dimensions here given are of necessity inaccurate, owing to the extremely 
wrinkled and contracted condition of the mantle. 
Proc. N. M. vol. 37— 09 27 



418 PROCEEDINGS OF THE XATIONAL MUSEUM. tol. 37. 

It may be well to append herewith a list of all the species of cepha- 
lopods at present kno\\Ti. to inhabit the waters in the vicinity of the 
Hawaiian Islands, including as well those obtained by the Albatross 
expedition. Nearly all the latter are entirely new records and it is 
quite possible that one or two forms, which are merely referred to 
their genus below, may eventually prove to be new to science, although 
for the time being it was deemed best to withhold descriptions of them. 

LIST OF THE KNOWN SPECIES OF HAWAIIAN CEPHALOPODS. 

Cirroteuthis (?), species. 

Stations 3898, 3904 (very fragmentary). 
Argonauta bottgeri Maltzan. 

Station 3927. 
Argonauta {argo Linnaeus?). 

Station 3857 (fragment). 
Tremoctopus, species (near quoyanus d'Orbigny). 

Stations 3799, 3878, 3926 3929. 3930, 3931, 4010, 4011, 4086. 
Alloposus mollis Verrill. 

Station 4095. 
Bolitsena, species (young). 

Station 4039. 
Polypus hawaiiensis Eydoux and Souleyet. 

Hawaii (Eydoux and Souleyet). 
Polypus hoylei Berry. 

Stations4110, 4130, 4132. 
Polypus marmoratus Hoyle. 

Honolulu Reef {Albatross expedition). 
Polypus ornatus Gould. 

Station 4002 (young); Honolulu Reef (Albatross expedition); Maui (Gould). 
Polypus a (young). 

Stations 3843, 3921. 
Polypus /? (young). 

Stations 3821, 3837, 3905, 3907, 3911, 3912, 3921, 3926, 3930, 3980, 4011. 
Polypus y (young). 

Stations 3849, 3905. 
Scxurgus, species. 

Stations 3856, 3858, 4103. 
Stephanoteuthis hawaiiensis Berry. 

Station 3989. 
Euprymna morsel Verrill. 

Stations 3821, 3829, 3846, 3856, 3857, 3859, 3889, 3S96, 3905, 3926, 3931, 3980, 4010. 
4071, 4073, 4102, 4103, 4152, 4153; Honolulu Reef (Albatross expedition). 
Semirossia(?), species. 

Stations 3900, 4088 (very fragmentary). 
Stoloteuthis iris Berry. 

Station 3832. 
Sepioteuthis arctipinnis Gould. 

Maui (Gould). 
Ommastrephes sagittata near sloanei Gray. 

Stations 3865, 3930, 4082, 4117, 4132, 4353 (liydrographic station); Honolulu 
(Albatross expedition). 



^ 



NO. 1713. NEW CEPHAL0P0D8 FROM PACIFIC OCEAN— BERRY. 419 



Ommastrephid (young). 

Stations 3889, 3912, 3926, 3980, 4010, 4152, 4190. 
Onycholeuthis banski Leach. 

Laysan Island (Schauinsland). 
Symplectoteuthis oualaniensis Lesson. 

Laysan Island (Schauinsland). 
Teleoteuthis appellofi Pfeffer. 

Station 3989. 
Ahralia astrosticta Berry. 

Station 4122. 
Ahralia, species. 

Station 3926 (fragmentary). 
Abraliopsis, species. 

Station 3926. 
Pterygioteuthis giardi Fischer. 

Station 4105. 
Tracheloteuthis riisei Steenstrup. 

Stations 3878, 4190. 
Chirotcutkis famelica Berry . 

Station 3989. 
Cranchia (Liocranchia) glohula Berry. 

Stations 3878, 4009. 
Cranchiid, species. 

Station 4001 (fragmentary). 
Xenoteuthis fisheri Berry . 

Station 3883. 



A REVIEW OF THE SERRANID^ OR SEA BASS OF JAPAN. 



By David Starr Jordan and Robert Eari. Richardson, 

OJ Stanford University, California. 



In this paper is given an account of the species of Serranidse, the 
sea bass and related forms, found in the waters of Japan. 

The material examined was obtained in Japan by Messrs. Jordan 
and Snyder in 1900, and belongs to Stanford University and to the 
U. S. National Museum. The drawings, with one exception, were 
made by Mr. William S. Atkinson. 

Family SERRANIDyE. 

THE SEA BASS. 

Body oblong, more or less compressed, covered with adherent scales 
of moderate or small size, which are usually ctenoid ; dorsal and ventral 
outlines not perfectly corresponding. Mouth moderate or large, not 
very oblique, the premaxillary protractile and the broad maxillary 
usually not slipping for its whole length into a sheath formed by the 
preorbital, which is usually narrow. Supplemental maxillary present 
or absent. Teeth all conical or pointed, in bands, present on jaws, 
vomer, and palatines. Gill rakers long or short, usually stiff, armed 
with teeth. Gills 4, a long slit behind the fourth. Pseudobranchise 
present, large. Lower pharjmgeals rather narrow, with pointed 
teeth, separate (united in Centrogenys) . Gill membranes separate, 
free from the isthmus. Branchiostegals normally 7 (occasionally 6). 
Cheeks and opercles always scaly; preopercle with its margin more 
less serrate, rarely entire; the opercles usually ending in one or two 
flat spine-hke points. Nostrils double; Lateral line single, not 
extending on the caudal fin. Skull without cranial spines and usu- 
ally without well-developed cavernous structure. No suborbital sta}-. 
Post-temporal normal. Second suborbital with an internal lamina 
supporting the globe of the eye; entopterygoid present; all or most 
of the ribs inserted on the transverse processes when these are devel- 
oped; anterior vertebrae without transverse processes. Dorsal 
spines usually stiff, 2 to 15 in number; soft dorsal with 10 to 30 
rays; anal fin rather short, its soft rays 7 to 12, its spines, if present, 
always 3, in certain genera (Grammistinse, Ryjyticinse) altogether 



Proceedings U.S. National Museum, Vol. 37— No. 1714. 



421 



422 PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL MUSEUM. vol.37. 

wanting. Ventrals thoracic, usually I, 5 (I, 4, in PJiaropteryginae) , 
normally developed, without distinct axillary scale. Pectorals 
well developed, with narrow base. Caudal peduncle stout, the fm 
variously formed. Vertebrae typically 10+14 = 24, the number 
sometimes increased, never more than 35. Air bladder present, 
usually small, and adherent to the wall of the abdomen. Stomach 
csecal, with few or many pyloric appendages; intestines short. Car- 
nivorous fishes, cliiefly marine, and found in all warm seas; several 
found in fresh waters. 

ANALYTICAL KEY OP JAPANESE GENERA OP SERRANID.E. 

a^. Anal spines 3; well developed. 

6'. Dorsal fins 2, slightly connected at base; dorsal spines 9, 11, or 12 in number, 
never 10. 
c^ Malakichthyin^. First dorsal with 9 spines; scales large, about 45; chin 

with a bifid tip; maxillary with a supplemental bone Malakichthys, 1. 

<?. Diploprionin.«. First dorsal with 8 spines; scales small; body deep; opercle 
subentire; maxillary with a large supplemental bone; caudal rounded; no 

canines; tongue smooth Diploprion, 2. 

c^. Moronin^. First dorsal with 11 or 12 spines; teeth villiform, on jaws, vomer 
and palatines; scales moderate or rather small; preopercle serrate; ventrals 
inserted before pectorals. 
d^. Tongue toothless; vertebrae 30 to 35. 
eK Preopercle without spine; maxillary with supplemental bone; body 

elongate; scales moderate Lateolabrax, 3. 

e'-. Preoisercle with a strong spine at the angle; maxillary without supple- 
mental bone; scales very small '. Niphon, 4. 

b^. Dorsal fin single, occasionally deeply divided, sometimes to the base. 
p. Lateral line single, complete; ventral rays I, 5. 
g^. Maxillary with a distinct supplemental bone. 
hK Inner teeth of jaws not depressible and hinged. 
iK Dorsal spines normally 11 or 12; dorsal deeply notched; no dis- 
tinct canines; tongue toothless. 
f. SiNiPERciN/E. Scales cycloid; dorsal spines 12. 

/.'. Scales large, about 45 in lateral line Bryttosus, 5. 

jr. Polyprionin^. Scales small, rough, nearly 100 in lateral 
line; soft dorsal shorter than spinous part, of 10 to 12 rays. 
Z'. Head not armed with spinigerous ridges; preopercle 
moderately serrate, sometimes becoming entire with age; 
dorsal fin deeply notched, the last spines much shorter 
than the middle ones; scales rugose; soft dorsal scaly; 
forehead broad, flattish; snout, preorbital and jaws 
naked; caudal sub truncate; preopercle finely serrate, 
becoming entire with age; gill rakers very strong; pyloric 
caeca few (about 7); pectoral obtusely pointed; ventral 
inserted a little before axil of pectoral; vertebrae 26, 

Stereolepis, 6. 
ir. LioPROPOMiN^. Dorsal spines less than 10, the spinous part 
shorter than the soft j^art, which has 12 rays; preopercle 
weakly serrate or entire. 

m'. Head rough above; dorsal spines 9; vertebrae 24, 

Aulacocephalus, 7. 
m^. Head smooth above; dorsal spines 8 Pikea, 8. 



NO. 1714. JAPANESE SEA BASS.^TORDAN AND RICHARDSON. 423 



h'^. Epinephelin^. Inner teeth of jaws depressible or hinged; canine 
teeth more or less distinct, in front of each jaw; scales small, 
firm, the top of head more or less scaly; lateral line running 
low (except in Gonioplectrus, etc.); supraoccipital crest usually- 
more or less encroaching on the top of the skull, so as to leave 
no distinct smooth area at the vertex (except in Variola) ; tem- 
poral crests usually distinct; gill rakers various. Dorsal rays 
VI to XIV, 12 to 20, the number of spines usually not 10; 
anal rays III, 7 to III, 12; ventral fins inserted more or less 
behind axil of pectorals; soft dorsal scaly; scales of lateral line 
usually triangular and cycloid; vertebrae almost always 
10-1-14=24, rarely 26 or 27. 

n^ Dorsal spines 6 to 8; preopercle with strong recurved 

teeth below; anal spines weak Plectropomus, 9. 

n^. Dorsal spines 11 (rarely 10, never 9). 

oK Parietal crests not produced forward on the frontals; 
frontals with a process or knob on each side, be- 
hind interorbital area; premaxillary processes 
fitting into a cavity or emargination at the an-